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Some of the crew of SS Highland Brae, taken prisoner 14 January 1915 (image from contemporary account, click for full image)

return to World War 1, 1914-1918


An update of the merchant ships and fishing vessels in the original  and uncorrected "British Vessels Lost at Sea", HMSO, 1919

direct to:


in preparation


(1) Ships in BOLD capitals are those sunk or otherwise lost; in lower case bold, attacked and/or damaged. Variations in the published information are in brackets starting with an abbreviation for the source e.g. (wi - in 53.50N, 00.50E).

(2) Merchant ship and fishing vessel information is generally in the order - gross tonnage/build year, owner, registration port or place of ownership/management, crew if known, master or skipper, voyage and cargo, conditions if known. How sunk or damaged, lives lost (source abbreviations start with H for original HMSO entry)

(3) Three items of information, the first two from the original HMSO lists, have been excluded to save space.  (i) All merchant ships and fishing vessels torpedoed, were ATTACKED WITHOUT WARNING;  (ii) if no casualties are shown, NO LIVES WERE LOST; (iii) all sinkings and attacks were by GERMAN SUBMARINES or U-boats unless otherwise stated.

(4) Click for Notes, Abbreviations and Sources.


by Dr Graham Watson

(damaged merchant ships, fishing vessels, and some vessels in the main contents e.g. detained ships, are not included in the following HMSO index)


Aaro, 1 August 1916
Abbasieh, 22 August 1918
Abeja, 9 March 1917
Abelia, 30 December 1915
Abosso, 24 April 1917
Aboukir, 3 February 1918
Aburi, 17 April 1917
Acadian, 16 September 1918
Achaia, 7 September 1916
Achille Adam, 23 March 1917
Achilles [7,043grt], 31 March 1916
Achilles [641grt], 9 June 1917
Acorn, 26 September 1917
Acton, 31 March 1917
Ada, 11 February 1917
Adalia, 29 July 1917
Adams, 17 October 1917
Adamton, 8 April 1916
Adela, 27 December 1917
Adansi, 6 May 1917
Addah, 15 June 1917
Adenwen, 25 March 1917
Admiral, 2 July 1918
Afric, 12 February 1917
Africa, 16 September 1915
African Monarch, 6 July 1915
African Prince, 21 July 1917
African Transport, 25 June 1918
Afton, 15 February 1917
Agberi, 25 December 1917
Agios Nicolaos, 14 September 1918
Agnes, 26 December 1916
Agnes Cairns, 26 April 1917
Agnete, 24 April 1918
Agricola, 12 September 1917
Aigburth, 5 December 1917
Ailsa, 18 June 1915
Ailsa Craig, 15 April 1918
Aislaby, 27 December 1916
Akassa, 13 August 1917
Alacrity, - March 1916
Alastair, 6 November 1915
Alaunia, 19 October 1916
Alavi, 13 October 1917
Alcyone [149grt], 1 August 1917
Alcyone [116grt], 7 October 1917
Aldershot, 23 September 1918
Alert [289grt], 28 November 1916
Alert [777grt], 15 April 1917
Alert [59grt], 31 May 1918
Alfalfa,  1/2  1/2  27 April 1917
Alfred, 12 June 1917
Alfred H Read, 28 December 1917
Algarve, 20 October 1917
Algerian, 12 January 1916
Algiers, 26 February 1917
Alharna, 26 April 1917
Alice Marie, 19 December 1917
Alison, 28 November 1916
Allanton, 3 January 1918
Allendale, 27 March 1918
Allie, 5 January 1917
Almerian, 19 October 1918
Almond Branch, 27 November 1917
Almora, 2 October 1917
Alnwick Castle, 19 March 1917
Alster, 14 January 1918
Alto, 16 July 1916
Alwyn, 12 June 1917
Amakura, 12 June 1917
Amazon, 15 March 1918
Amber, 2 May 1917
Ambient, 12 March 1917
Ampleforth, 21 May 1917
Amplegarth, 10 May 1918
Amsteldam, 18 October 1917
Amsterdam, 24 February1918
Amulree, 24 April 1917
Anatolia, 25 June 1917
Andalusian, 12 March 1915
Andania, 27 January 1918
Andoni, 8 January 1917
Anglesea, 24 April 1917
Anglia, 17 November 1915
Anglian, 10 June 1917
Anglo-Canadian, 22 January 1918
Anglo-Colombian, 23 September 1915
Anglo-Patagonian, 6 July 1917
Angola, 5 May 1917
Angus, 11 April 1916
Anhui, 12 August 1918
Annapolis, 19 April 1917
Anna Sophie, 23 July 1918
Antaeus, 4 November 1917
Ant Caesar, 27 August 1918
Anteros, 24 March 1918
Antigua, 14 July 1916
Antinoe, 28 May 1917
Antiope, 9 August 1916
Antonio, 7 March 1917
Antony, 17 March 1917
Antwerpen, 18 November 1917
Apapa, 28 November 1917
Aparima, 19 November 1917
Apollo, 9 October 1915
Apostolos Andreas, 25 January 1918
Appledore, 9 June 1917
Apsleyhall, 30 December 1916
Aquila, 27 March 1915
Arab, 7 January 1918
Arabia, 6 November 1916
Arabian, 2 October 1915
Arabic, 19 August 1915
Arabis, 16 September 1917
Aragon, 30 December 1917
Aranmore, 21 March 1916
Arbonne, 25 February 1916
Arca, 2 October 1918
Arcadian, 15 April 1917
Archbank, 5 June 1918
Ardandearg, 14 March 1918
Ardbeg, 7 February 1918
Ardens, 18 August 1917
Ardgask, 3 April 1917
Ardglamis, 9 November 1917
Ardglass [778grt], 28 March 1917
Ardglass [4,617grt], 1 April 1918
Ardmount, 5 October 1914
Ardmore, 13 November 1917
Arendal, 18 September 1917
Arethusa, 23 April 1917
Argalia, 6 August 1917
Argo [1,720grt], 8 February 1916
Argo [3,071grt], 24 December 1917
Argyll, 13 April 1917
Ariadne, 15 January 1916
Ariel [86grt], 1 July 1917
Ariel [3,428grt], 3 October 1918
Aries, 25 February 1917
Armadale, 27 June 1917
Armenian, 28 June 1915
Armonia, 15 March 1918
Arndale, 11 June 1915
Arnewood, 13 December 1917
Aros Castle, 21 November 1917
Arrino, 1 February 1918
Artesia, 8 February 1918
Artist, 27 January 1917
Arum, 4 September 1918
Asaba, 6 December 1917
Ashburton, 1 April 1916
Ashleaf, 29 May 1917
Ashleigh, 23 July 1917
Ashmore, 12 September 1915
Asiatic Prince, 30 May 1918
Assyria, 26 August 1917
Astoria, 9 October 1916
Astrologer, 26 June 1916
Athenia, 16 August 1917
Athole, 26 April 1917
Atlantian, 25 June 1918
Atlas [989grt], 13 November 1917
Atlas [3,090grt], 14 February 1918
Aube, 3 August 1917
Auchencrag, 12 January 1917
Auckland Castle, 24 August 1918
Audax, 6 September 1918
Aulton, 23 March 1918
Aurania, 4 February 1918
Auriac, 23 April 1917
Ausonia, 30 May 1918
Australbush, 13 November 1917
Australdale, 19 October 1917
Australian Transport, 23 August 1918
Australier, 29 April 1918
Author, 13 January 1916
Autolycus, 12 April 1918
Ava,  1/2  1/2  January 1917
Avanti, 2 February 1918
Avocet, 19 April1917
Avon, 9 April 1916
Avristan, 7 December 1916
Axminster, 13 November 1917
Axwell, 13 November 1917
Ayesha, 9 November 1914
Aymeric, 30 May 1918
Ayr, 8 March 1918
Aysgarth, 14 June 1917
Aylevaroo,  1/2  7 October 1917
Azira, 4 August 1917
Azul, 5 February 1917

Badagri, 13 July 1918
Badger, 3 August 1916
Badminton, 23 July 1916
Bagdale, 1 May 1917
Baku Standard, 11 February 1918
Balakani, 9 September 1915
Baldanha, 18 March 1918
Baldersby, 28 September 1918
Balgownie, 6 February 1916
Balgray, 20 February 1918
Ballarat, 25 April 1917
Ballochbuie, 20 April 1917
Bamse [958grt], 17 April 1918
Bamse [1,001grt], 2 October 1918
Bandon, 13 April 1917
Bankfields, 25 September 1914
Bangarth, 13 December 1917
Ballogie, 9 November 1917
Barbara, 20 October 1916
Barbary, 12 November 1917
Bargany, 24 December 1916
Barnton, 24 April 1917
Baron Ailsa, 9 May 1918
Baron Balfour, 28 October 1917
Baron Blantyre, 3 October 1917
Baron Cawdor, 9 June 1917
Baron Erskine, 19 August 1915
Baron Garioch, 28 October 1917
Baron Herries, 22 April 1918
Baron Ogilvy, 27 June 1917
Baron Semphill, 16 January 1917
Baron Tweedmouth, 30 May 1916
Baron Vernon, 29 May 1916
Baron Wemyss, 7 March 1917
Baron Yarborough, 1 September 1916
Barrister [3,679grt], 11 May 1917
Barrister [4,952grt]., 19 September 1918
Barrowmore, 19 February 1918
Barunga, 15 July 1918
Basuta, 8 February 1918
Bathurst, 30 May 1917
Batoum, 19 June 1917
Baychattan, 11 October 1917
Baycraig, 1 January 1917
Baygitano, 18 March 1918
Bayhall, 17 December 1916
Baynaen, 25 March 1917
Baynesk, 9 January 1917
Baysoto, 6 August 1917
Bay State, 9 June 1917
Bayvoe, 9 January 1918
Beachy, 18 June 1916
Beacon Light, 19 February 1918
Beatrice, 20 July 1917
Beaufort, 6 January 1917
Beaumaris, 7 February 1918
Bedale, 6 October 1917
Beechtree, 10 February 1917
Beemah, 27 April 1917
Beechpark, 2 August 1917
Beeswing, 2 May 1917
Begonia, 21 March 1918
Begonia No 4, 27 July 1917
Begum, 29 May 1918
Behrend, 30 November 1916
Belford [516grt], 20 December 1915
Belford [1,905grt], 3 February 1917
Belgian, 24 May 1917
Belgian Prince, 31 July 1917
Belgier, 23 February 1917
Bellbank, 7 September 1918
Belle of England, 27 July 1917
Belle of France, 1 February 1916
Bellevue, 4 December 1914
Bellucia, 7 July 1917
Bellview, 21 April 1918
Benarthur, 8 August 1915
Ben Cruachan, 30 January 1915
Bendew, 4 April 1916
Bengairn, 1 April 1916
Bengali, 8 April 1918
Bengore Head, 20 June 1917
Bengrove, 7 March 1915
Benha [1,878grt], 11 June 1917
Benha [95grt], 28 September 1918
Benheather, 5 April 1917
Benita, 20 June 1917
Benito, 26 December 1917
Ben Lomond, 7 July 1918
Benmohr, 16 October 1914
Ben Rein, 7 February 1918
Benvorlich, 1 August 1915
Ben Vrackie, 19 August 1915
Beneficent, 24 February 1917
Berbera, 25 March 1917
Bernard, 15 December 1917
Bernicia, 13 November 1916
Bertrand, 6 July 1918
Berwick Law, 2 December 1917
Bessie Stephens, 14 February 1918
Bessy, 2 March 1918
Bethlehem, 19 April 1917
Bilswood, 12 March 1917
Birchgrove, 2 December 1917
Birchwood, 3 January 1918
Birdoswald, 26 June 1917
Birkhall, 23 January 1918
Birtley, 4 January 1918
Biruta, 6 August 1918
Bishopston, 4 September 1917
Bittern, 20 August 1915
Blairhall, 26 July 1918
Black Head, 21 June 1917
Blackwood, 9 March 1915
Blagdon, 9 August 1917
Blake, 24 July 1917
Bleamoor, 27 November 1917
Boaz, 31 March 1917
Boddam, 26 September 1916
Bogota, 10 November 1916
Boldwell, 27 May 1917
Boltonhall, 20 August 1918
Boma, 11 June 1918
Boniface, 23 August 1917
Bonney, 17 August 1915
Bontnewydd, 5 October 1917
Bonvilston, 17 October 1918
Border Knight, 4 November 1917
Borg, 10 June 1918
Borga, 1 March 1918
Boscastle, 7 April 1918
Boscawen, 21 August 1918
Boston City, 2 January 1918
Bostonian, 10 October 1917
Bowes Castle, 18 August 1914
Boyne Castle, 7 February 1917
Boynton, 24 September 1917
Braefield, 31 March 1917
Branksome Chine, 23 February 1915
Branksome Hall, 14 July 1918
Brantingham, 4 October 1916
Braunton, 7 April 1916
Bray Head, 14 March 1917
Bramham, 19 July 1917
Brandon,  1/2  1/2  March 1917
Brecknockshire, 15 February 1917
Brema, 19 August 1917
Brenda, 7 January 1917
Brentwood, 12 January 1917
Bretwalda, 13 December 1916
Brierdene, 1 December 1916
Brierley Hill, 1 November 1916
Brierton, 22 November 1916
Brigade, 19 February 1917
Brigitta, 4 December 1917
Brika, 13 March 1917
Brisbane River, 17 April 1917
Bristol City, 16 December 1917
Britannia [69grt], 6 September 1916
Britannia [1,814grt], 8 December 1916
Britannia [3,129grt], 2 April 1917
Britannia [765grt],  1/2 19 October 1917
Britannic [3,487grt], 30 July 1916
Britannic [48,158grt], 21 November 1916
Britannic [92grt], 13 December 1917
British Monarch, 4 August 1917
British Sun, 1 May 1917
British Viscount, 23 February 1918
British Yeoman, 26 February 1917
Broderick, 29 April 1918
Brodmore, 27 February 1917
Brodness, 31 March 1917
Brodstone, 15 August 1917
Bronwen, 24 September 1916
Brookby, 19 June 1917
Brookwood, 10 January 1917
Broomhill, 10 May 1917
Brumaire, 24 July 1917
Brunhilda, 11 July 1917
Brussels, 23 June 1916
Buffalo [4,106grt], 18 June 1917
Buffalo [286grt], 13 September 1918
Bulgarian, 20 January 1917
Bullmouth, 28 April, 1917
Bulysses, 20 August 1917
Bunty, 21 October 1917
Burcombe, 1 December 1916
Buresk [4,337grt], 27 September 1914
Buresk [3,673grt], 5 November 1915
Burma, 23 June 1916
Burnby, 26 February 1917
Burnhope, 14 December 1916
Burnstone, 19 March 1918
Burrowa, 27 April 1917
Bursfield, 5 October 1915
Busiris, 9 December 1915
Butetown, 8 September 1916
Bylands, 1 October 1918
Bywell, 29 March 1917

Cabotia, 20 October 1916
Cade, 27 May 1915
Cadmus, 18 October 1917
Cairndhu, 15 April 1917
Cairngowan, 20 April 1916
Cairnhill, 17 April 1917
Cairnross, 27 May 1918
Cairnstrath, 4 August 1917
Cairntorr, 21 March 1915
Cairo [1,671grt], 13 August 1915
Cairo [254grt], 17 September 1918
Caithness, 19 April 1917
C A Jacques, 1 May 1917
Calchas, 11 May 1917
Caldergrove, 6 March 1917
Caledonia, 4 December 1916
California [8,669grt], 7 February 1917
California [5,629grt], 15 October 1917
Californian, 9 November 1915
Calliope [3,829grt], 5 April 1917
Calliope [2,883grt],  1/2 14 July 1917
Calypso, 10 July 1916
Cambank, 20 February 1915
Camberwell, 18 May 1917
Cambrian Range, 9 December 1916
Cambric, 31 October 1917
Cameronia, 15 April 1917
Cameronian, 2 June 1917
Canadian, 5 April 1917
Candia, 27 July 1917
Candidate, 6 May 1915
Canford Chine, 24 June 1916
Canova, 24 December 1917
Cannizaro, 28 March 1917
Cape Antibes, 21 October 1915
Cape Finisterre, 2 November 1917
Capenor, 22 April 1917
Cardonia, 16 April 1916
Caria, 6 November 1915
Carisbrook, 21 June 1915
Carlisle Castle, 14 February 1918
Carlo, 13 November 1917
Carlton, 29 May 1918
Carlyle, 2 January 1917
Carmarthen, 26 July 1917
Carmelite, 2 March 1918
Carnmoney, 14 May 1917
Caroni, 7 September 1915
Carpathian, 17 July 1918
Carrabin, 1 October 1917
Carrie Hervey, 16 June 1917
Carterswell, 20 August 1915
Carthaginian, 14 June 1917
Caspian, 20 May 1917
Castillian, 18 April 1917
Castle Eden, 4 March 1918
Castleford, 14 March 1918
Castleton, 12July 1917
Caterham, 13 November 1916
Cattaro, 26 June 1917
Caucasian, 1 July 2015
Cavallo, 1 February 1918
Cavina, 1 June 1917
Cayo Bonito, 11 October 1917
Cecil L Shave,  1/2  1 March 1918
Cedarwood, 12 February 1916
CEGB, 18 May 1917
Celia, 2 February 1918
Centurion [5.945grt], 6 May 1915
Centurion [1,826grt], 19 February 1917
Cerne, 26 March 1916
Cervantes, 8 October 1914
Cestrian, 24 June 1917
Chagres, 10 March 1918
Chancellor, 23 September 1915
Chantala, 5 April 1916
Charcas, 5 December 1914
Charing Cross, 1 July 1918
Charles, 18 December 1917
Charles Goodanew, 17 April 1917
Charleston, 12 December 1917
Charterhouse, 23 September 1916
Chatburn, 1 March 1917
Chatham, 21 May 1918
Chelford, 14 April 1918
Cheltonian, 8 June 1917
Cherbury, 29 April 1915
Chertsey, 26 April 1917
Chesterfield, 18 May 1918
Cheviot Range, 21 February 1918
Chic, 13 April 1916
Chicago, 8 July 1918
Chilkana, 19 October 1914
Chirripo, 28 December 1917
Chloris, 27 July 1918
Chorley, 22 March 1917
Christabel, 30 November 1916
Christiana Davis, 29 April 1918
Chulmleigh, 14 September 1917
Churston, 3 September 1915
Cicilia, 12 February 1917
Cicero,  1/2  10 April 1918
Cito, 17 May 1917
City of Adelaide, 11 August 1918
City of Athens, 10 August 1917
City of Baroda, 4 June 1917
City of Birmingham, 27 November 1916
City of Bremen, 4 April 1915
City of Brisbane, 13 August 1918
City of Cambridge, 3 July 1917
City of Corinth, 21 May 1917
City of Florence, 20 July 1917
City of Ghent, 5 September 1916
City of Glasgow, 1 September 1918
City of Lucknow [3,677grt], 30 April 1916
City of Lucknow [8.293grt], 21 December 1917
City of Paris, 4 April 1917
City of Perth, 11 June 1917
City of Swansea, 25 September 1917
City of Winchester [6,601grt], 6 August 1914
City of Winchester [83grt], 28 March 1918
Cilburn, 20 October 1916
Cilurnum, 19 April 1917
Civilian, 6 October 1917
Clangula, 19 November 1917
Clan Alpine, 9 June 1917
Clan Cameron, 22 December 1917
Clan Campbell, 3 April 1916
Clan Davidson, 24 June 1917
Clan Farquhar, 26 February 1917
Clan Ferguson, 6 September 1917
Clan Forbes, 9 June 1918
Clan Grant, 16 October 1914
Clan Leslie, 4 November 1916
Clan Macalister, 6 November 1915
Clan Maccorquedale, 17 November 1917
Clan Macdougall, 15 March 1918
Clan Macfarlane, 30 December 1915
Clan Macintosh, 16 January 1916
Clan Macleod, 1 December 1915
Clan Macmillan, 23 March 1917
Clan Macnab, 4 August 1918
Clan Macneil, 6 August 1918
Clan Macpherson, 4 March 1918
Clan Macvey, 8 August 1918
Clan Matheson, 14 September 1914
Clan Murray, 29 May 1917
Clan Shaw, 23 January 1917
Clara, 28 December 1917
Claudia, 30 July 1916
Claverley, 20 August 1917
Cliftondale, 25 December 1917
Cliftonian, 6 February 1917
Clintonia, 1 August 2015
Clodmoor, 3 May 1917
Cluden, 22 October 1916
Clyde, 7 April 1916
Coalgas, 5 March 1918
Coath, 12 December 1916
Cober, 21 August 1915
Cock O' The Walk, 21 October 1916
Coila, 14 December 1917
Colchester, 22 September 1916
Coleby, 27 March 1915
Colemere, 22 December 1917
Colenso, 30 November 1915
Collegian, 20 October 1917
Colorado, 20 October 1917
Comedian, 29 April 1917
Commodore, 2 December 1915
Commonwealth, 19 February 1918
Conargo, 31 March 1918
Conch, 7 December 1916
Concord, 22 March 1915
Condesa, 7 July 1917
Condor, 11 October 1914
Coningbeg,  1/2  18 December 1917
Coniston Water, 21 July 1917
Connaught, 3 March 1917
Conoid, 29 March 1917
Conovium, 22 November 1917
Conrad, 12 December 1916
Consols, 8 December 1917
Constance Mary, 15 December 1916
Constantia, 8 May 1918
Conway, 30 April 1918
Conway Castle, 27 February 1915
Coonah,  1/2  1/2  March 1917
Cooroy, 29 August 1917
Copenhagen, 5 March 1917
Copeland, 2 December 1917
Copsewood, 27 December 1916
Coquet, 4 January 1916
Coral Leaf, 7 July 1917
Corbet Woodall, 30 May 1917
Corbridge, 11 January 1916
Cordova, 12 December 1917
Corfu, 17 April 1917
Corinth, 13 November 1916
Cork, 26 January 1918
Cormorant, 21 October 1914
Cornelia, 6 March 1917
Cornish City, 21 September 1914
Cornubia, 9 September 1915
Coronda, 13 March 1917
Corsham, 8 March 1918
Corsican Prince, 7 February 1917
Corso, 19 February 1917
Corton Light Vessel, 21 June 1916
Costello, 3 August 1915
Cotovia, 22 July 1917
Cottingham, 26 December 1915
Counsellor, 14 September 1916
Countess of Mar, 4 August 1917
Cragoswald, 18 April 1917
Craigard, 1 July 1915
Craigendoran, 3 March 1917
Craigston, 4 October 1915
Crayford, 13 March 1918
Cressida, 17 March 1918
Cresswell, 5 February 1918
Crispin, 29 March 1917
Crosshill, 11 October 1916
Crown of Arragon, 24 June 1917
Crown of Castile, 30 March 1915
Crown of India, 12 June 1915
Crown Point, 6 February 1917
Croxteth Hall, 17 November 1917
Cuba, 15 May 1917
Cumberland, 6 July 1917
Cupica, 19 October 1917
Cuyahoga, 5 July 1917
Cyfrarthfa, 11 April 1917
Cymbeline, 4 September 1915
Cymrian, 25 August 1917
Cymric, 8 May 1916
Cyrene, 5 April 1918

Dacia, 3 December 1916
Dafila, 21 July 1917
D A Gordon, 11 December 1917
Daleby, 29 April 1917
Dalegarth, 30 May 1916
Dalegarth Force, 18 April 1918
Dalewood, 26 February 1918
Dalton, 10 April 1917
Dana, 20 May 1917
Dantzic, 17 April 1917
Darius, 13 June 1917
Dart, 14 June 1917
Dartmoor, 27 May 1917
Dauntless, 4 February 1917
Dawdon, 3 October 1914
Daybreak, 24 December 1917
Dee, 30 March 1917
Delamere, 30 April 1917
Delphic, 16 August 1917
Demaris, 4 August 1916
Demeterton, 13 March 1917
Denaby, 24 February 1916
Denbigh Hasll, 18 May 1918
Denebola, 17 August 1918
Den of Crombie, 8 November 1915
Denewood, 26 May 1916
Dependence, 15 September 1917
Deptford, 24 February 1915
Derbent, 30 November 1917
Derrymore, 2 May 1917
Desabia, 12 June 1915
Destro, 25 March 1918
Detlef Wagner, 28 May 1917
Devonian, 21 August 1917
Dewa, 17 September 1916
Dewsland, 1 June 1916
Diadem [3,752grt], 23 February 1916
Diadem [4,307grt], 21 April 1917
Diana, 7 June 1918
Dictator [4,116grt], 5 September 1915
Dictator [99grt],  1/2 27 June 1918
Dido, 26 February 1916
Dingle, 20 February 1916
Dinorwic, 15 July 1917
Diomed [4,672grt], 22 August 1915
Diomed [7,523grt], 21 August 1918
Diplomat, 13 September 1914
Dixiana, 29 May 1915
Djerv, 2 February 1918
Dolcoath, 10 May 1916
Dolly Varden, 14 November 1917
Don, 8 May 1915
Don Arturo,  1/2  25 June 1917
Don Diego, 21 May 1917
Don Emilio, 1 July 1917
Donegal, 17 April 1917
Dora, 1 May 1917
Dornfontein, 2 August 1918
Dorothy, 24 February 1917
Dorothy Duff, 16 May 1917
Dottorel, 29 November 1915
Douro, 5 September 1915
Dover Castle, 26 May 1917
Dowlais, 3 December 1917
Downshire [337grt], 20 February 1915
Downshire [368grt], 21 September 1918
Drake, 30 September 1917
Dramatist, 18 December 1916
Dresden, 23 September 1916
Drina, 1 March 1917
Dromonby, 13 January 1916
Dromore [4,398grt], 27 April 1917
Dromore [268grt], 18 May 1917
Drumcree, 18 May 1915
Drumloist, 24 June 1915
Drummuir, 2 December 1914
Dronning Maud, 22 April 1918
Duart, 31 August 1916
Duchess of Cornwall [152grt], 6 December 1916
Duchess of Cornwall [1,706grt], 11 April 1917
Duckbridge, 22 February 1916
Dudhope, 15 July 1917
Dulcie, 19 June 1915
Dulwich [3,289grt], 15 February 1915
Dulwich [1,460grt], 10 June 1917
Dumfries, 19 May 1915
Dumfriesshire, 28 June 1915
Dunbarmoor, 8 March 1917
Dundalk, 14 October 1918
Dundee, 31 January 1917
Dunmore Head, 27 April 1917
Dunnet Head, 4 June 1915
Dunrobin, 24 November 1917
Dunsley, 19 August 1915
Durango, 26 August 1917
Durward, 21 January 1915
Dux, 8 May 1918
Dwinsk, 18 June 1918
Dykland, 22 April 1917

direct to:


in preparation

Eagle, 4 December 1917
Eagle Point, 28 March 1916
Earl of Elgin, 7 December 1917
Earl of Lathom, 5 May 1915
Eastfield, 27 November 1917
Eastlands, 25 January 1918
East Point, 9 March 1917
East Wales, 14 October 1917
Eastern Belle, 1 April 1917
Eastern City, 9 April 1916
Eastern Prince, 30 August 1917
Eavestone, 3 February 1917
Ebenezer, 15 July 1917
Ecclesia, 14 July 1916
Echunga, 5 September 1917
Edale, 1 May 1915
Eddie, 16 February 1917
Edernian, 20 August 1917
Edina, 17 August 1917
Edinburgh, 20 January 1916
Edith, 27 June 1915
Edlington, 23 September 1918
Eduard, 16 April 1917
Egyptiana, 9 June 1917
Egyptian Prince, 12 May 1917
Elax, 10 October 1916
Eleanor, 12 February 1918
El Argentino, 26 May 1916
Elba, 28 April 1918
Eldra, 19 October 1917
Elele, 18 June 1917
Elford, 18 May 1917
Elfrida, 7 January 1915
Eliza Ann, 17 March 1918
Elizabeth, 8 September 1917
Elizabeth Eleanor, 13 March 1917
Elizabeth Hampton, 14 May 1917
Ella Sayer, 29 April 1918
Ellaston [3,796grt], 3 April 1916
Ellaston [3,192grt], 16 March 1918
Ellen Harrison, 29 April 1917
Ellen James, 3 April 1917
Ellesmere, 9 July 1915
Elmgrove, 29 May 1916
Elmmoor, 23 May 1917
Elmsgarth, 29 September 1917
Eloby, 19 July 1917
Elsena, 22 November 1917
Elsie Birdett,  1/2  20 April 1918
Elsinore, 11 September 1914
Elsiston, 19 October 1917
Elswick Lodge, 20 august 1917
Elswick Manor, 19 April 1917
Elterwater, 16 December 1914
El Zorro, 28 December 1915
Embla, 24 December 1915
Embleton, 11 September 1917
Emilie,  1/2  10 April 1918
Emily Millington, 20 October 1918
Emlynverne, 25 November 1916
Emma [2,520grt], 20 April 1917
Emma [73grt], 5 September 1917
Empress, 31 July 1917
Empress of Fort William, 27 February 1916
Empress of Midland, 27 March 1916
Endymion, 30 March 1917
Energy, 15 September 1918
England, 23 May 1917
Englishman, 24 March 1916
English Monarch, 18 June 1917
Enidwen, 8 June 1917
Ennismore, 29 December 1917
Ennistown, 24 March 1917
Enosis, 18 November 1915
Eptalofos, 23 March 1917
Eptapyrgion, 23 April 1917
Eskmere, 13 October 1917
Era, 1 May 1918
Erato, 1 September 1917
Eretria, 13 May 1916
Erica, 8 March 1918
Eric Calvert, 22 April 1918
Erik, 25 August 1918
Erme, 2 July 1918
Ermenilda, 4 Augsut 1916
Erna Bolte, 9 June 1915
Ernest, 2 May 1917
Eros, 17 August 1918
Escrick, 16 August 1918
Eskimo, 26 July 1916
Esmereldas, 10 March 1917
Esneh, 31 May 1917
Essonite, 1 February 1917
Estrella, 5 March 1918
Estrellano, 31 October 1917
Etal Manor, 19 September 1917
Ethel [100grt], 26 April 1918
Ethel [2,336grt], 16 September 1918
Ethelbrythta, 30 July 1916
Ethelinda, 29 January 1918
Ethel Duncan, 18 October 1916
Ethiope, 28 May 1915
Etonian, 23 March 1918
Etton, 20 September 1916
Eudora, 14 February 1917
Eumaeus, 26 February 1918
Euphorbia [3,837grt], 16 July 1916
Euphorbia [3,109grt], 1 December 1917
Eupion, 3 October 1918
Euston, 24 October 1917
Euterpe, 7 January 1916
Eveline, 20 December 1917
Excellence Pleske, 31 March 1918
Excellent, 9 January 1917
Exchange, 23 March 1917
Exford, 14 July 1917
Express, 8 June 1915
Ezel, 8 September 1917

Fabian, 20 September 1917
Fairearn, 24 March 1917
Fairport, 15 April 1916
Falaba, 28 March 1915
Falcon, 24 February 1917
Fallodon, 28 December 1917
Farley, 14 May 1917
Farn, 19 November 1917
Farnham, 19 May 1917
Farraline, 2 November 1917
Farringford, 11 January 1916
Fastnet, 24 February 1916
Favonian, 4 August 1916
F D Lambert, 13 February 1917
Feliciana, 21 April 1916
Feltria, 5 May 1917
Fenay Bridge, 24 March 1916
Fenay Lodge, 6 March 1917
Ferga, 14 February 1917
Fern, 22 April 1918
Ferndene, 24 April 1917
Fernmoor, 17 April 1917
Ferrona, 28 October 1917
Ferryhill, 30 January 1918
Fingal, 15 March 1915
Firelight, 1 May 1917
Firfield, 16 July 1917
Firth, 25 July 1915
Fiscus, 20 December 1917
Fisherman, 16 July 1918
Flamenco, 6 February 1916
Flaminian, 29 March 1915
Flavia, 24 August 1918
Flawyl, 2 May 1918
Flimston, 18 December 1916
Florazan, 11 March 1915
Florence Louisa, 17 May 1917
Florence Muspratt, 5 September 1917
Florentia, 29 June 1918
Floridian, 4 February 1917
Florrieston, 20 April 1918
Fluent, 20 July 1917
Folia, 11 March 1917
Foreland, 12 February 1917
Forestmoor, 5 October 1917
Forfar, 4 December 1917
Fornebo, 17 June 1917
Formby,  1/2 16 December 1917
Forth, 9 December 1916
Fortuna, 3 August 1916
Foyle, 27 September 1914
Foylemore, 16 December 1917
F Matarazzo, 15 November 1916
F Stobart, 11 August 1916
Framfield, 24 October 1916
Frances, 5 September 1917
Frances [56grt], 23 April 1918
Franconia, 4 October 1916
Franklyn, 2 May 1918
Franz Fischer, 1 February 1916
Frau Minna Petersen, 7 August 1914
Frederick Knight, 3 May 1917
Fremona, 31 July 1917
French Prince, 15 February 1917
French Rose, 24 November 1917
Freshfield, 5 August 1918
Friargate, 3 November 1915
Frimaire, 15 March 1917
Frinton, 19 March 1917
Fulgens, 1 August 1915
Fulgent, 30 April 1915
Fulmar, 24 March 1916

Gadsby, 1 July 1915
Gafsa [3,922grt], 16 June 1916
Gafsa [3,974grt], 28 March 1917
Galeka, 28 October 1916
Galgate, 6 May 1916
Galgorm Castle, 27 February 1917
Galicia [5,922grt], 12 May 1917
Galicia [1,400grt], 10 June 1917
Gallier, 2 January 1918
Galway Castle, 12 September 1918
Ganges, 30 July 1917
Gannet, 7 July 1916
Gardepee, 10 October 1916
Garfield, 15 January 1917
Garmoyle, 10 July 1917
Garron Head, 16 November 1917
Garthclyde, 15 October 1917
Garthwaite, 13 December 1917
Gartland, 3 January 1918
Gartness, 19 August 1917
Gasconia, 16 November 1917
Gascony, 5 Janaury 1918
Gauntlet, 18 June 1917
Gaupen, 12 March 1918
Gazelle, 2 March 1917
G A Savage,  1/2  1/2  March 1917
G C Bradwell, 2 August 1916
Gefion, 25 October 1917
Geilan Bari, 8 April 1917
Gem, 25 December 1914
Gemini, 20 July 1918
Gemma, 19 October 1917
Gena, 1 May 1917
General Laurie, 9 June 1917
Geo, 29 January 1918
George Pyrnan, 17 May 1917
George and Mary, 4 June 1915
Georgian, 8 March 1917
GeorgiosAntippa, 28 November 1917
Georgic, 10 December 1916
Ghazee, 4 February 1917
Gibel-Hamam, 14 September 1918
Gibel-Yedid, 13 July 1917
Gibraltar, 12 September 1917
Gippeswic, 31 March 1917
Giralda, 28 August 1918
Girdleness, 2 May 1918
Gisella, 18 November 1917
Gladiator, 19 August 1915
Gladys, 27 November 1917
Gladys Royle, 9 January 1917
Glaucus, 3 June 1918
Glanton, 18 October 1914
Glenalmond, 9 April 1916
Glenarm Head, 4 January 1918
Glenart Castle, 26 February 1918
Glenartney, 5 February 1918
Glenby, 17 August 1915
Glencarron, 19 February 1918
Glencliffe, 12 April 1917
Glencluny, 27 April 1917
Glencoe, 14 December 1916
Glenford, 20 March 1918
Glengyle, 1 January 1916
Glenholm, 21 May 1915
Glenlee [4,140grt], 29 May 1915
Glenlee [4,915grt], 9 August 1918
Glenlogan, 31 October 1916
Glenmoor, 6 November 1915
Glenogle, 27 March 1917
Glenravel, 8 August 1915
Glenstrae, 28 July 1917
Glen Tanar, 3 May 1917
Glitra, 20 October 1914
Glocliffe, 19 August 1917
Glow, 22 July 1917
Glynn, 5 September 1917
Glynymel, 12 March 1917
Goathland, 4 July 1917
Golconda, 3 June 1916
Gold Coast, 19 April 1917
Goldmouth, 31 March 1916
Good Hope [77grt], 27 April 1917
Good Hope [3,618grt], 19 October 1917
Goodwood, 21 August 1917
Gorsemoor, 22 September 1918
Governor, 14 March 1917
Gower Coast,  1/2  5 April 1917
Gowrie, 10 October 1917
Grace, 29 November 1916
Grangemoor, 20 July 1916
Grangewood, 25 July 1915
Grantley Hall, 23 December 1917
Gravine, 7 February 1917
Greatham, 22 January 1918
Greavesash, 26 February 1918
Greenbank, 3 June 1917
Greenland, 14 February 1917
Greenwich, 5 December 1917
Gregynog, 18 April 1918
Greldon, 8 October 1917
Greleen, 22 September 1917
Greltoria, 27 September 1917
Grelhame, 30 August 1917
Grenada, 22 November 1916
Grenadier, 23 February 1917
Gresham, 26 April 1918
Greta, 5 May 1917
Gretaston,  1/2  1/2  April 1917
Greypoint, 18 March 1917
Grit, 21 October 1916
Grodno, 12 August 1915
Groeswen, 27 November 1917
Groningen, 23 September 1915
Gryfevale, 21 October 1917
Guido, 8 July 1915
Guildhall, 25 June 1917

direct to:


in preparation


H C Henry, 28 September 1915
Hadley, 27 December 1915
Haigh Hall, 30 June 1917
Haileybury, 22 February 1918
Halberdier, 6 Janaury 1918
Halcyon, 7 April 12916
Halizones, 7 October 1915
Hallamshire, 19 November 1915
Hamidieh, 13 October 1918
Hanley, 30 May 1917
Hanna Crossdell, 26 February 1917
Hanna Larsen, 8 February 1917
Harberton,  1/2  1/2  March 1917
Harbury, 9 June 1917
Hare, 14 December 1917
Harewood, 13 April 1918
Harfleet, 26 April 1917
Harlington, 9 December 1916
Harlyn, 9 December 1916
Harmattan, 5 May 1917
Harmatris, 8 March 1916
Harold, 21 July 1917
Harpagus, 9 May 1917
Harpalion, 24 February 1915
Harpalus, 2 December 1916
Harpalyce, 10 April 1915
Harpathian, 5 June 1918
Harriet Williams, 28 February 1917
Harrovian, 16 April 1916
Harrow, 8 September 1917
Harry W Adams, 24 December 1916
Hartburn, 15 October 1917
Hartdale, 13 March 1915
Hartley, 26 January 1918
Harvest Home, 28 March 1917
Haslingden, 12 May 1918
Hatasu, 27 September 1918
Hathor, 26 August 1917
Haulwen, 9 June 1917
Hawanee, 8 October 1918
Haworth, 17 July 1917
Haydn, 29 September 1915
Hazelpark, 20 March 1917
Hazelwood, 18 October 1917
Headlands, 12 March 1915
Headley, 19 February 1917
Heathdene, 7 September 1916
Heatherside,  1/2  24 August 1917
Heathfield, 25 April 1917
Hebble, 6 May 1917
Hebburn, 25 September 1918
Heighington, 1 August 1916
Heinrich, 30 November 1916
Helen, 1 May 1917
Helmsmuir, 3 December 1915
Hemisphere, 26 December 1914
Hendonhall, 1 May 1916
Henley, 10 April 1918
Henry R James, 16 July 1917
Hercules [1,295grt], 30 December 1917
Hercules [1,095grt], 25 March 1918
Herdis, 29 June 1918
Hermione, 14 April 1917
Hero, 28 March 1917
Heron, 30 September 1917
Heron Bridge, 16 May 1918
Herrington, 4 May 1917
Hesione, 23 September 1915
Hesperian, 4 September 1915
Hesperides, 25 April 1917
Hidalgo, 28 August 1917
Highcliffe, 3 September 1918
Highgate, 7 December 1917
Highland Brae, 14 January 1915
Highland Brigade, 7 April 1918
Highland Corrie, 16 May 1917
Highland Harris, 6 August 1918
Highland Hope, 14 September 1914
Highland Prince, 11 April 1918
Hilda Lea, 23 December 1917
Hilda R, 5 November 1917
Hildawell, 20 December 1916
Hinemua, 7 September 1917
Hindustan, 21 March 1917
Hirondelle, 25 April 1917
HMW, 10 November 1916
Hogarth, 7 June 1918
Holgate, 27 March 1917
Hollington, 2 June 1917
Hollinside, 3 February 1917
Hollybranch, 1 January 1917
Holmsbank, 26 May 1917
Holmwood, 26 August 1914
Honiton, 30 August 1915
Hopemoor, 14 February 1917
Hopemount, 13 June 1915
Horace, 9 February 1916
Horden, 20 September 1915
Hornchurch, 3 August 1917
Horngarth, 11 March 1917
Hornsund, 23 September 1917
Horsa, 30 April 1917
Howe, 24 March 1917
Howth Head, 19 April 1917
HS3, 12 September 1917
HS 4, 21 August 1917
Hudworth, 6 January 1917
Huelva, 23 July 1917
Huguenot, 20 October 1916
Humber, 25 January 1918
Hungerford, 16 April 1918
Hunsbridge, 7 September 1917
Hunsdon, 18 October 1918
Hunsgrove, 8 June 1918
Huntleys, 25 March 1917
Huntsfall, 2 October 1916
Huntsland, 6 June 1918
Huntsman, 25 February 1917
Huntsmoor, 20 February 1918
Huntsolm, 11 June 1917
Huntstrick, 8 June 1917
Huntsvale, 4 November 1916
Huntly, 20 December 1915
Hunstanton, 4 April 1917
Hurst, 3 October 1917
Hurstdale, 23 October 1914
Hurstside, 4 July 1917
Hurstwood, 5 February 1917
Hurunui, 18 May 1918
Hyades, 15 August 1914
Hylass, 15 August 1917
Hyperia, 28 July 1918

Iberian, 30 July 1915
Iceland, 3 July 1917
Ida Duncan, 31 January 1917
Idaho, 19 August 1918
Ignis, 8 December 1915
Ikalis, 7 June 1917
Ikaria, 30 January 1915
Ikbal, 29 April 1917
Ikeda, 21 March 1918
Ilaro, 23 October 1915
Ilderton, 24 October 1917
Ilston, 30 June 1917
Ilvington Court, 6 December 1917
Imataka, 23 April 1917
Imperial, 8 August 1916
Imperial Transport, 11 April 1917
Indian City, 12 March 1915
Indian Prince, 4 September 1914
Indrani [5,706grt], 17 September 1914
Indrani [3,640grt], 27 June 1915
Indus, 10 September 1914
Industrial, 4 October 1918
Industry [4,044grt], 27 April 1916
Industry [91grt], 5 September 1917
Inglemoor, 1 July 2015
Inishowen Head, 14 February 1917
Incemore, 20 August 1917
Ingleside, 8 May 1918
Inkosi, 28 March 1918
Inkum, 4 June 1915
Inniscarra, 12 May 1918
Innisfallen, 23 May 1918
Intent, 8 March 1918
Inverbervie, 14 September 1916
Invercauld, 22 February 1917
Invercoe, 12 February 1915
Invergyle, 12 March 1915
Inverlogie, 9 March 1917
Inverlyon, 11 April 1916
Invermay, 25 April 1917
Iolo [3,903grt], 11 October 1916
Iolo [3,840grt], 17 February 1917
Iolanthe, 4 January 1918
Iona, 3 June 1915
Ionian, 20 October 1917
Iran, 7 August 1917
Irene, 9 November 1915
Iris,  1/2  8 May 1917
Iriston, 24 September 1917
Irthington, 23 September 1917
Iser, 23 February 1917
Islandmore, 3 June 1917
Isle of Arran, 2 February 1917
Isle of Hastings, 5 October 1916
Isle of Jura, 8 June 1917
Isleworth, 30 April 1918
Istrar, 2 December 1916
Italiana, 14 September 1916
Itinda, 10 May 1918
Itonus, 20 December 1916
Ivernia, 1 January 1917
Ivydene, 17 March 1918

Jacona, 12 August 1915
Jaffa, 2 February 1918
James Burton, 10 March 1917
Jane Gray, 23 March 1918
Jane Radcliffe, 28 November 1917
Jane Williamson, 10 September 1917
Japanese Prince, 10 February 1917
Jean, 30 December 1915
Jersey City, 24 May 1917
Jerseyman, 24 November 1916
Jessie [108grt], 27 April 1917
Jessie [2,256grt], 16 June 1917
Jessie [332grt], 2 November 1917
Jessmore, 13 May 1917
Jevington, 23 January 1917
Jewel, 19 April 1917
Jonathan Holt, 7 June 1917
John H Barry, 18 March 1918
John Hardie, 6 September 1915
John Miles, 22 February 1917
John Pritchard, 30 March 1916
John W Pearn, 1 May 1917
John O Scott, 18 September 1918
John J Walter, 24 March 1918
Johnny Toole, 29 April 1918
Jorgina, 24 March 1918
Jose de Larrinaga, 28 April 1917
Joseph, 4 May 1917
Joseph Chamberlain, 18 September 1917
Joseph Fisher, 15 September 1918
Joshua,  1/2  12 October 1917
Joshua Nicholson, 18 March 1917
Julia Park, 30 May 1916
Jumna, 1 March 1917
Juno, 2 May 1917
Jupiter, 21 May 1917
Justicia, 19 July 1918
Jutland, 19 November 1917
J Y Short, 4 October 1916

Kafue, 30 April 1918
Kaipara, 16 August 1914
Kalgan, 6 March 1918
Kalibia, 30 November 1917
Kallundborg, 5 June 1917
Kalo, 13 June 1918
Kangaroo, 18 June 1917
Kankakee, 14 June 1917
Kapunda, 12 November 1916
Kara, 10 July 1916
Karema, 25 November 1917
Kariba, 13 April 1917
Karina, 1 August 1917
Karma, 20 July 1916
Karronga, 29 April 1917
Karuma, 27 April 1917
Kasenga, 1 April 1917
Kassanga, 20 March 1918
Kassid Karim, 4 October 1918
Kate & Annie, 19 June 1917
Katherine, 23 February 1917
Kathleen, 5 August 1917
Kathleen Lily, 29 March 1917
Keelung, 27 June 1918
Keeper,  1/2  10 June 1917
Kelso, 19 June 1917
Kelvinhead, 27 March 1917
Kelvinbank [4,209grt], 22 March 1916
Kelvinbank [4,072 gt], 13 June 1917
Kelvinia, 2 September 1916
Kempock, 30 April 1918
Kendal Castle, 15 September 1918
Kenilworth, 24 April 1917
Kenmare, 2 March 1918
Kenmore, 26 August 1917
Kennet, 22 September 1916
Kennington, 12 June 1918
Khartoum, 27 November 1914
Khephren, 16 July 1917
Kia Ora, 8 February 1918
Kilbride, 1 March 1916
Kilcoan, 30 January 1915
Kildale, 12 April 1917
Kildalton, 12 December 1914
Kildonan, 29 September 1917
Kieldrecht, 15 June 1918
Killarney, 8 May 1917
Killellan, 8 November 1916
Killin, 13 September 1914
Kilmaho, 16 May 1917
Kilwinning, 24 August 1917
Kincardine, 3 March 1917
Kindly Light, 1 February 1918
King Bleddyn, 1 December 1916
King David, 10 July 1917
King George, 8 December 1916
King Idwal, 22 November 1917
King Lud, 25 September 1914
King Malcolm, 28 November 1916
Kingsdyke, 17 January 1918
Kingstonian, 29 April 1918
Kingsway, 27 November 1915
Kinpurney, 15 January 1917
Kinross, 7 May 1917
Kintuck, 2 December 1917
Kioto, 11 July 1917
Kirkby, 17 August 1915
Kirkham Abbey, 27 July 1918
Kish, 17 April 1917
Kittiwake, 9 April 1917
Knarsdale, 21 December 1915
Knightsbridge, 5 January 1918
Knutsford, 22 July 1916
Kohinur, 25 May 1917
Kohistan, 22 November 1917
Kosseir, 20 July 1918
Kurdistan, 20 September 1917
Kul, 12 June 1918
Kut Sang, 29 April 1918
Kwasind, 11 March 1917
Kyanite, 15 February 1917
Kyarra, 26 May 1918
Kymo, 16 November 1917

Laconia, 25 February 1917
La Blanca, 23 November 1917
La Correntina, 7 October 1914
La Negra, 3 September 1917
Ladoga, 16 April 1918
Lady Ann, 16 February 1917
Lady Carrington, 12 November 1916
Lady Cory-Wright, 26 March 191
Lady Helen, 27 October 1917
Lady Ninian, 28 May 1916
Lady Salisbury, 9 June 1915
Lady of the Lake [79grt], 28 November 1916
Lady of the Lake [51grt], 30 June 1917
Ladywood, 1 May 1917
Laertes, 1 August 1917
Lake Michigan, 16 April 1918
Lampada, 8 December 1917
Landonia, 21 April 191
Lanfranc, 17 April 1917
Langton Hall, 30 November 1915
Lanterna, 6 October 1916
Lanthorn, 22 May 1917
Lapwing, 11 October 1917
Larchmore, 3 July 1915
Largo, 27 February 1918
Laristan, 4 September 1916
Laura [335grt], 25 April 1917
Laura [86grt], 8 September 1917
Laura Ann, 5 June 1917
Laurium, 23 April 1918
Lavernock, 17 September 1918
Lavinia Westoll, 28 March 1916
L C Tower, 1 July 1915
Leasowe Castle, 26 May 1918
Ledbury, 26 March 1917
Leeuwarden, 17 March 1915
Leeds City, 6 May 1918
Leicester, 12 February 1916
Leinster, 10 October 1918
Lena,  1/2  18 April 1917
Leonatus, 12 December 1917
Lesbian, 5 January 1917
Lesto, 23 May 1917
Lestris, 5 July 1916
Leuctra, 12 June 1915
Leven, 15 February 1917
Lewisham,  1/2  14 May 1917
Lexie, 10 September 1916
L H Carl, 20 July 1917
Libourne, 29 September 1918
Lightfoot, 16 March 1918
Lilian H, 19 January 1917
Limasol, 11 May 1917
Limesfield, 7 February 1918
Linaria, 26 December 1914
Lincairn, 27 May 1916
Lincolnshire, 29 March 1917
Linda Blanche, 30 January 1915
Linkmoor, 20 September 1915
Limerick, 28 May 1917
Lisbon, 30 May 1917
Lisette, 13 March 1918
Lismore, 12 April 1917
Little Gem, 13 December 1917
Little Mystery, 30 April 1917
Liverpool, 19 December 1916
Livonia, 3 December 1917
Lizzie Ellen, 28 June 1917
Lizzie Westoll, 17 June 1917
Llancarvan, 16 May 1918
Llandrindod, 18 May 1917
Llandovery Castle, 27 June 1918
Llandudno, 1 August 1917
Llanishen, 8 August 1917
Llangorse, 8 September 1916
Llongwen, 18 July 1916
Llwyngwar, 26 April 1918
Longhirst, 23 February 1917
Locksley Hall, 12 May 1917
Lochwood, 2 April 1915
Lodes, 5 May 1917
Lofoten, 3 February 1918
Lomas, 30 June 1915
Lonada, 29 December 1916
Lonclara, 4 January 1917
Longbenton, 27 June 1917
Longscar, 14 February 1917
Lonhelen, 12 April 1918
Lord Charlemont, 19 April 1918
Lord Derby, 28 December 1917
Lord Roberts, 21 June 1917
Lord Stewart, 16 September 1918
Lord Tredegar, 17 September 1916
Lorie, 11 June 1918
Lornion, 23 June 1918
Lotusmere, 2 October 1916
Louise Bell, 26 January 1918
Lough Fisher, 30 March 1918
Lovat, 11 September 1914
Lowdale, 29 April 1917
Lowlands, 18 March 1916
Lowmount, 7 May 1917
Lowther Range, 20 April 1918
Lowtyne, 10 June 1918
Lucena, 27 June 1915
Lucent, 12 February 1917
Luciston, 29 November 1916
Lucy Anderson, 12 March 1917
Ludgate, 26 July 1917
Ludovicos, 1 October 1917
Lugano, 2 October 1917
Luis, 12 April 1918
Lullington, 8 February 1917
Lumina, 6 November 1915
Lundy Island, 10 January 1917
Lusitania [30,396grt], 7 May 1915
Lusitania [1,834grt], 17 November 1915
Lux,  1/2  1/2  January 1917
Luxor, 19 March 1918
Luxembourg, 11 September 1917
Luz Blanco, 5 August 1918
LV, 13 February 1917
Lycia, 11 February 1917
Lydie, 9 February 1918
Lynburn, 29 August 1917
Lynfield, 8 January 1917
Lynorta, 11 August 1917
Lynrowan, 7 October 1914

Mabel Baird, 22 December 1917
Machaon, 27 February 1918
Madam Midas [ex-Duva], 23 March 1918
Madam Renee, 10 August 1918
Madeline, 8 March 1918
Madryn, 16 September 1918
Magellan, 25 July 1918
Maggie [269grt], 17 August 1915
Maggie [1,802grt], 24 June 1917
Maid of Harlech, 4 February 1918
Main, 9 October 1917
Maindy Bridge, 8 December 1917
Maine, 23 March 1917
Maizar, 30 January 1918
Majura, 18 October 1917
Maltby, 26 February 1918
Maloja, 27 February 1916
Malachite, 23 November 1914
Malakand, 20 April 1917
Malda, 25 August 1917
Malinehe, 29 November 1915
Malvina, 2 August 1918
Manchester Citizen, 26 April 1917
Manchester Commerce [5,363grt], 27 October 1914
Manchester Commerce [4,144grt], 29 July 1917
Manchester Engineer [4,302grt], 27 March 1916
Manchester Engineer [4,465grt], 16 August 1917
Manchester Inventor [4,247grt], 18 January 1917
Manchester Inventor [4,112grt], 30 July 1917
Manchester Miller, 5 June 1917
Manchester Spinner, 22 January 1918
Manchester Trader, 4 June 1917
Manchuria, 17 October 1917
Mangara, 28 July 1915
Manistee, 26 June 1917
Mantola, 8 February 1917
Maple Branch, 3 September 1914
Maple Wood, 7 April 1917
Marere, 18 January 1916
Marga, 10 November 1916
Margam Abbey, 10 April 1916
Margaret Sutton, 2 August 1916
Maria, 13 April 1917
Marie Elsie, 10 June 1917
Maria P, 18 January 1918
Marie Suzanne, 19 August 1918
Marina, 28 October 1916
Mariston, 15 July 1917
Marjorie, 9 June 1917
Marden, 16 April 1917
Mardinian, 19 May 1917
Marie Leonhardt, 14 February 1917
Margarita, 14 February 1917
Margit, 4 April 1917
Marion Dawson, 14 February 1917
Marmion, 26 August 1917
Marquette, 23 October 1915
Marquis Bacquehem, 29 October 1916
Mars, 8 July 1918
Marstonmoor, 14 April 1918
Martha Edmonds, 20 August 1915
Martin, 14 January 1917
Mary Ada Short, 16 February 1915
Mary Annie, 25 March 1917
Mary Baird, 18 May 1917
Mary Orr, 10 September 1917
Mary Seymour, 10 September 1917
Mascota, 29 March 1917
Mascotte, 3 September 1916
Mashalla, 22 April 1918
Mashobra, 15 April 1917
Maston, 13 August 1917
Massouda, 11 May 1918
Masunda, 28 February 1916
Matador, 3 July 1917
Matheran, 26 January 1917
Matiana, 1 May 1918
Matunga, 6 August 1917
Maud, 1 May 1916
Maude, 7 May 1917
Maude Lawson, 27 November 1916
Mavisbrook, 17 May 1918
Maxton, 28 December 1917
Mayola, 16 February 1917
Maywood, 30 September 1916
McClure, 24 May 1917
Meadowfield, 9 July 1915
Mechanician, 20 January 1918
Medina, 28 April 1917
Mediterranean, 10 March 1917
Medora, 2 May 1918
Melanie, 16 June 1918
Meldon, 3 March 1917
Melford Hall, 22 June 1917
Membland, 15 February 1915
Memling, 3 October 1917
Memnon, 12 March 1917
Memphian, 8 October 1917
Menzaleh, 5 June 1918
Mercurius, 28 June 1916
Merganser, 20 November 1915
Merionith, 3 June 1917
Merionithshire, 27 May 1918
Mermaid, 29 April 1917
Mersario, 1 October 1917
Meroe, 29 October 1916
Merton Hall, 11 February 1918
Mesaba, 1 September 1918
Messidor, 23 July 1918
Mexico City, 5 February 1918
Miami, 22 June 1917
Middlesex, 16 May 1917
Middleton, 30 November 1915
Midland, 20 October 1916
Midland Queen, 4 August 1915
Midlothian, 30 September 1917
Mientji, 20 May 1917
Millicent Knight, 18 May 1917
Milly, 6 September 1918
Milwaukee, 31 August 1918
Mimosa, 4 September 1915
Minas Queen, 26 August 1917
Minieh, 9 January 1917
Miniota, 31 August 1917
Minneapolis, 23 March 1916
Minnehaha, 7 September 1917
Minnetonka, 30 Janaury 1918
Minnewaska, 29 November 1916
Minnie Coles, 19 November 1917
Minorea, 11 December 1917
Minterne, 3 May 1915
Mira, 11 October 1917
Mirlo, 16 August 1918
Missair, 29 May 1918
Missanabie, 9 September 1918
Miss Morris, 11 April 1917
Mizpah, 3 December 1916
M J Craig, 13 September 1918
Mobile, 28 April 1915
Moeris, 30 June 1916
Mohacsfield, 7 January 1917
Moidart, 9 June 1918
Molesley, 1 December 1917
Mombassa, 20 October 1916
Monarsh, 8 September 1915
Mongara, 3 July 1917
Mongolia, 24 June 1917
Mongolian, 21 July 1918
Monitor, 26 April 1917
Monksgarth, 19 August 1917
Monkstone, 25 July 1917
Monitoria, 21 October 1915
Montebello, 21 June 1918
Montfort, 1 October 1918
Mooltan, 26 July 1917
Moorina, 5 November 1915
Moorlands, 24 June 1918
Moorside, 12 November 1915
Mopsa, 16 July 1916
Mora, 8 September 1915
Morazan, 11 November 1916
Mordenwood, 19 May 1917
Moresby, 28 November 1916
Morion, 2 May 1917
Morning Star, 12 November 1917
Morwenna, 26 May 1915
Moscow, 21 October 1918
Moss Rose, 10 September 1917
Mountby, 10 June 1918
Mount Coniston, 5 August 1916
Mount Temple, 6 December 1916
Moyune, 12 April 1918
Muirfield, 11 July 1917
Muriel, 17 September 1918
Munificent, 1 March 1917
Murcia, 2 November 1918
Murex, 21 December 1916
Myrtle Branch, 11 April 1918

Nailsea Court, 19 January 1917
Naiad, 15 December 1916
Nairn, 27 August 1917
Namur, 29 October 1917
Nanny Wignall, 9 March 1918
Nantes, 7 May 1918
Narrangansett, 16 March 1917
Nascent, 25 August 1917
Natal Transport, 4 September 1915
Neath, 27 March 1917
Neepawah, 22 April 1917
Nentmoor, 20 April 1917
Neotsfield [1,875grt], 26 June 1917
Neotsfield [3,821grt], 14 September 1918
Neuquen, 20 January 1917
Ness, 25 October 1917
Netherby Hall, 10 January 1917
Netherlee, 11 February 1917
Netherton, 18 February 1917
Netta, 3 September 1916
Nevisbrook, 20 July 1917
Newburn, 7 August 1916
Newby, 26 September 1916
Newcastle, 10 October 1915
New Design No 2, 4 May 1917
Newholm, 8 September 1917
Newlyn, 2 August 1917
Newminster Abbey, 2 February 1918
Newstead, 3 March 1917
New York City, 19 August 1915
New Zealand Transport 14 June 1917,
Niceto de Larrinaga, 6 October 1914
Nigel, 12 November 1915
Ninetta, 18 May 1918
Nirpura, 16 April 1918
Nora, 3 June 1918
Norfolk Coast, 18 June 1918
Norhilda, 21 August 1917
Norma Pratt, 16 March 1917
Normandiet, 21 April 1918
Normandy, 25 Janaury 1918
Normanton, 1 October 1917
Northfield, 3 March 1918
Northlands, 5 April 1915
North Sea, 31 October 1917
Northville, 17 February 1918
North Wales [3,661grt], 16 November 1914
North Wales [4,072grt],  1/2  1/2  October 1916
Northwaite, 13 March 1917
Norwegian, 13 March 1917
Norwood,  1/2  1/2  February 1917
Nostra Signora del Porto Salvo, 22 February 1917
Novocastrian, 5 October 1915
Noya, 30 August 1917
Nuceria, 2 October 1917
Nugget, 31 July 1915
Nyanga, 16 August 1914
Nyanza, 29 September 1918
Nyassa, 24 November 1917

Oak, 23 February 1915
Oakleaf, 25 July 1917
Oakwell, 28 March 1917
Oakwood, 11 August 1915
Obsidian,  1/2  10 April 1918
Obuasi, 8 July 1917
Ocean, 23 November 1917
Ocean Swell, 5 July 1917
Okement, 17 February 1917
Okhla, 29 July 1917
Oilfield, 16 March 1918
Oldfield Grange, 11 December 1917
Olive, 22 July 1916
Olive Branch, 2 September 1917
Olivia, 11 February 1917
Olivine, 4 April 1915
Omrah, 12 May 1918
Oola, 26 October 1916
Oopack, 4 October 1918
Opal, 18 December 1916
Orange Prince, 15 November 1915
Orator, 8 June 1917
Orfordness, 20 July 1918
Oriflamme, 25 November 1917
Origen, 30 June 1918
Orissa, 25 June 1918
Oriole, 30 January 1915
Orlock Head, 12 April 1916
Oronsa, 28 April 1918
Oronsay, 28 December 1916
Orteric, 9 December 1915
Ortolan, 14 June 1917
Ortona, 21 June 1917
Orubian, 31 July 1917
Oslo, 21 August 1917
Osmanieh, 31 December 1917
Osprey, 12 August 1915
Ostpreussen, 25 November 1917
Oswald, 23 April 1917
Oswego, 29 May 1917
Otaki, 10 March 1917
Otis Tetrax, 20 August 1918
Otto, 4 Janaury 1918
Ovid, 25 November 1917

direct to:


in preparation

Paddington, 21 July 1917
Pagenturm, 16 May 1917
Paignton, 14 March 1917
Palacine, 2 December 1916
Palatine, 16 August 1917
Palmella, 22 August 1918
Palmgrove, 22 August 1915
Palmleaf, 4 February 1917
Parisiana, 23 April 1916
Parkmill, 10 September 1917
Paros, 17 August 1915
Pascal, 17 December 1916
Pasha, 15 June 1917
Parkgate, 4 April 1917
Patagonia, 15 September 1915
Patagonier, 14 April 1917
Parthenia, 6 June 1917
Pearl [613grt], 23 September 1916
Pearl [144grt], 30 September 1916
Peebles, 13 October 1917
Peerless, 4 September 1917
Pegu, 8 July 1917
Pelham, 13 June 1915
Pendennis, 8 July 1916
Penelope, 24 August 1917
Penhale, 18 May 1917
Penhallow, 12 June 1918
Peninsula, 25 July 1917
Penistone, 11 August 1918
Penpol, 19 June 1917
Pentyrch, 18 April 1918
Penvean, 1 March 1918
Pentwyn, 16 October 1918
Pentyrch, 18 April 1918
Penylan, 19 October 1916
Pera, 19 October 1917
Perce, 28 January 1917
Percy B, 29 September 1917
Percy Roy, 13 February 1917
Perla, 10 June 1917
Perriton, 29 January 1918
Perserverance, 23 September 1917
Perseus, 21 February 1917
Persia, 30 December 1915
Persier, 11 December 1917
Perth, 1 April 1916
Peshawur, 9 October 1917
Petridge, 8 April 1917
Petunia, 8 May 1917
Phantom, 8 June 1917
Phare, 31 October 1917
Phemius, 4 June 1917
Philadelphian, 19 February 1918
Philomel, 16 September 1918
Pilar de Larrinaga, 4 May 1917
Pinegrove, 11 December 1915
Pinewood, 17 February 1918
Pinmore, 19 February 1917
Pitho, 28 December 1916
Planudes,  1/2  1/2  January 1917
Plawsworth, 13 July 1918
Pluto, 10 April 1917
Plutus, 24 April 1917
Pola, 18 March 1917
Polamhall, 7 May 1917
Polanna, 6 August 1917
Polar Prince, 18 September 1917
Polbrae, 4 May 1918
Poldown, 9 October 1917
Poledn, 14 November 1916
Polesley, 21 September 1918
Polijames, 2 October 1918
Politania, 18 August 1917
Polleon, 22 March 1918
Polo, 12 February 1918
Poltava, 19 April 1917
Polvana, 17 October 1917
Polvarth, 20 December 1917
Polwell, 5 June 1918
Polymnia, 15 May 1917
Polyxena, 11 June 1917
Pomeranian, 15 April 1918
Ponrabbel, 16 October 1914
Pontiac [1,698grt], 21 April 1917
Pontiac [3,345grt], 28 April 1917
Pontypridd, 12 March 1917
Port Adelaide, 3 February 1917
Port Campbell, 7 April 1918
Port Curtis, 7 August 1917
Port Dalhousie, 19 March 1916
Port Hardy, 6 July 1918
Port Jackson, 28 April 1917
Port Kembla, 18 September 1917
Port Nicholson, 15 January 1917
Porthkerry, 18 May 1917
Portia, 2 August 1915
Portloe, 20 April 1917
Potaro, 10 January 1915
Powhatan, 6 April 1917
Presto, 6 April 1917
Primo [1,366grt], 26 November 1914
Primo [1,037grt], 18 September 1918
Primrose, 31 March 1917
Prince Abbas, 9 July 1917
Princess Caroline, 13 August 1915
Princess Dagmar,  1/2  7 May 1918
Princess Mary, 21 October 1916
Princess Maud, 10 June 1918
Princess Olga, 16 December 1914
Princess Royal, 26 May 1918
Princess Victoria, 9 March 1915
Proba, 7 December 1917
Prophet, 14 November 1917
Protector, 31 December 1916
Providence, 22 March 1917
Prunella, 22 August 1918
Pruth, 9 October 1914
Ptarmigan, 15 April 1915
Purley, 25 July 1917
Pundit, 9 June 1918

Quaggy, 11 April 1917
Queen, 28 June 1918
Queenswood, 16 February 1917
Queen Adelaide, 18 June 1917
Queen Amelie, 17 September 1917
Queen Eugenie, 25 March 1917
Queen Mary, 16 April 1917
Queen Victoria, 9 June 1918
Queen Wilhelmina, 8 May 1915
Quernmore, 31 July 1917

Radnorshire, 7 January 1917
Ragnhild, 3 September 1917
Rallus, 27 September 1916
Raloo, 17 June 1917
Ramanzan, 19 September 1915
Ramsgarth, 28 November 1916
Ramillies, 21 July 1917
Ranger, 19 July 1918
Ranza, 1 August 1915
Rapallo, 13 Janaury 1918
Rappahannock, 26 October 1916
Ravenhill, 18 April 1916
Ravensbourne, 31 January 1917
Reapwell, 27 November 1916
Redesmere, 28 October 1917
Refugio, 12 May 1917
Remus, 23 February 1918
Renfrew [3,488grt], 3 July 1915
Renfrew [3,830grt], 24 February 1918
Repton, 7 May 1917
Restormel, 19 August 1915
Reventazon, 5 October 1918
Rewa, 4 January 1918
Rhem, 22 June 1918
Rhenass, 22 May 1916
Rhineland, 11 November 1915
Rhodesia, 11 October 1917
Rhona, 27 November 1916
Rhydwen, 18 April 1917
Ribera [3,500grt], 27 September 1914
Ribera [3,511grt], 10 June 1917
Ribston [3,048grt], 23 April 1916
Ribston [3,372grt], 16 July 1917
Richard de Larrinaga, 8 October 1917
Richmond, 1 July 1915
Rievaulx Abbey, 3 September 1916
Rinaldo, 18 April 1917
Rio Claro, 5 Janaury 1918
Rio Colorado, 22 March 1917
Rio Iguassu, 22 September 1914
Rio Pallarsea, 29 July 1918
Rio Parana, 24 February 1915
Rio Pirahy, 28 October 1916
Rio Sorocaba, 21 March 1917
Rio Tiete, 28 March 1916
Rio Verde, 21 February 1918
Riversdale, 18 December 1917
River Forth, 3 March 1917
Roanoke, 12 August 1917
Rob Roy, 26 January 1918
Robert Adamson, 10 April 1916
Robert Brown, 19 November 1917
Robert Eggleton, 28 December 1917
Robert Morris, 20 November 1917
Rochester Castle, 16 April 1917
Rochester City, 2 May 1916
Rockcliff, 2 July 1916
Rockpool, 2 March 1918
Rodanthe, 4 March 1917
Rollesby, 15 September 1917
Roma, 30 November 1916
Romany, 27 April 1918
Romeo, 3 March 1918
Romford, 10 February 1918
Romny, 26 February 1918
Romsdalen, 17 February 1917
Rona, 18 June 1916
Rosalie [4,243grt], 10 August 1915
Rosalie [4,237grt], 20 February 1917
Rosalind, 6 April 1917
Rosario, 18 August 1917
Roscommon, 21 August 1917
Rosebank, 31 May 1917
Rose Dorothea, 16 February 1917
Rose Marie, 5 January 1918
Rosehill, 23 September 1917
Rose Lea, 14 March 1917
Rosemoor, 17 July 1916
Rosemount, 6 August 1917
Ross, 22 April 1916
Rota, 22 July 1917
Rothesay, 5 March 1916
Rotorua, 22 March 1917
Roumanie, 2 September 1915
Rowanmore, 26 October 1916
Rowena, 18 April 1917
Roxburgh, 4 March 1918
Royal Edward, 13 August 1915
Ruabon, 2 May 1916
Rubio, 25 February 1918
Ruby, 28 March 1917
Ruel, 21 August 1915
Runo, 5 September 1914
Runswick, 18 April 1918
Ruperra, 20 June 1917
Russian, 14 December 1916
Rustington, 25 July 1917
Rutherglen, 24 July 1917
Ruth Hickman, 24 May 1918
Ruysdael, 7 September 1918
Rydal Hall, 1 December 1917
Rye, 7 April 1918
Rytonhall, 2 September 1917

Sabbia, 20 April 1916
Sabia, 24 November 1917
Saga, 14 February 1918
Sagamore, 3 March 1917
Saidieh, 1 June 1915
Saima, 8 June 1918
Sailor Prince, 2 October 1915
Saint Mirren, 26 May 1917
Saint Mungo, 2 May 1917
Salerno, 14 October 1915
Sallagh, 10 February 1917
Salmo, 7 April 1917
Salmonpool, 1 June 1916
Salsette, 20 July 1917
Salta, 10 April 1917
Salybia, 24 March 1916
Samara, 19 August 1915
Samuset, 20 March 1918
San Andres, 2 September 1918
San Bernardino, 10 August 1916
San Hilario, 20 April 1917
San Nicola, 31 March 1918
San Onofre, 12 May 1917
San Rito, 15 February 1918
San Urbano, 1 May 1917
San Wilfrido, 3 August 1914
Sandon Hall, 1 January 1918
Sandhurst, 6 May 1918
Sandsend, 16 September 1917
Santa Amalia, 28 December 1917
Santa Isabel, 14 April 1918
Santaren, 15 September 1917
Sanwen, 29 September 1917
Sapele, 26 October 1917
Saragossa, 8 June 1917
Sarah Radcliffe, 11 November 1916
Sardinia, 15 June 1916
Savona, 1 September 1915
Saxon, 7 May 1918
Saxon Briton, 6 February 1917
Saxon Monarch, 24 June 1917
Saxon Prince, 25 February 1916
Saxonian, 7 February 1917
Scalpa, 18 April 1917
Scawby, 6 October 1915
Scholar, 18 May 1918
Scottish Hero, 10 June 1917
Scottish Monarch, 29 June 1915
Sculptor [3,846grt], 18 April 1917
Sculptor [4,874grt], 17 May 1918
SD, 2 August 1916
Sea Gull [144grt], 26 February 1917
Sea Gull [976grt], 17 March 1918
Sea Serpent, 23 March 1916
Seang Choon, 10 July 1917
Seatonia, 1 November 1916
Sebek, 21 April 1917
Secondo, 27 September 1916
Seeker, 3 December 1916
Seistan, 23 October 1917
Selby, 30 September 1914
Semantha, 14 October 1917
Senator Dantziger, 19 April 1917
Serapis, 26 June 1917
Serbino, 16 August 1915
Serula, 16 September 1918
Setter, 13 September 1918
Seven Seas, 1 April 1915
Sheaf Blade, 25 October 1917
Sheldrake, 8 November 1916
Shenandoah, 14 April 1916
Shimosa, 30 July 1917
Shirala, 2 July 918
Sidmouth, 24 October 1916
Silksworth Hall, 10 April 1916
Silverash, 6 October 1915
Silverburn, 13 June 1917
Silverdale, 9 March 1918
Silverton, 13 July 1916
Silvia [5,268grt], 23 August 1915
Silvia [164grt], 1 April 1917
Simla, 2 April 1916
Sir Francis, 7 June 1917
Sir Joseph, 16 March 1917
Sir Richard Awdry, 8 November 1915
Sir Walter, 24 July 1917
Sir William Stephenson, 29 August 1915
Sixty-Six, 29 June 1918
Sjaelland, 25 May 1917
Skaraas, 23 May 1918
Skerries, 4 November 1916
Sneaton, 3 April 1916
Snowdon, 19 May 1918
Snowdonian, 31 July 1917
Snowden Range, 27 March 1917
Sofie,  1/2  3 February 1918
Solway Prince, 27 June 1917
Solway Queen, 2 April 1918
Somerset, 26 July 1917
Somme, 30 March 1917
Sommeina, 15 September 1917
Sonnie, 11 August 1917
South Arklow Light Vessel, 28 March 1917
Southborough, 16 July1918
Southford, 25 February 1916
Southgarth, 29 May 1916
Southina, 7 July 1917
Southland, 4 June 1917
South Point [3,837grt], 27 March 1915
South Point [4,258grt], 11 June 1917
South Wales, 24 June 1917
South Western, 16 March 1918
Sowwell, 19 April 1917
Sparkling Foam, 15 March 1918
Sparta, 28 October 1916
Spennymoor, 28 May 1915
Spenser, 6 January 1918
Spero, 2 November 1916
Sphene, 3 August 1916
Spinaway, 26 December 1916
Spiral, 4 August 1916
Spital, 15 January 1918
Spithead, 6 April 1917
Spray, 14 April 1917
Springhill, 24 August 1917
Springwell, 9 February 1916
Saint Barchan, 21 October 1918
Saint Cecilia, 26 March 1916
Saint Ninian, 7 February 1917
Saint Ronald, 19 September 1917
Saint Theodore, 12 December 1916
St Andrews, 13 June 1917
St. Dimitrios, 20 March 1918
St.Dunstan, 23 September 1917
St. Gothard, 26 September 1916
St. Margaret, 12 September 1917
St. Magnus, 12 February 1918
St. Olaf, 19 August 1915
St. Ursula, 12 December 1916
Standish Hall, 4 February 1918
Stamfordham, 4 August 1916
Stanhope, 17 June 1917
Staithes, 21 September 1918
Stanley, 21 March 1917
Stathe, 26 September 1916
Statesman, 3 November 1916
Steelville, 3 January 1918
Sten, 18 October 1917
Stephanotis [ex-Hackensack], 25 April 1917
Solt-Nielsen, 11 March 1918
Storm, 9 September 1917
Strathalbyn, 10 December 1916
Strathallan, 2 September 1916
Strathcarron, 8 June 1915
Strathconan, 13 April 1917
Strathdene, 8 October 1916
Strathnairn, 15 June 1915
Strathroy, 31 August 1914
Strathtay, 6 September 1916
Stephano, 8 October 1916
Stryn, 10 June 1918
Stuart Prince, 22 March 1917
Sturton, 7 February 1918
Subadar, 27 July 1918
Suffolk Coast, 7 November 1916
Summerfield, 13 August 1915
Sunbeam, 4 July 1915
Sunlight, 6 June 1915
Sunniside, 9 November 1916
Sunniva, 28 June 1918
Suntrap, 7 November 1917
Surada, 2 November 1918
Susannah, 8 June 1915
Sutherland, 17 January 1916
Swanmore, 25 April 1917
Swan River, 27 September 1917
Swedish Prince, 17 August 1916
Swiftsure, 9 September 1917
Swift Wings, 1 September 1916
Sycamore, 25 August 1917
Sylvanian, 24 June 1917
Sylvie, 15 July 1916
Szechuen, 10 May 1918

Tabasco, 26 January 1917
Talisman, 6 August 1917
Tamar, 25 March 1915
Tangistan, 9 March 1915
Tagona, 16 May 1918
Tagus, 6 September 1916
Tamele, 16 July 1917
Tandil, 12 March 1917
Tanis, 27 November 1915
Tarbertness, 7 March 1918
Tarpeia, 11 May 1917
Tarquah, 7 July 1917
Tartary, 16 May 1918
Tasman, 16 September 1918
Tasso, 17 March 1917
Taxiarchis, 29 January 1918
Teakwood, 28 April 1917
Teal, 29 April 1916
Teano, 29 June 1916
T Crowley, 10 March 1917
Tecwyn, 20 February 1917
Teeling Head, 21 January 1918
Teesborough, 3 September 1916
Tela, 2 May 1917
Telena, 21 April 1917
Tempus, 19 April 1917
Terence, 28 April 1917
Tergestea, 13 February 1916
Teutonian, 4 March 1916
Teviotdale, 11 June 1917
Tewfikieh, 9 June 1918
Thalia, 8 October 1918
Thames, 26 May 1918
The Duke, 20 October 1916
The Macbain, 4 March 1917
The Marchioness, 20 October 1916
The Marquis, 8 November 1917
The President, 10 April 1915
The Queen [557grt], 17 August 1915
The Queen [1,676grt], 26 October 1916
The Stewart's Court, 21 August 1918
Thelma, 26 September 1916
Theodor, 5 September 1917
Thirlby, 2 July 1917
Thistleard, 24 April 1917
Thistleban, 23 December 1916
Thistledhu, 18 June 1917
Thomas, 18 April 1917
Thornaby, 28 February 1916
Thornfield, 17 August 1915
Thorpwood, 8 October 1915
Thorsa, 2 May 1918
Thracia, 27 March 1917
Thurso, 27 September 1916
Tiberia, 22 February 1918
Tillycorthie, 1 March 1917
Titian, 26 August 1917
Toftwood, 13 January 1917
Togston, 18 October 1917
Tokomaru, 30 January 1915
Toledo,  1/2  5 October 1917
Tommi, 5 May 1918
Tom Roper, 21 October 1917
Tong Hong, 27 June 1917
Topaz, 12 March 1917
Torcello, 15 July 1917
Torino, 29 October 1916
Toro, 12 April 1917
Torr Head, 20 April 1917
Torridge, 6 September 1916
Torrington, 8 April 1917
Tortuguero, 22 June 1918
Tottenham, 4 August 1916
Toward, 31 October 1915
Towergate, 16 April 1917
Towneley, 31 January 1918
Trabboch, 14 September 1914
Trader, 13 January 1916
Trafalgar, 23 August 1915
Trafford, 16 June 1915
Transylvania, 4 May 191
Traquair, 12 January 1916
Tredegar Hall, 23 October 1917
Trefusis, 7 April 1917
Tregantle, 22 April 1916
Tregenna, 26 December 1917
Trekieve, 18 April 1917
Trelissick, 15 July 1917
Treloske, 29 August 1917
Trelyon, 21 July 1917
Trematon, 20 January 1916
Tremeadow, 19 January 1917
Tremorvah, 11 April 1917
Treneglos, 14 November 1915
Trevarrack, 16 November 1916
Treveal, 4 February 1918
Trevean, 22 January 1917
Treverbyn, 3 September 1917
Trevose, 18 March 1917
Trident, 7 August 1916
Tringa, 26 November 1915
Trinidad, 22 March 1918
Tritonia [4,272grt], 19 December 1914
Tritonia [4,445grt], 27 February 1917
Triumph, 18 February 1917
Trocas, 19 January 1918
Troilus [7,562grt], 18 October 1914
Troilus [7,625grt], 2 May 1917
Trojan Prince, 23 February 1917
Trongate, 22 September 1917
T R Thompson, 29 March 1918
Trowbridge, 14 November 1917
Trunkby, 27 May 1916
Truro, 6 May 1915
Tullochmoor, 28 May 1915
Tummel, 24 February 1916
Tung Shan, 15 May 1917
Tunisiana, 23 June 1915
Turakina, 13 August 1917
Turino, 4 February 1917
Turnbridge, 24 December 1917
Turquoise, 31 July 1915
Turritella, 27 February 1917
Tuscania, 5 February 1918
Tuskar, 6 September 1917
Tweed [1,025grt], 13 March 1918
Tweed [1,777grt], 14 March 1918
Twig, 24 October 1916
Tycho, 20 May 1917
Tymeric, 25 September 1914
Tyne, 17 June 1917
Tyrhaug, 22 March 1918

Uganda [4,135grt], 8 March 1918
Uganda [5.431grt], 27 May 1918
Ultonia, 27 June 1917
Umaria, 26 May 1917
Umba, 30 April 1918
Umballa, 25 December 1917
Umeta, 1 December 1915
Umvoti, 8 April 1917
Unity, 2 May 1918
Upcerne, 28 April 1918
Urbino, 24 September 1915
Urd, 11 September 1917
Uskmoor, 5 March 1918
Ussa, 3 May 1917
Utopia [155grt], 10 August 1915
Utopia [184grt], 2 March 1917

Valdes, 17 February 1917
Valencia, 16 July 1917
Valetta, 8 July 1917
Vandalia, 9 June 1918
Vandyk, 26 October 1914
Vanellus, 1 October 1916
Vanguard, 16 November 1916
Van Stirum, 25 December 1915
Vasco, 16 November 1916
Vauxhall, 25 April 1917
Vedamore, 7 February 1917
Veghstroom, 23 August 1917
Vellore, 25 March 1917
Vendee, 8 July 1917
Venetia, 9 December 1917
Ventmoor, 14 February 1918
Verdi, 22 August 1917
Vera Elizabeth, 5 July 1918
Veria, 7 December 1915
Vernon, 31 August 1917
Vestra, 6 February 1917
Vesuvio, 6 April 1916
Vianna, 31 March 1918
Victoria [165grt], 16 April 1917
Victoria [1,620grt], 29 April 1917
Victoria [974grt], 17 November 1917
Vienna, 11 September 1917
Vigilant, 26 September 1915
Vimeira, 12 May 1918
Vine Branch,  1/2  1/2  11 April 1917
Vinovia, 19 December 1917
Violet, 18 June 1917
Virent, 24 August 1918
Virginia, 16 July 1916
Volnay, 14 December 1917
Volodia, 21 August 1917
Voltaire [8,618grt], 2 December 1916
Voltaire [409grt], 11 February 1917
Vosges, 27 March 1915
Vronwen, 29 August 1917

Waihemo, 17 March 1918
Waikawa, 19 October 1917
Wairuna, 2 June 1917
Waitemata, 14 July 1918
Wallsend, 14 August 1918
Waneta, 30 May 1918
Wapello, 15 June 1917
Warilda, 3 August 1918
Warley Pickering, 5 February 1917
Warnow, 2 May 1917
War Arabis, 9 September 1918
War Baron, 5 January 1918
War Crocus, 8 July 1918
War Council, 16 October 1918
War Firth, 4 September 1918
War Helmet, 19 April 1918
War Monarch, 14 February 1918
War Patrol, 10 August 1917
War Song, 15 January 1918
War Swallow, 16 July 1918
War Tune, 9 December 1917
Warren, 1 April 1917
Warrior, 21 April 1917
Warsaw, 20 December 1917
Wartenfels, 5 February 1917
Washington, 3 May 1917
Watauga, 27 March 1918
Waterlily, 10 September 1917
Wathfield, 21 February 1917
Waverley, 20 December 1917
W C Mackay,  1/2 10 January 1918
W D Potts, 1 May 1917
Wearside, 25 October 1917
Wega, 14 June 1917
Welbeck Hall, 22 April1918
Welbury, 1 July 1915
Wellington, 16 September 1918
Welsh Prince, 13 October 1916
Wentworth, 2 September 1917
Westburn, 8 February 1916
Westbury, 31 August 1917
Westfield, 10 April 1918
Westlands, 23 November 1917
Westonby, 15 June 1917
Westergate, 21 April 1918
Western Coast [1,165grt], 24 February 1915
Western Coast [1,394grt], 17 November 1917
Westminster, 14 December 1916
Westmoor, 1 July 1918
Westville, 31 December 1917
West Wales, 21 January 1918
Westwick, 7 March 1917
Westwood, 3 October 1918
W Harkness, 22 October 1916
W H Dwyer, 26 August 1917
W H L, 28 January 1918
W M L, 30 June 1918
Wheatflower, 19 February 1918
Whitecourt, 28 August 1917
Whitefield, 1 September 1915
Whitehall, 28 July 1917
White Head, 15 October 1917
Whitgift, 20 April 1916
Wilberforce, 7 July 1917
Wilfrid M, 14 January 1915
Wilhelm, 7 June 1917
Willena Gertrude, 21 July 1917
Wileysike, 9 May 1918
William, 11 September 1917
W M Barkley, 12 October 1917
William Martin, 16 March 1917
William Shepherd, 17 April 1917
Willer, 20 February 1915
William Dawson, 21 August 1915
William George, 30 September 1916
Willie, 16 March 1916
Willingtonia, 25 August 1918
Wilson, 12 April 1918
Wilston, 15 February 1916
Wilton Hall, 16 July 1916
Wimmera, 26 June 1918
Windermere, 27 June 1916
Windsor, 21 August 1915
Windsor Hall, 17 January 1918
Winlaton, 23 August 1917
Wirral, 12 May 1917
Wisbech, 14 August 1917
Wolff, 21 July 1916
Woodfield, 3 November 1915
Woolston, 14 May 1918
Woolwich, 3 November 1915
Worcestershire, 17 February 1917
Wordsworth, 11 March 1917
Wrag, 4 January 1917
Wreathier, 3 December 1917
Wychwood, 28 March 1917
Wyndhurst, 6 December 1917


Yarrowdale, 11 December 1916
Yeddo, 24 December 1915
Yochow, 20 March 1918
Yonne, 6 April 1916
Ypres, 31 July 1917
Yzer, 21 July 1916

Zafra, 8 April 1916
Zanoni, 12 May 1917
Zara, 13 April 1917
Zeno, 20 February 1918
Zent, 5 April 1917
Zermatt, 24 July 1917
Zeta, 14 September 1917
Zillah, 22 October 1917
Zinal, 17 August 1918
Zone, 30 December 1917
Zoroaster, 29 December 1916

direct to:


in preparation






Saturday, 1 August 1914

France mobilised. Germany also ordered mobilisation and declared war on Russia

Steps to Maritime War - Mobilisation of the Royal Navy ordered, including the taking up of supply and hospital ships, colliers and oilers


Sunday, 2 August 1914

Germany invaded Luxembourg early on the 2nd and sent a note to Belgium demanding free passage of troops through Belgium territory for the attack on France.


Monday, 3 August 1914

German Waters

SAN WILFRIDO, tanker, 6,458/1914, Eagle Oil Transportation Co, London, sailing Hamburg for New Orleans in ballast. In River Elbe about eight miles above Brunsbuttel, orders received that she might proceed, calling at Cuxhaven. No pilot was available to take her through the minefield already at Cuxhaven, so she followed the usual channel. The men in charge of the harbour tugs realised the ship was in danger and shouted to the master, who attempted to go full speed astern, but caught by strong ebb tide and drifted into the mine zone. Three explosions occurred, she settled down by the stern with heavy list to port. German tug took off crew, shortly afterwards San Wilfrido was firmly aground; crew made prisoners. Wreck removed September 1920 (H/L/Mn/ms)


Tuesday, 4 August 1914

Britain protested against German violation of Belgian territory, Belgium invaded early on 4th, Germany declared war on Belgium. British mobilisation ordered, Britain at war with Germany from midnight on 4th

U-boat Warfare - Warships to be attacked without warning; any commerce warfare to be carried out according to International Law and prize rules i.e. ship to be stopped, boarded and examined, either taken into port by prize crew or passengers taken on board before ship sunk. This policy continued in principle until February 1915

British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in August excluding those detained: 9 merchant ships totalling 40,254grt - 8 of 33,796grt to surface ships, 1 of 6,458grt to mines, plus 26 British fishing vessels totalling 4,438grt - 25 of 4,368grt to surface ships, 1 of 70grt to mine (H)

German Warships at Sea

Atlantic - auxiliary cruiser Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse 14,349grt, 6-4.1in sailed from Germany for Atlantic operations, sank 3 ships of 10,685grt

Mediterranean - battlecruiser Goeben 25,300t and light cruiser Breslau 5,587t already there, later reached Turkish waters

Caribbean - light cruiser Dresden 4,268t, 10-4.1in, later joined Adm von Spees East Asiatic Cruiser Squadron in the Pacific, sank a total of 4 British/allied ships of 12,960grt, escaped destruction at Battle of Falklands; light cruiser Karlsuhe 6,191t, 12-4.1in, sank 17 British & Allied ships of 76,609grt (kp - 16 ships of 72,225grt) in Atlantic, lost by internal explosion

East African Waters - light cruiser Koenigsberg 3,814t, 10-4.1in, sank one merchant ship of 6,601grt and old protected cruiser Pegasus

Shortly detached to Indian Ocean - light cruiser Emden (1) 4,268t, 10-4.1in serving with East Asiatic Cruiser Squadron in Pacific, detached on 14th by Adm von Spee for commerce raiding in the Indian Ocean, sank 15 ships of 66,023grt, one old Russian cruiser and a French destroyer

Pacific - armoured cruisers Scharnhorst & Gneisenau 12,781t, with East Asiatic Cruiser Squadron commanded by Adm von Spee; light cruiser Leipzig, 3,756t, 10-4.1in serving with East Asiatic Cruiser Squadron, off American coast at outbreak of war, sank a total of 4 British/allied ships of 15,279grt; light cruiser Nurnberg 3,814t, 10-4.1in serving with East Asiatic Cruiser Squadron, from Hawaii on outbreak of war, no merchant ships sunk. All lost at Battle of the Falklands. Also gunboat Geier (1), 1,590t, 8-4.1in, in Australasian waters.

British Ships Detained in German Waters

Many British merchant ships were detained in German waters, all but one in Europe. The dates, mostly from Lloyds are described as approximate, but as the German authorities appear to have used delaying tactics as war approached, it is more than likely the majority were seized on the 4th. Most were also released post-war:

on River Rhine, Western Germany - at Crefeld

DUNKERQUE, ketch-rigged barge, 64/1894, J O W Whitmore, Harwich-reg. Fate not listed (L/Lr)

at Remagen

CARISBROOKE CASTLE, wood ketch, 76/1890, J R Piper, London-reg (L/Lr)

TINTARA, sailing vessel, 65grt. Fate not listed (L)

on Ems Estuary, NW Germany - at Emden

STRATHYRE, cargo steamship, 4,416/1906, Strathyre SS Co, Glasgow-reg (L/Lr)

on River Weser, NW Germany - at Bremerhaven

ROSSALL, cargo steamship, 2,739/1895, Austin Friars SS Co, London-reg (L/Lr)

at Nordenham

DUNS LAW, 4,077/1905, North of England Protecting & Indemnity Co, Glasgow-reg (L/Lr)

EDWIN HUNTER, 1,337/1914, Goole & West Riding SS Co, Goole-reg (L/Lr)

at Brake

TREVIDER, 4,260/1913, Hains SS Co, St Ives-reg (L/Lr)

at Bremen

PANDOSIA, 3,326/1900, SS Pandosia Co, St John (NB)-reg (L/Lr)

TREGLISSON, 4,265/1912, Hains SS, St Ives-reg (L/Lr)

on River Elbe, North Germany - at Hamburg

AUK, 1,055/1877, General Steam Navigation Co, London-reg. Sunk as blockship off Pernau, Estonia between 7-20/8/15 (L/Lr)

BANANA, 2,817/1897, Elder Line, Liverpool-reg, unloading at Hamburg, unable to leave because of delaying tactics. Recovered 11/18, put up for sale "as is" (L/Lr)

BELLAILSA, 3,797/1896, North of England Protecting & Indemnity Association, Glasgow-reg (L/Lr)

BORDERLAND, 1,753/1912, Liverpool & Hamburg SS Co, Liverpool-reg (L/Lr)

BURY, 1,634/1911, Great Central Railway Co, Grimsby-reg (L/Lr)

CAMPEADOR, 1,320/1894, Campeador SS Co, Liverpool-reg (L/Lr)

CASTRO, 1,228/1911, T Wilson & Sons, Hull-reg. Renamed Libau in German service; sunk as Aud, 22 April 1916 attempting to supply arms to Irish Republicans (L/Lr/ms)

CITY OF BELFAST, 891/1876, Palgrave, Murphy & Co, Dublin-reg (L/Lr)

CITY OF BERLIN, 999/1874, Palgrave, Murphy & Co, Dublin-reg. Sunk as blockship off Pernau between 7-20/8/15, raised, taken to Pernau 11/18, towed to Reval 10/19 (L/Lr)

CITY OF BRADFORD, 1,349/1903, Great Central Railway Co, Grimsby-reg (L/Lr)

CITY OF CADIZ, 780/1862, Palgrave, Murphy & Co, Dublin-reg (L/Lr)

CITY OF HAMBURG, 1,200/1881, Palgrave, Murphy & Co, Dublin-reg (L/Lr)

CITY OF MUNICH, 1,384/1879, Palgrave, Murphy & Co, Dublin-reg (L/Lr)

CLYDEVALLEY, 460/1886, H Crawford, Glasgow-reg (L/Lr)

COGENT, 2,051/1883, James Westoll, Sunderland-reg (L/Lr)

CORALIE HORLOCK, 3,920/1903, F W Horlock, Sunderland-reg (L/Lr)

CORSICA, 1,100/1895, Leith, Hull & Hamburg Steam Packet Co, Leith-reg (L/Lr)

DACRE HILL, 2,674/1906, Chartered Shipping, Liverpool-reg. Ran blockade to East Africa, damaged by British forces but escaped, reached Tanjong Priok, Dutch East Indies 14/5/16 as Marie or Maria; released post-war (L/Lr)

DARTWEN, 4,793/1913, W & C T Jones SS Co, Cardiff-reg (L/Lr)

DEARNE, 984/1909, Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway Co, Goole-reg. Sunk in North Sea 22/12/15 (L/Lr)

EQUITY, 931/1888, Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway Co, Goole-reg (L/Lr)

FRANKDALE, 4,856/1906, Palace Shipping, Liverpool-reg (L/Lr)

GARESFIELD, 1,757/1911, Gordon SS Co, London-reg (L/Lr)

GIFFORD, 5,119/1913, Gifford Ltd, Glasgow-reg (L/Lr)

GLENEARN, 4,828/1914, Glen Line, London-reg (L/Lr)

HEWORTH, 1,043/1900, Newbigin SS Co, Newcastle-reg (L/Lr)

HULL, 1,132/1907, Wilsons & NE Railway Shipping Co, Hull-reg (L/Lr)

INDIANOLA, 4,566/1912, Leyland Shipping, Liverpool-reg (L/Lr)

INKULA, 5,137/1904, Inkula SS Co, Liverpool-reg (L/Lr)

IRBY, iron sailing ship, 1,523/1881, The Galgate Co, Liverpool-reg. Sailing for England, mined 17/1/19 (L/Lr)

IRIS, 942/1872, General Steam Navigation Co, London-reg. Sunk as blockship off Pernau between 7-20/8/15 (L/Lr)

JAMES POSTLETHWAITE, 3-mast schooner, 134/1881, Kearon & Hall, Barrow-reg (L/Lr)

JUNO, 1,302/1882, Tyne-Tees SS Co, Newcastle-reg. Returned 27/12/19 (L/Lr)

LEVERSONS, 1,774/1909, Gordon SS Co, London-reg (L/Lr)

LONGHIRST (1), 1,698/1904, J Fenwick & Son, Newcastle-reg (L/Lr)

LOTHIAN, 4,959/1902, J Warrack & Son, Leith-reg (L/Lr)

MAY SCOTT, 1,465/1909, May Scott SS Co, Newcastle-reg (L/Lr)

MONTAUK POINT, 4,822/1899, Norfolk & North American SS Co, Liverpool-reg (L/Lr)

NICOYA, 3,911/1905, Elders & Fyffes, Glasgow-reg (L/Lr)

ORON, 3,171/1898, British & African Steam Navigation Co, Liverpool-reg. Abandoned to underwriters, released 11/18 but unseaworthy (L/Lr)

OSWESTRY, 3,657/1905, Imperial SS Co, Manchester-reg (L/Lr)

PORTINGLAS, 1,867/1908, Furness, Withy & Co, West Hartlepool-reg (L/Lr)

PRESIDENT, 1,945/1907, James Westoll, Sunderland-reg (L/Lr)

RIDING, 1,287/1912, Tyneside Line, North Shields-reg (L/Lr)

ROYAL, 3,833/1902, William Thomas Liverpool SS Co, Liverpool-reg (L/Lr)

RUBENS, 3,587/1906, Bolton SS Co, London-reg. Employed by Germans as supply ship Kronburg, sunk by HMS Hyacinth in Mansa Bay, East African coast 14/4/15 (L/Lr)

RUBISLAW, 1,018/1905, Granite City SS Co, Aberdeen-reg (L/Lr)

RUTLAND, 1,424/1898, Liverpool & Hamburg SS Co, Liverpool-reg (L/Lr) The crew was interned in the Ruhleben POW camp near Spandau, and included Steward George Beattie (courtesy Ian Jenner, his grandson)

SANGARA, 2,497/1900, British & African Steam Navigation Co, Liverpool-reg. Sold at Hamburg 1919 (L/Lr)

SAPPHO, 1,275/1900, Bristol Steam Navigation Co, Bristol-reg (L/Lr)

SAXON, 495/1898, West of England SS Co, London-reg (L/Lr)

SCARSDALE, 3,714/1912, North of England Protecting & Indemnity Association, Bristol-reg. Mined, sank in Bay of Riga 16/11/17 (L/Lr)

SEAHAM HARBOUR, 1,904/1880, Marquess of Londonderry, Sunderland-reg (L/Lr)

SINAINN, 971/1901, Limerick SS Co, Limerick-reg. Sunk 313 1/2 , 9 cables from Steinort, now Akmenrags LH, Latvia on 26/9/16 (L/Lr)

SPRIGHTLY, 823/1894, John George Hill SS Co, Sunderland-reg. Stranded off Scholpin, near Swinemunde 4/9/17 (L/Lr)

TORFREY, 443/1900, Fowey No.4 SS Co, Fowey-reg (L/Lr)

TREBIA, 3,586/1902, SS Trebia Co, St John (NB)-reg (L/Lr)

VIENNA (1), 1,912/1903, Leith, Hull & Hamburg Steam Packet Co, Leith-reg. Renamed Meteor, converted to auxiliary cruiser, scuttled 9/8/15 (L/Lr/kp)

VIRGO, 983/1870, General Steam Navigation Co, London-reg (L/Lr)

WEST QUARTER, 1,548/1910, Screw Collier, Newcastle-reg (L/Lr)

WINTERTON, 3,868/1913, Denaby & Cadeby Main Collieries, Hull-reg (L/Lr)

ZEALAND, 1906, 1,718grt, Liverpool & Hamburg SS Co, Liverpool-reg (L/Lr)

at Harburg, S of Hamburg

FLEETWING, 1,351/1907, John George Hill SS Co, Newcastle-reg (L/Lr)

GEORGE CASSON, schooner, 154/1863, Prichard Bros, Carnarvon-reg. Sailing for England 1/19, sank in Kiel Canal, later salved (L/Lr)

on Baltic coast - at Danzig/Gdansk, East Germany now Poland

COBURG, 928/1898, Leith, Hull & Hamburg Steam Packet Co, Leith-reg (L/Lr)

GARVELPARK, 927/1901, Denholm Steamers, Greenock-reg (L/Lr)

VICTORIAN TRANSPORT, 4,482/1913, Empire Transport Co, West Hartlepool-reg (L/Lr)

at Memel/Klaipeda, East Prussia, now Lithuania

GLYNDWYR, 2,425/1904, Scarisbrick SS Co, Cardiff-reg (L/Lr)

in German Pacific waters

INDUNA, 699/1891, Burns, Philip & Co, Sydney, NSW-reg. Detained at Marshall Islands, released by Japanese warship (L/Lr)


Western Mediterranean

Isle of Hastings, 1,575/1885, Edward & Sons, sailing Swansea for Philippeville. (H - 20th) - Damaged by gunfire of German battlecruiser Goeben during bombardment of Philippeville; light cruiser Breslau bombarded Bône. Sunk 5 October 1916 (H/L/ms)

Wednesday, 5 August 1914

German Minefields - Southwold minefield laid by auxiliary minelayer Koenigin Luise about 30 miles E of Orford Ness, minelayer sunk by Harwich Force light cruiser Amphion and 3rd DF destroyers. Other major surface ship-laid minefields in 1914 were the Tyne, Humber, Tory Island, Yarmouth/Lowestoft and Scarborough/Yorkshire fields. Not until mid-1915 were mines laid by U-boats
Turkish Waters

CRAIGFORTH, 2,900/1907, Craig Line SS Co (D Russell & Co), Leith, loaded wheat at Ghenichesk for Hamburg, proceeding through Bosphorus. Mined, patrol steamer came to her assistance, beached at Buyukdere, Sea of Marmora. While temporary repairs were being carried out, Turkish authorities seized the cargo, within a week Craigforth was refloated and about to resume her voyage to Hamburg when the master and crew were ordered by the British Consul to leave her. Detained by Turks in October (see 29 October), renamed Iskondar, lost by gunfire off Kozlu 4 May 1915 (L/Mn/ms)


Thursday, 6 August 1914

Additional German Auxiliary Cruisers

Atlantic - Kronprinz Wilhelm 14,908grt, 2-4.7in/2-3.45in, armed in central Atlantic by light cruiser Karlsruhe and commissioned, captured total of 15 British & Allied ships of 60,522grt

Pacific - Prinz Eitel Friedrich 8,797grt, 4-4.1in/6-3.45in, guns taken from gunboats Luchs & Tiger, sailed from Tsingtao, China, captured 11 British & Allied ships of 33,423grt in the Pacific and Atlantic

Central Atlantic

Three steamships stopped by German light cruiser Dresden off NE Brazil:

Drumcliffe, cargo ship, 4,072/1905, SS Drummond Co (Chadwick), Liverpool, sailing Buenos Aires for New York. Stopped in 01.10N, 45.05W, but as she was unladen and the Captain's wife and child were on board, the wireless installation was destroyed, officers and crew agreed to sign parole they would not serve during the war, ship released within 2 hours at 1540. Sunk as Kelvinbank (2) 13 June 1917 (H/L/Mn/kp/ms)

Lynton Grange, 4,252/1912, Houlder Line (Houlder Bros), West Hartlepool, sailing Rosario for Barbados/London. Stopped in 01.13N, 45.08W at 1645, learnt from signals that war had been declared, officers and crew signed parole, ship released (H/L/Mn/kp/ms)

Hostilius, 3,325/1900, British & South American Steam Navigation Co (Houston), Liverpool, sailing Montevideo for Barbados/Cienfuegos. Came up on Lynton Grange while she was still being dealt with, stopped in 01.21N, 45.01W, this time officers and crew refused to sign paroles, but ship still released at 1940 (H/L/Mn/kp/ms)
Indian Ocean

CITY OF WINCHESTER (1), 6,601/1914, Ellerman Lines, Glasgow-reg, Mr George Boyck, Calcutta/Bombay/other ports for Dunkirk/London/Clyde with general cargo including 'Persian carpets, gold and silver bullion, and large consignment of Calcutta tea valued at £250,000', homeward bound after maiden voyage. Stopped by German light cruiser Koenigsberg late on 6th (MN - 5th), 280 miles E true of Aden (L - in 12.43N, 50.03E), boarding party sent over, ship retained because of her bunker coal, sent to anchorage at Hallaniya island, off Oman, supplies and 400t coal later transferred to Koenigsberg. On morning of 12th, taken out into Arabian Sea, sea-cocks opened, scuttling charges exploded and 2-4.1in shells fired into the hull; some crew later landed from supply ship Goldenfels at Sabang into Dutch hands, the remainder from supply ship Zieten in Mozambique (H/L/Mn/kp)


Friday, 7 August 1914

North Sea

FRAU MINNA PETERSEN, 3-mast topsail schooner, 176/1878, Hugh Parry, Caernarvon-reg, believed sailing Portmadoc for Germany with Welsh slate. Captured by German destroyer/torpedo boat 5 miles NW of East Ems Port Buoy, near Borkum (near 53.42.06N 6.36.05E), taken into Emden. Released to The Shipping Controller in 1919 (H/L/Lr/www)

North Atlantic

TUBAL CAIN, trawler, 227/1905, J E Rushworth & R Atkinson, Grimsby-reg, 14 crew, Skipper Charles Smith, Grimsby for Iceland, heavy sea running, just got gear on board and preparing to light a buoy near which she intended to "dodge". Stopped by German auxiliary cruiser Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse at 1900 about 50 miles WNW of Stalberg, W Iceland, sunk by gunfire around 2100 to stop the raider's position being reported (H/L/Lr/Mn/gy/kp)


Monday, 10 August 1914

Auxiliary cruiser Cormoran 3,433grt, ex-Russian captured on 4th, now armed with 8-4.1in guns from old German cruiser of the same name, sailed from Tsingtao, China

Saturday, 15 August 1914

Atlantic off Canaries

Galician, passenger & cargo steamship, 6,762/1900, Union-Castle Mail SS Co, Southampton, sailing Cape Town for London with c250 passengers. Captured by Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse at 1445 in 27.30N, 18W, examined by boarding party, wireless destroyed and because of women and children on board, released at 0500 next morning, allowed to proceed; two British servicemen taken prisoner. Lost as Glenart Castle 26 February 1918 (H/L/Mn/kp/ms)

Central Atlantic

HYADES, 3,352/1900, British & South American Steam Navigation Co, Liverpool-reg, Mr James Morrison, Rosario for Rotterdam with foodstuffs, maize. (kp - 21st) - Captured by Dresden, scuttling charges placed, covers taken off condensers and shells fired into her for over 40min before she sank 180 miles NE 1/2 N true from Pernambuco, NE Brazil (L - in 6S, 32.46W); crew transferred to collier Prussia, landed at Rio de Janeiro late August/early September (H/L/Mn/kp)


Sunday, 16 August 1914

Atlantic off Canaries

Three steamships stopped by Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse and boarded, two sunk, one released:

KAIPARA, passenger ship, 7,392/1903, New Zealand Shipping Co, Plymouth-reg, Mr Henry Makepeace, Lyttelton/Montevideo for Liverpool/London with meat, general cargo, heading for Las Palmas to coal. Captured just after Galician was released, charge of gun-cotton put in stokehold, condenser doors opened and 53-4.1in rounds fired into the hull, sank 170 miles S by W true from Tenerife island (L - in 25.10N, 17.18W); crew later boarded collier Arucas, landed at Las Palmas on 28th (H/L/Mn/kp)

Arlanza, passenger ship, 15,044/1911, Royal Mail Steam Packet Co, Belfast, master, Cdr C Down, sailing Buenos Aires for Southampton, passengers included 335 women and nearly 100 children. (Mn - 17th) - Stopped late afternoon (L - in 27.40N, 17.14W; Mn - 24.40N, 17.14W), wireless destroyed, allowed to proceed because of passengers, soon had spare wireless fitted and sent warning to cruiser Cornwall, arrived Las Palmas 0700 next morning. Taken up for conversion to armed merchant cruiser 3/15 (H/L/D/Mn/kp/ms)

NYANGA, 3,066/1900, Elder Line/Elder Dempster & Co, Liverpool, Mr C Jones, Calabar for Hamburg with African produce, general cargo, diverted at Sierra Leone for Liverpool. (Mn - 17th) - Captured early evening, sea-cocks opened, condenser covers removed and dynamite charge blew out ship's side, sank 240 miles S 1/2 E true from Tenerife (L - in 24N, 16.30W; Mn - 230 miles SW of Cape Blanco); crew sent off in Arucas, landed at Las Palmas on 28th (H/L/Mn/ms/kp)

Central Atlantic

Siamese Prince, cargo steamship, 4,847/1911, Prince Line (J Knott), Newcastle, Mr Anderson, sailing London for River Plate. (kp - 21st) - Stopped by Dresden in 10S, 32W, papers examined, allowed to proceed after two hours because of neutral cargo (H/L/Mn/kp/ms)


Tuesday, 18 August 1914

Central Atlantic

BOWES CASTLE, 4,650/1913, Lancashire Shipping Co, Liverpool-reg, 36 crew, Mr E Howe, Antofagosta/Montevideo for New York via St Lucia for orders with largely American-owned nitrates and silver ore. Spotted by German light cruiser Karlsruhe at 1600, stopped after short chase (kp - in 09.54N, 55.10W), boarded, scuttling charges charges laid for firing and sea cocks opened, sank at 1935, 350 miles N by W 1/2 W true from Cape Orange, N tip of Brazil (L - in 09.54N, 53.07W); crew taken on board collier Patagonia, later transferred to smaller collier Stadt Schleswig and landed at San Luis de Maranho, N Brazil on 2/9/14 (H/L/Mn/kp)


21st/22nd August 1914

German Cruiser Raid off English East Coast

German light cruisers Rostock, Strassburg and 6th TB flotilla made a sweep towards the Dogger Bank on the 21st/22nd as far as the Outer Well Bank, 80 miles east of Flamborough Head, supported by light cruiser Hamburg and three U-boats. Eight trawlers on fishing grounds captured on 22nd, crews taken prisoner before vessels sunk, Germans returned to Wilhelmshaven later that day:

JULIAN, 185/1900, Boston Deep Sea Fishing & Ice, Boston-reg. (ap - 21st/22nd) - Captured by 6th TBF destroyer V.160 at midnight, start of 22nd, sunk with bombs off Dogger Bank (H/L/Lr/Rn/ap)

CAPRICORNUS, 194/1898, Grimsby & North Sea Steam Trawling, Grimsby-reg. By Strassburg at dawn, sunk by bombs (H - 85 miles E by N of Spurn Head; L - in 54.48N, 03.50E) (H/L/Lr/Rn/ap/gy)

MARNAY, 153grt, believed Grimsby-reg GY750. By a 6th TBF destroyer c0825, sunk by bombs (H/L - 85 miles E by N of Spurn) (H/L/Rn/ap)

SKIRBECK, 171/1898, Boston Deep Sea Fishing & Ice, Boston-reg, believed in company with Wigtoft and Walrus following. By Hamburg, sunk by gunfire (Rn - bombs) 120 miles from Heligoland, in about 54.25N, 04.03E (H/L/Lr/Rn/ap)

WIGTOFT, 155/1891Boston Deep Sea Fishing & Ice, Boston-reg,. By Hamburg, sunk by gunfire (Rn - bombs) 120 miles from Heligoland, in c54.25N, 04.03E (H/L/Lr/Rn/ap)

WALRUS, 159/1892, Boston Deep Sea Fishing & Ice, Boston-reg. By Hamburg, sunk by gunfire (Rn - bombs) 120 miles from Heligoland, in c54.25N, 04.03E (H/L/Lr/Rn/ap)

FLAVIAN, 186/1900, Boston Deep Sea Fishing & Ice, Boston-reg. By 6th TBF destroyer V.158 as the Rostock/Strassburg force returned home, sunk by bombs 100 miles from Heligoland (H/L/Lr/Rn/ap)

INDIAN, 185/1900, Boston Deep Sea Fishing & Ice, Boston-reg. By V.158 as the Rostock/Strassburg force returned home, sunk by bombs 60 miles from Terschelling (H/L/Lr/Rn/ap)


25th/26th August 1914

German Minelaying Raid on English East Coast

Two German minelaying forces sailed early on 25th to lay mines off English East coast - minelayer Albatros, escorted by light cruiser Stuttgart and  1/2  TBF from Heligoland headed for the Tyne, and minelayer Nautilus, escorted by Mainz and another  1/2  TBF from the Ems for Humber. Both German forces sank trawlers on the fishing grounds - the Tyne force a total of six, and the Humber force variously seven or ten. According to Corbett, a total of 16 were sunk by the destroyers using bombs 70 miles E of the Humber (probably only an indication of the location) after first taking the crews prisoner and as the minelayers carried on with their mission:

(1) Tyne Minelaying Force

Six Grimsby-reg trawlers captured mainly on 25th:

RHINE, 117/1893, G F Sleight. By destroyer in the morning (H/L/Lr/ap/gy)

HARRIER (1), 208/1900, T Baskcomb. (H - between 24th & 26th) - By V.155 in the morning (H/L/Lr/ap/gy)

LOBELIA, 147/1896, North Eastern Steam Fishing. (H - between 24th & 26th) - By V.155 at 1500 (H/L/Lr/ap/gy)

VALIANT, 198/1900, Atlas Steam Fishing Co. By V.155 at 1800, sunk off Whitby (H/L/Lr/ap/gy)

MERSEY, 196/1900, G W Jeffs. By V.154 towards evening (H/L/Lr/ap/gy)

SETI, 169/1896, Roberts & Ruthven. By V.154 on 26th at 0400 as the German Tyne minelaying force returned home (H/L/Lr/ap/gy)

(2) Humber Minelaying Force

Three Boston-reg trawlers owned by Boston Deep Sea Fishing & Ice sunk off Inner Dowsing LV, E of Mablethorpe, Lincolnshire on 25th; one unidentified trawler sunk at 2000 that evening:

KESTEVEN, 150/1885, Skipper J Eggers. 69 miles E by N of (H/L/Lr/bn)

LINDSEY, 144/1885, Skipper John Dawkins. 70 miles ENE of (H/L/Lr/bn)

PORPOISE, 159/1892, Skipper John Smith. 70 miles ENE of (H/L/Lr/bn)

ZENOBIA, 152/1893, Grimsby-reg, A E & W Lambert. Possibly the trawler sunk at 2000 (H/L/Lr/gy)

Reportedly another six trawlers, all Grimsby-reg, with five sunk on the 26th (H - between 24th & 26th) as the German Humber force made its way home:

CHAMELEON, 132/1896, Grimsby & North Sea Steam Trawling (H/L/Lr/gy)

PEGASUS, 155/1892, Grimsby & North Sea Steam Trawling (H/L/Lr/gy)

POLLUX, 182/1900, Grimsby & North Sea Steam Trawling (H/L/Lr/gy)

RIDEO, 230/1907, G F Sleight (H/L/Lr/gy)

ST CUTHBERT, 189/1899, Grimsby Victor Steam Fishing. 70 miles ENE of Spurn Head (H/L/Lr/gy)

ARGONAUT, 225/1907. (L - 6th) - Captured by torpedo boats, taken into Cuxhaven, crew made prisoners. Note: because of some uncertainty about the number of trawlers lost to the Humber force at this time, Argonaut may have been sunk around the earlier Lloyds date (H/L/gy/ms)


Wednesday, 26 August 1914

German auxiliary cruiser Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse sunk by British cruiser Highflyer off NW Africa

South Atlantic

Two steamships captured by light cruiser Dresden off S Brazil:

HOLMWOOD, 4,223/1912, F S Holland, London-reg, Mr R Hill, Newport (Mon) for Bahia Blanca with coal. Scuttling charges set, sank 170 miles S 1/2 W true from Cape Santa Marta Grande (L - in 31.30S, 48.06W); crew transferred to collier Baden (H/L/Mn/kp)

Katharine Park, 4,854 (ms - 4,837)/1903, Park SS Co, Glasgow, sailing Santa Fe/Buenos Aires for New York with American-owned cargo. Arrived before Holmwood had sunk, stopped in 31.30S, 48.50W, as the German Government would be responsible for the value of the cargo, offer made to release the ship and cargo if the crew signed parole's, which they did; Holmwood's crew put on board, ship allowed to proceed, landed them at Rio de Janeiro on 30th (H/L/Mn/kp/ms)

Thursday, 27 August 1914

North Sea

Fishing drifter (and two Admiralty trawlers) mined in Tyne field laid by German Albatros:

BARLEY RIG, 70grt, Tynemouth for fishing. Foundered off Tynemouth (wi - in 55.01N, 01.22.45W); 5 lives lost (H/L/sc/wi)

Sunday, 30 August 1914

North Sea

Holtby, cargo ship, 3,675/1909, R Ropner & Co, West Hartlepool, sailing Hull for Archangel with coal. Mined 2 1/2 m from Seaham, Durham, probably the Tyne field (Albatros), put into Tyne. Note: Hurd identifies this vessel as SS Oakby. Holtby lost in WW2 (H/L/ms)


Monday, 31 August 1914

Central Atlantic

STRATHROY, 4,336/1909, Strathroy SS Co, Glasgow-reg, Mr J Mason, sailing Norfolk (Va) for Rio Janeiro with 6,000t coal. Sighted by Karlsruhe around 1600, stopped 100 miles NNE true from Cape St Roque, NE Brazil (L - in 03.35S, 34.35W; kp - chase started about 50 miles WNW of Atol de Rocas), seas too heavy to send boarding party across, captain instructed to follow the cruiser to Atol de Rocas (located in 03.51S, 32.25W). Next day renamed Kohlendampfer KD1/Steam Collier 1, sailed to Lavendeira reef (5S, 36W), refuelled Karlsruhe there on 7-8/10 and 19/10, remaining coal taken on board collier Asuncion and scuttled on 26/10 (kp - in 00.42N, 44.30W); on arrival off Atol de Rocas, European crew transferred to collier Patagonia, landed at Tenerife on 22/10, Chinese crew members continued to serve on board under prize crew until she was sunk (H/L/Mn/kp)



British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in September: 21 merchant ships totalling 88,219grt - 19 of 84,403grt to surface ships, 2 of 3,816grt to mines, plus 6 British fishing vessels totalling 1,032grt, all by mines (H)

Wednesday, 2 September 1914

North Sea

Two Grimsby-reg trawlers sailing from Grimsby (and an Admiralty drifter) mined in Humber field laid by German Nautilus:

AJAX (1), 120/1896, W Grant, Skipper E Grant. Foundered (wi - in 53.35N, 00.20E); all 9 crew lost, including Skipper (H/L/Lr/gy/wi)

FITTONIA, 146/1891, North Eastern Steam Fishing, GY390, Skipper F Firman. Sank 27 miles E by S of Spurn Head LH (wi - in 53.50N, 00.50E); 7 lives lost (H/L/Lr/gy/wi)

Thursday, 3 September 1914

Central Atlantic

MAPLE BRANCH, 4,338/1905, Nautilus SS Co, Sunderland-reg, 42 largely Chinese crew, Liverpool for Punta Arenas/Valparaiso/Callao with prize cattle worth £4,000 and 2,000t cargo. Captured shortly after dawn by light cruiser Karlsruhe using wireless-equipped Rio Negro and Asuncion as scouts, cattle slaughtered for meat, sea cocks opened and scuttling charges fired at 1700, would not sink and used for gunnery practice before going down at 1845, 250 miles SW 1/2 S true from St Paul Rocks off Brazil (L - in 2S, 32.10W; kp - 120 miles N of Fernando Noronha, in 01.59S, 32.47W); crew removed to Crefeld (H/L/Mn/kp)

Friday, 4 September 1914

Central Atlantic

INDIAN PRINCE, passenger ship, 2,846/1910, Prince Line, Newcastle-reg, Mr J Gray, Bahia for New York, headed off usual trade route. Captured by auxiliary cruiser Kronprinz Wilhelm 210 miles E by N 1/2 N true of Pernambuco, NE Brazil (L - in 06.58S, 31.30W), scuttling charges laid, ship then steered SSE, sunk on the 9th at 0900 (L/kp - about 200 miles NW of llha da Trinidade, in 18S, 28W); passengers and crew transferred to supply ship Ebernburg on 17th, docked Santos 24th, or to collier Prussia which reached Rio de Janeiro on the 25 September (H/L/Mn/kp)

Western Pacific

Southport, 3,588/1900, Southport SS Co (W J Tatem), Cardiff, Mr A Clopet, sailed Auckland on 12 July 1914 to load phospate at Nauru, found other ships waiting and long delays, since 4 August lying in harbour at Kusaie, most easterly of German Carolines to save coal while waiting for signal to return to Nauru, unaware that war had been declared. Captured by German raider Geier (1), engines disabled and tools taken so Geier (1) could go off, crew rebuilt the engines by cannibalising other parts, obtained food and supplies from the local inhabitants, sailed 18th, and reached Brisbane on 30th (H/L/Rn/Mn/ms)

Saturday, 5 September 1914

North Sea

RUNO, passenger & cargo ship, 1,679/1902, Thomas Wilson Sons & Co, Hull, 33 crew, Hull for Archangel with 237 passengers and 800t general cargo. Mined amidship at 1635 in Tyne field (Albatros), master headed for nearest land to beach, but as she settled by the head, passengers rushed the boats which were launched. At 1810, 2nd officer and members of the crew returned, Runo taken in tow by trawler Euripides, abandoned at 1825 and went down at 1830 about 22 miles E by N of Tyne estuary (wi - in 55.10.15N, 00.49.38W); six out of nine lifeboats lowered, some capsized through overcrowding, remaining three had their rope falls cut and could not be launched. Fishing trawler Silanion came alongside at 1700 taking off a large number of passengers and crew, Euripides followed suit at 1740, taking off the remainder; 29 lives lost, possibly drowned during the boat launching (H/L/Mn/ms/wi)


Sunday, 6 September 1914

North Sea

IMPERIALIST, trawler, 195/1911, Imperial Steam Fishing, Hull-reg H250, fishing. Mined in Tyne field (Albatros), sank 40 miles ENE of Tyne; 2 lives lost (H/L/Lr/Mn/hw)


Monday, 7 September 1914

North Sea

REVIGO, trawler, 230/1907, G F Sleight, Grimsby-reg, Skipper W Lewis, Grimsby for fishing. Mined in Humber field (Nautilus), sank 25 miles E 1/2 N of Spurn Head (L - 33 miles E by N of; wi - 33 miles N by E of Spurn Head LH, in 54.05N, 00.20E) (H/L/Lr/Mn/gy/wi)

Thursday, 10 September 1914

Indian Ocean

INDUS, 3,413 (ms - 3,393)/1904, James Nourse Ltd, London-reg, on Indian Government charter as cavalry/troop transport flying blue ensign, Mr Henry Smaridge, Calcutta for Bombay in ballast (kp - Bombay for Calcutta). Spotted by by light cruiser Emden (1) at 0900, ordered to stop (kp - in 10.48N, 84.02E), wireless dismantled, stores transshipped including several cases of soap, sea-cocks opened later in the afternoon, finished off by 6 or 10-4.1in shells fired into the waterline, sank 240 miles SE by E true from Madras (L/ms - in 11N, 83.45E); crew transferred to German collier Markomania, on 14th moved to newly captured SS Kabinga (H/L/Mn/kp/ms)


Friday, 11 September 1914

Bay of Bengal

LOVAT, 6,102/1911, J Warrack & Co, Leith-reg, on Indian Government charter as troop transport flying blue ensign, Mr Robert Glegg, Calcutta for Bombay in ballast. Sighted warship and two steamers (Indus and Greek Pontoporos), Emden (1) closed, ran up German ensign, signalled her to stop and fired blank shot across the bows, stopped at 1400 (kp - in 16.25N, 86.32E), sunk by gunfire 260 miles E  1/2  N true from Madras (L/ms - in 13.32N, 84.43E); crew sent across to German collier Markomannia except six Indian firemen who went to Pontoporos, crew moved to newly captured SS Kabinga on 14th (H/L/Mn/ms/kp)
Eastern Pacific

ELSINORE, tanker, 6,542/1913, Bear Creek Oil & Shipping Co, Liverpool-reg, Mr J Roberts, sailing Corinto, Nicaragua for San Luis Obispo, California in water ballast. Sighted by light cruiser Leipzig and attempted to escape, stopped by shot across the bows, boarding party went across and stripped her including the boats for German collier Marie, Leipzig started firing at 1310, put 12 shells into her before she caught fire, sank stern first 80 miles SW by W true from Cape Corrientes, Mexico (kp - 80 miles SW of, at 1730; L - in 19.39N, 106.46W; Mn - 19.31N, 105.56W); crew taken on board Marie at 1230, put shore on Chatham Island belonging to Ecuador on 21st, captain and half the crew reached Guayaquil, Ecuador 670 miles away in a small sloop on 1/10 (H/L/Mn/kp)

Saturday, 12 September 1914

Bay of Bengal

Kabinga, 4,657/1907, Bucknall SS Lines, London, sailing New York for Calcutta with cargo of largely American-owned jute. Ordered by Emden (1) to heave-to by siren and signal lamp (L - in 16.57N, 86.14E), not sunk because of German liability for the cargo, also the Captain's wife and child were onboard, remained in 'convoy' with the cruiser, released as prison ship on the 14th. Lost in WW2 (H/L/Mn/kp/ms)


Sunday, 13 September 1914

Bay of Bengal

Two steamships captured by light cruiser Emden (1), crews transferred to captured SS Kabinga:

KILLIN, 3,544/1908, Connell Bros, Glasgow-reg, Mr J Wilson, Calcutta for Colombo with 6,000t of Bengal coal. Nearly ran into Emden (1) in the early hours (kp - in 17.05N, 86.04E), as the German was well supplied with coal, boarding party opened sea-cocks, sinking hastened by "a few" 4.1in shells, sank at 1000, 410 miles NE by E true from Madras (L - in 17.02N, 86.10E) (H/L/Mn/kp)

DIPLOMAT, 7,615/1912, Charente SS Co, Liverpool-reg, Mr Robert Thompson, Calcutta/Colombo for London/Liverpool with several thousand tons of tea and general cargo. Sighted warship and four steamers off Puri, SW of Calcutta about noon, warship fired warning shot and hoisted ensign, boarded from boat and wireless smashed, sunk by gunfire 480 miles NE 1/2 E true from Madras (L - in 18.02N, 86.48E; kp - by scuttling charges, in 18.01N, 86.04E) (H/L/Mn/kp)

Monday, 14 September 1914

Central Atlantic

HIGHLAND HOPE, passenger ship, 5,150/1903, Nelson Steam Navigation Co, London-reg, Mr J Thompson, Liverpool for Buenos Aires in ballast to load meat. Sighted by Karlsruhe at 0330, captured and scuttled at 1145, 190 miles SW 1/2 W true of St Paul Rocks, near Equator, off Brazil (L/wd - in 01.03S, 31.45W; kp - 190 miles SW of); crew transferred to collier Crefeld to join those of Strathroy and Maple Branch (H/L/Mn/kp/wd)

Bay of Bengal

Two steamships captured and sunk by Emden (1):

TRABBOCH, 4,028/1910, Kyle Transport, Liverpool-reg, Mr William Ross, sailing Negapatam for Calcutta in ballast. Captured early evening (kp - in 19.55N, 87.01E), sunk by gunfire (kp - scuttling charges) 70 miles SW by S true of Pilots Lt, Mouth of Hooghli, near Calcutta (L - in 19.52N, 87.03E) (H/L/Mn/kp)

CLAN MATHESON, 4,775/1906, Clan Line Steamers, Glasgow-reg, Mr William Harris, Clyde/Liverpool for Calcutta with general cargo, including railway locomotives, Rolls-Royce cars, typewriters and a pedigree racehorse. Sighted early evening, refused to stop in reply to siren signals and blank shots, heaved to when shell fired, sunk by bombs 60 miles SW by S true of Pilots Lt (L - in 20N, 87.10E; kp - in 19.55N, 87.11E) (H/L/Mn/kp)

Thursday, 17 September 1914.

Central Atlantic

INDRANI (1), 5,706/1912, Indra Line, Liverpool-reg, Mr N Pilcher, Norfolk (Va) for Rio Janeiro with 6,700t American coal. Captured by Karlsruhe 145 miles N by W true from Cape St Roque, NE Brazil (L/kp - in 03S, 35.40W; kp - also 145 miles NW of), renamed Kohlendampfer KDII/Steam Collier 2 or Hoffnung, coaled the cruiser on 1 November 1914, still in company on 4th when Karlsruhe blew up, scuttled on 9th, German crew headed for Germany in supply ship Rio Negro; the crew, other than Chinese who stayed on board under German command, transferred to supply ship Crefeld (H/L/Mn/kp)

Saturday, 19 September 1914

South East Pacific

Ortega, mail steamer, 8,075 (ms - 7,970)/1906, Pacific Steam Navigation Co, Liverpool, Mr Douglas Kinneir, sailing Valparaiso for UK, carrying c300 French reservists. (kp - 18th) - Chased by Dresden off South Chile, headed at full speed of 18kts - nominally 14kts - into uncharted Nelson Strait, cruiser soon forced to abandon chase to avoid running aground. Ortega proceeded by way of Smyth Channel through to the Magellan Straits, sometimes led by the ship's boats taking soundings (H/Mn/ge/kp/ms)


Monday, 21 September 1914

Central Atlantic

CORNISH CITY, 3,816/1906, Instow SS Co, Bideford-reg, Mr J Bethke, Barry for Rio Janeiro with 5,500t coal. Stopped by Karlsruhe at 1445, sea-cocks opened, scuttling charge only blew a small hole in her, took a long time to sink, went down at 1945, 245 miles SW 1/2 S true from St Paul Rocks, off Brazil (L - in 01.55S, 32.05W; kp - 245 miles SW by S of); crew taken on board Rio Negro (H/L/Mn/kp)


Tuesday, 22 September 1914

North Sea

KILMARNOCK, trawler, 165/1897, Consolidated Steam Fishing & Ice, Grimsby-reg, Skipper W J Ash, Grimsby for fishing. Mined in Humber field (Nautilus), foundered 31 miles E of Spurn Head (wi - in 53.33N, 00.01E); 6 lives lost (H/L/Lr/ap/gy/wi)

Central Atlantic

RIO IGUASSU, 3,817/1898, London-American Maritime & Trading, London-reg, sailing Newcastle for Rio Janeiro with 4,800t coal for Tramway, Power & Light Company. Stopped by Karlsruhe at 0640, as much coal as possible taken off, sunk by bombs at 1600, 155 miles SW 1/2 W true of St Paul Rocks (L - in 00.40S, 31.20W; kp - stopped in 00.40S, 32.18W, sunk roughly 20 miles NW of capture position); crew taken aboard collier Asuncion (H/L/Mn/kp)

Bay of Bengal

Chupra, 6,175/1906, British India Steam Navigation Co, Glasgow, sailing London for Calcutta with general cargo, in Madras harbour. Emden (1) crept into the harbour around 2100, used searchlights to find the oil storage area, switched off then fired 125 shells setting the tanks ablaze, one shell hit Chupra moored next to the mole; one life lost - 17-year old cadet Joseph Fletcher, mortally wounded. Other vessels also damaged (H/L/Mn/kp/ms)


Wednesday, 23 September 1914

North Sea

REBONO, trawler, 176/1912, George F Sleight, Grimsby-reg, Skipper G Burgess, Grimsby for fishing. Mined in Humber field (Nautilus), foundered 25 miles E by N of Spurn LV/Head (L/wi - 26 miles E by N of, in 53.40N, 00.55E); one life lost (H/L/gy/ms/wi)


Friday, 25 September 1914

Indian Ocean

Two steamships captured by Emden (1) off Ceylon/Sri Lanka, sunk by bombs, crews first taken on board German collier Markomannia:

KING LUD, 3,650/1906, King Line, Stockton-on-Tees-reg, Mr David Harris, Alexandria for Calcutta in ballast. Emden (1) hove in sight early afternoon, signalled her to stop, boarding party opened sea-cocks and laid charges, sank around 1615, 25 miles SSW true from Pt de Galle, near Galle (L - 05.45N, 80E; kp - in 05.47N, 79.46E); crew transferred to newly captured SS Gryfevale on 27th (H/L/Mn/kp)

TYMERIC, 3,314/1901, Tymeric SS Co, Glasgow-reg, Mr John Tulloch, Samarang for Falmouth with sugar. Captured c2300 (kp - in 07.10N, 79.21E), sunk 50 miles W by N true from Colombo (L - in 07.10N, 79E) (H/L/Mn/kp)

Eastern Pacific

BANKFIELDS, 3,763/1905, Bank Shipping Co, Liverpool-reg, Mr John Ingham, just out of Eten, Peru for Panama/Liverpool with copper ore and 5,000t of sugar cane. Captured by Leipzig, livestock taken off, sunk by gunfire in Gulf of Guayaquil, Ecuador (L - in 03.40S, 81.20W); crew taken off, landed by German collier Marie at Callao a week later (H/L/Lr/Mn/kp)


Saturday, 26 September 1914

Indian Ocean

Gryfevale, 4,437 (ms - 4,424)/1906, Gryfevale SS Co (Crawford, Barr), Glasgow, Mr J Steel, sailing Aden for Colombo in ballast. Captured by Emden (1) (L - in 07.45N, 78.15E), retained as prison ship, released on 28th with recently-taken prisoners. Attacked and wrecked 21 October 1917 (H/L/Mn/kp/ms)

Sunday, 27 September 1914

Indian Ocean

Two steamships (and an Admiralty collier) captured by Emden (1), most of the crews transferred to SS Gryfevale:

RIBERA (1), 3,500/1904, Bolton SS Co, London-reg, Mr John Isdale, Glasgow/Alexandria for Batavia in ballast. Captured shortly after daylight, stores transshipped, sea cocks opened and scuttling charges laid, finished off by gunfire at 0900, 210 miles W by N true of Colombo (L - in 07.45N, 76.20E; kp - 07.30N, 75.26E) (H/L/Mn/kp)

FOYLE (1), 4,147/1902, Mercantile SS Co, London-reg, Mr William Gibson, Dunston-on-Tyne, via Port Said (L/Mn/kp - also Venice, Aden, Colombo) for Rangoon in water ballast, departed Port Said on 11th after being informed route was all clear. Captured before dark (kp - in 07.56N, 74.05E), scuttled at 2100, 300 miles W 1/2 N true from Colombo (L 7.50N, 74.45E) (H/L/Mn/kp)

Wednesday, 30 September 1914

North Sea

SELBY (1), 2,137/1895, R Ropner & Co, Stockton-reg, sailing Derwenthaugh for Antwerp with coal. Mined, sank 34 miles SE by S of Newarp LV, off Winterton, Norfolk (H/L/Lr)




British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in October: 19 merchant ships totalling 77,805grt - 14 of 65,161grt to surface ships, 1 of 866grt to submarines, 4 of 11,778grt to mines, plus 2 British fishing vessels totalling 283grt, both by mines (H)

Saturday, 3 October 1914

North Sea

DAWDON, 1,310/1878, R Thorman & Co, Sunderland-reg, sailing Hull for Antwerp with coal. Mined, sank 10 miles NW by W of Wandelaar LV, W Scheldt estuary, Holland; 10 lives lost (H/L/Lr/ms)


Monday, 5 October 1914

North Sea

ARDMOUNT, 3,510/1906, Ashmount (sic) SS Co (Hope & Sloan), Glasgow-reg, sailing Galveston for Zeebrugge with maize. Mined, sank 3 miles E by S 1/2 S of Wandelaar LV, off Holland (H/L/Lr/ms)

Central Atlantic

Farn, 4,393/1910, Fargrove Steam Navigation Co, London-reg, Mr G Alleyne, Cardiff/Barry for Montevideo with 6,000t Welsh steam-coal and coke. Captured by Karlsruhe 140 miles SW 1/2 S true of St Paul Rocks, near Equator (L - in 00.46S, 30.50W), retained as Steam Collier 3/Kohlendampfer III, last coal transfer to the raider on 29th-30th, detached under command of naval lieutenant, who unaware of Karlsruhe's fate eventually put into San Juan, Puerto Rico on 11 or 12/1/15 for supplies, considered a naval tender by the US authorities and given 24hrs to leave, shortly interned. Released 2/17, reverted to original owners 4/17, sunk 19 November 1917 (H/L/Mn/kp)


Tuesday, 6 October 1914

Central Atlantic

NICETO DE LARRINAGA (1), 5,018/1912, Miguel de Larrinaga SS Co, Liverpool-reg, Mr R Nagle, 42 crew, Buenos Aires for London with 8,000t cattle fodder, maize, oats and agricultural machinery. Sighted by tender Rio Negro at 1500, Karlsruhe came up at 1700, boarded, food and stores removed, scuttling charges set off around 1900, but could not have holed her very much, only began to settle at 2100, eventually went down at 0200 on 7th (kp - 2030 on 6th), 100 miles S by W 1/2 W true of St Paul Rocks off Brazil (L/kp - in 00.35S, 29.48W); crew transferred to Crefeld (H/L/Mn/kp)


Wednesday, 7 October 1914

Central Atlantic

LYNROWAN, 3,384/1907, Liver Shipping Co, Liverpool-reg, Mr Arthur Jones, Buenos Aires for Liverpool with 5,500t of hides, maize, sugar, talc and 12 motor cars. Sighted by Karlsruhe at 0800, chased and stopped, few boatloads of sugar taken off, sunk by bombs (Mn/kp - gunfire) around 1400, 90 miles SSW true of St Paul Rocks, off Brazil (L - in 00.25S, 29.54W); crew transferred at 1100 to the overcrowded Crefeld now carrying 300 prisoners, other crews still on Rio Negro (H/L/Mn/kp)

South Atlantic

LA CORRENTINA, 8,529/1912, Houlder Line, Liverpool-reg, Mr Murrison, sailing La Plata for Liverpool with frozen meat. Auxiliary cruiser Kronprinz Wilhelm came alongside 'smashing boats and deck fittings on both ships, then sent a boarding party over', 320 miles E 1/2 N true from Montevideo (L - in 34.20S, 49.40W; kp - over 300 miles E of), meat supplies and 2-4.7in guns transferred, scuttled around 14th (L - in 36S, 49.50W); passengers & crew later transferred to collier Sierra Cordoba, landed at Montevideo on 22nd. Note: sailed from Liverpool with 2-4.7in guns aft and guns crews, but as war had not been declared, carried no ammunition (H/L/Mn/kp)


Thursday, 8 October 1914

Central Atlantic

CERVANTES, passenger ship, 4,635/1895, Liverpool, Brazil & River Plate Steam Navigation Co, Liverpool-reg, 43 crew, Mr E Holton, sailed Callao, picked up four passengers at Punta Arenas/Rio Grande do Sul, departed Rio Janeiro 1st, headed for Liverpool with 4,500t general cargo, including cattle fodder, hides, sugar and wool. Captured by Karlsruhe c0700 only 10 miles from Lynrowan's position, sunk by bombs and a 'few' 4.1in shells shortly after noon, 100 miles S 1/2 W true of St Paul Rocks (L - in 00.40S, 29.40W) (H/L/Lr/Mn/kp)


Friday, 9 October 1914

Central Atlantic

PRUTH, 4,408/1905, Mercantile SS Co, London-reg, Mr Joseph Evans, Mejillones for St Vincent (CV) with 3,800t potassium nitrate and 2,300t barley. Sighted by Karlsruhe on 8th at 2315, stopped just after midnight, crew and supplies taken off starting at 0530, sunk by bombs around 1000, 90 miles S by W 1/2 W true of St Paul Rocks (L - in 00.27S, 29.46W; kp - 00.26S, 29.45W); crew transferred to collier Crefeld (H/L/Mn/kp)


Saturday, 10 October 1914

British Ships captured during German occupation of Belgium

The dates for all three sailing vessels are approximate:

QUEEN MAB, 76grt, from Teignmouth. On River Dyle at Wygmael near Louvain (L)

THAMES (1), brigantine, 177/1875, Whitstable Shipping Co, Faversham-reg. At Antwerp (L/Lr)

VINDEX, brigantine, 198/1866, R Kearon, Dublin-reg. At Antwerp (L/Lr)

Sunday, 11 October 1914

Central Atlantic

CONDOR (1), 3,053/1893, New York & Pacific SS Co, London-reg, Mr S Purdy, New York/Philadelphia for Valparaiso/South American ports with 4,000t piece goods including condensed milk, conserves, dynamite and machine or lubricating oil. Detained by captured SS Farn until Karlsruhe came up around 1500, 215 miles N by E 1/2 E true of Cape St Roque, Brazil (kp - 215 miles NE of, in 02S, 34W; L - in 01.55S, 34W), 150 tonnes of oil transferred on the 13th for mixing with petrol as fuel for the cruiser, Condor scuttled on 14th; crew taken on board Karlsruhe, left in SS Crefeld at 1600 on 13th for Teneriffe (H/L/Lr/Mn/kp)


Wednesday, 14 October 1914

Auxiliary cruiser minelayer Berlin, 17,324grt, 2-4.1in sailed from Germany for operations around British Isles


Friday, 16 October 1914

Indian Ocean

Three vessels captured and sunk by Emden (1) off Minikoi island, W of S tip of India, all crews transferred to captured SS Buresk, then on 19th to SS Egbert:

CLAN GRANT, 3,948/1902, Clan Line, Glasgow-reg, Mr Norman Leslie, sailing Glasgow/Liverpool for Colombo/Calcutta with general cargo including food, livestock, porcelain and typewriters, on track Minikoi to Colombo. Captured just after midnight (kp - in 08.10N, 73.11N), started to transship supplies before Emden (1) left to deal with a "strange wallowing shape" which turned out to be a bucket dredger, Clan Grant sunk later that day by gunfire 150 miles W 1/2 S true from Minikoi (L - 08.10N, 70.20E); (H/L/Mn/kp)

PONRABBEL, dredger, 473/1914, 8kts, Marine Board of Launceston, Tasmania-reg, Mr Edwin Gore, sailed Clyde via Barry Docks on 23/8 for delivery to Launceston at 4kts. Captured around 0100 (kp - in 08.21N, 72.24E), sunk by a 'few shells' 20 miles NW true of Minikoi (L/Mn - 18 miles NW of Minikoi LH) (H/L/Mn/kp)

BENMOHR, 4,806/1912, William Thompson & Co, Leith-reg, Mr James Larchet, Leith via London for Penang/Yokohama with 5,000t general cargo, including bicycles, machine parts and motor vehicles. Scuttled 65 miles NW  1/2  W true of Minikoi (L - 60 miles NW of; Mn - also captured on 16th, around 1000; kp - sighted on 17th at 2315, stopped by signal lamp shortly after midnight on 18th, about 60 miles NW by W of, in 08.16N. 72.55E; ms - confirms 16th) (H/L/Mn/ms/kp)

Sunday, 18 October 1914

Central Atlantic

GLANTON, 3,021/1894, Steel, Young & Co, London-reg, Mr George Arthur, Barry for Montevideo with machinery, general cargo and 3,800t 'best Welsh coal', on trade route between Cape Verdes and Fernando Noronha. Overhauled by Karlsruhe around 1000, boarding party commandeered oil and stores, laid explosive scuttling charges sinking her at 1725, 195 miles SW true of St Paul Rocks (kp - about 200 miles SW of); crew to German Asuncion (H/L/Mn/kp)

Indian Ocean

Two steamships captured by Emden (1):

TROILUS (1), 7,562/1914, Ocean SS Co, Liverpool-reg, Mr George Long, sailing Yokohama for London with passengers and general cargo, including copper, rubber and zinc, on maiden voyage. Kept afloat with prize crew onboard and sailed 'in convoy', provisions transferred out of her early on 19th, scuttling charges placed, hit by a few shells and sank later that day, 170 miles E true from Minikoi (L - in 08.22N, 75.52E); passengers and most of crew transferred to St Egbert next morning around 0700, 12 Chinese firemen to Buresk, 12 to Exford all on the same wages (H/L/Mn/kp)

St Egbert, 5,596/1914, British & Foreign SS, Liverpool-reg, sailing Colombo for New York with US-owned sugar and piece goods. Sighted at 2100 (L - in 08.10N, 75.50E; kp - 08.16N, 75.07E), stopped by signal lamp, prisoners transferred to her from Buresk, stayed in company, released and reached Cochin, west coast of India by 21st (H/L/Mn/kp)

Monday, 19 October 1914

Indian Ocean

Two steamships captured by Emden (1):

Exford (1), collier (kp - Admiralty chartered), 4,542/1911, Tatem Steam Navigation Co, Cardiff-reg, sailing UK for India with 5,500t Welsh coal. Sighted at 0030 (L - in 08.27N, 74.49E; kp 8.39N, 75.07E), stopped about 0100 using siren and signal lamp, retained as collier, Emden (1) currently in company with Buresk, Troilus and St Egbert, later that day at 1900 St Egbert released with prisoners. Exford recaptured by armed merchant cruiser Empress of Asia, arrived Singapore 11/12/14, renamed Brendon in 1915 (H/L/Mn/kp)

CHILKANA, passenger ship, 3,244grt, delivered 9/14, British India Steam Navigation Co, Glasgow-reg, Mr James Archdeacon, Tees/London for Calcutta with mixed cargo, on maiden voyage. Sighted at 0800, chased and brought back to the other ships around 1000, stores transferred out of her, scuttling charges set, fired at with 4.1in at 1600 and sank half an hour later, 110 miles ENE true of Minikoi (L - in 08.51N, 74.42E; kp - not certain if captured or sunk in 09.22N, 75.04E); crew released to SS St Egbert, landed at Cochin (H/L/Mn/kp)

Tuesday, 20 October 1914

U-boat Warfare - SS Glitra was first British merchant ship sunk by U-boat

North Sea

GLITRA, 866/1881, Christian Salvesen & Co, Leith-reg, 17 crew, Mr L Johnston, sailed Grangemouth 18th for Stavanger with coal and general cargo, signalled for pilot around noon on 20th about 14 miles from the coast. As the pilot boat approached, a submarine was sighted 3 miles to seaward, the pilot boat turned back and Glitra headed away although not anticipating any trouble. U.17 (Johannes Feldkirchner) circled, fired the deck gun and Glitra stopped, an armed officer and two men crossed over in a collapsible boat and gave the crew 10min to abandon ship in their boats. German engineer opened valves in the engine-room and she began to settle, going down 14 miles WSW of Skudesnes/Skudesnaes, near Stavanger; the boats were towed by U.17 towards land for quarter of an hour, then left to row the rest of the way, pilot boat came up, towed them to Norwegian torpedo boat Hai, landed at Skudesnes. As the ship was neither taken as a prize nor the crew taken on board, the sinking was not according to International Law and at the time regarded as an isolated act (H/L/Mn/dx/nh/te/un)

Wednesday, 21 October 1914

North Sea

CORMORANT, 1,595/1900, Cork SS Co, Cork-reg, sailing Rotterdam for Liverpool in ballast. Mined, probably laid by Koenigin Luise, sank 4 miles E of West Gabbard LV, off Orford Ness, Suffolk (wi - in 52N, 02.10.30E) (H/L/Lr/wi)


Thursday, 22 October 1914

German minelayer/auxiliary cruiser Berlin, carrying 2,000 moored contact mines laid large field about 19 miles E of N of Tory Island, off N Ireland on night of 22nd/23rd

Friday, 23 October 1914

Central Atlantic

HURSTDALE, 2,752/1902, Lambert Bros, Liverpool-reg, 21 crew, Mr John Williams, Rosario for Bristol with 4,644t maize. Spotted by Karlsruhe at 1615, stopped at 1700, sea-cocks opened, sank at 2100, 205 miles SW 1/2 W true of St Paul Rocks (L - in 01.11S, 31.55W); crew to Asuncion (H/L/Mn/kp)


Monday, 26 October 1914

U-boat Warfare - First U-boat attack without warning. French liner Amiral Ganteaume carrying Belgian refugees mistaken for troopship and torpedoed by U.24 off Cape Gris-Nez, reached port

off N Ireland

MANCHESTER COMMERCE (1), 5,363/1899, Manchester Liners, Manchester-reg, 44 crew, Mr C Payne, Manchester for Montreal with general cargo. (H/Mn - 27th) - Mined between Nos.2 and 3 holds in the afternoon in the Tory Island field laid by Berlin, sank 20 miles N 1/2 E of Tory Island, off Donegal (wi - 20 miles N by E, in 55.35N, 08.18W); 14 crew lost, including master (H/L/Mn/kp/wi)

Central Atlantic

VANDYCK, may be spelt Vandyk, passenger ship, 10,328/1911, Liverpool, Brazil & River Plate Steam Navigation Co, Liverpool-reg, 200 crew, Mr Anthony Cadogan, sailing from Buenos Aires/La Plata, departed Bahia 23rd for Trinidad, Barbados and New York with 210 men, women and children passengers and general cargo, including 1,000t of frozen meat, piece goods and small quantity of gold bullion. Sighted by Karlsruhe around 1015, followed until 1100, then stopped after a short chase 690 miles W by S true of St Paul Rocks, off Brazil (L/wd - in 01.14S, 40.40W; Mn - 01.14S, 40.42W; kp - 01.12S, 40.49W), frozen meat cargo trans-shipped, held until arrival of German tenders, explosive charges fired at 0600 on 28th (wd - on 27th, off Maranhao), sank within 30min (kp - in 00.50S, 41.45W); 410 passengers and crew to tender/collier Asuncion on 27th in 00.50S, 41W, landed at Para (Belem) on 2/11 (H/L/Mn/kp/wd)


Tuesday, 27 October 1914

Central Atlantic

Royal Sceptre, 3,838/1906, J L Knott, London-reg, Mr W Estill, sailing Santos for New York with 60,025 bags of American-owned coffee value £230,000. Ordered to stop by Karlsruhe accompanied by three steamers at 2330, 530 miles W true from St Paul Rocks (L - in 00.52N, 41.37W), armed guard went on board, German government liable to pay compensation for any neutral cargo, as the German officer was satisfied the cargo was for New York only, gave permission shortly after midnight for her to proceed. In fact the coffee was bound for Toronto via New York, the master had hidden the detailed cargo manifest (H/L/Mn/kp/ms)

Wednesday, 28 October 1914

Indian Ocean

Glenturret, 4,696/1896, McGregor Gow & Co, Glasgow, Mr H Jones, London via Penang/Singapore/Hong Kong for Yokohama, loaded with government munitions and explosives, arrived off entrance to Penang Harbour, later in the morning headed in with B flag (explosives) flying, due to meet lighter to take off 20t of explosive, Emden (1) had just sunk Russian cruiser Zhemchug in the harbour. On her way out came alongside Glenturret, asked about the B Flag, then went off in pursuit of French destroyer Mousquet steaming out of Penang, sank her and headed out into the Indian Ocean, Glenturret made her escape. Wrecked River Loire 26 July 1918 (H/L/Mn/kp/ms)


Thursday, 29 October 1914

German-Turkish naval forces bombarded Russian ports, Turkey entered war on German side

North Sea

ROSELLA, trawler, 243/1907, T Baskcomb, Grimsby-reg, Skipper W Harvey, Faroes for Grimsby with fish catch. (gy - 5 November) - Mined, probably in Tyne field (Albatros), sank 25 miles SE of Tynemouth (wi - in 54.42.45N, 00.54.30W); 2 lives lost (H/L/Lr/gy/wi)

OUR TOM, fishing vessel (L - trawler; bm - ketch-rigged sailing smack), 40/1897, Mrs Susanna Tucker, Ramsgate-reg R26, fishing. Mined, probably Southwold field laid by Koenigin Luise, sank 45 miles SE of Southwold, S of Lowestoft; 3 lives lost (H/L/bm)

Black Sea

Friederike, 3,574/1905, F Rahtkens & Co, Middlesbrough, sailed Venice for Novorossisk. (H/L - 30th) - Damaged by gunfire of Turkish warships at Novorossisk along with five Russian merchantmen. Scuttled Novorossiisk 21 June 1918 (H/L/Rn/ms)

British Merchant Ships detained in Turkish Waters

All steamships, date approximate for all:

INTIBAH, 202/1885, Eastern Petroleum & African Prospecting Syndicate, Glasgow-reg. Released post-war (L/Lr)

in Dardanelles

MAGGIE GRECH, ex-sloop HMS Basilisk, 1,170t, built by Admiralty, Sheerness 1889, became coal hulk C.7, sold 1905, now steamship, 624grt, R A Grech, London-reg, (L/Lr/C)

MARY LOUISE, wooden paddle steamer, 100/1879, now tug, R A Grech, South Shields-reg (L/Lr)

at Constantinople

CRAIGFORTH, 2,900/1907, Craig Line SS Co (D Russell), Leith-reg. Left by her captain and crew on 5 August. Renamed Iskuder, sunk in Black Sea 4 May 1915 (L/Lr/ms)

NEWA, 549 (ms - 613)/1872, J Constant, London-reg. Sunk in Black Sea by Russians before 31/12/14 (L/Lr/ms)

SHEFFIELD, passenger & cargo ship, 647/1877, Manchester, Sheffield & Lincolnshire Railway Co, Grimsby (tl - sold to J Constant, London in 1911). Served as Selda in Turkish Navy, released post-war (L/Lr/ms/tl)

at Smyrna (Izmir)

All three sunk in channel leading to Smyrna 6/3/15:

ASSIOUT, 3,146 (ms - 3,020)/1889, Ellerman Lines, London-reg (ms - Khedivial Mail, London) (L/Lr/ms)

BILLITER, 832/1889, J Constant, London (L/ms)

CITY OF KHIOS, 3,496/1878, G Smith & Sons, Glasgow-reg (L/Lr)

Friday, 30 October 1914

Indian Ocean

Newburn, 3,554/1904, Newcastle SS Co (Forster), Newcastle, Mr J Matthews, sailing England for Singapore/Samarang with German-owned salt. Captured by Emden (1) 140 miles W of Sabang, released, instructed to land survivors from French torpedo boat Mosquet, reached Penang on 31st. Sunk 7 August 1916 (H/L/Mn/kp/ms)


Saturday, 31 October 1914

Admiralty authorised hostilities against Turkey although war had not yet been declared.

German East Africa Campaign - Light cruiser Koenigsberg located in Rufuji River delta by HMS Chatham



British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in November: 5 merchant ships totalling 8,888grt - 2 of 3,784grt to surface ships, 2 of 2,084grt to submarines, 1 of 3,020grt to mines, plus 6 British fishing vessels totalling 460grt, all by surface-ship-laid mines (H)

U-boat Warfare - Chief of German Naval Staff proposed a submarine blockade of Britain; rejected by German Chancellor; small German UC-type coastal minelaying submarines ordered for delivery in sections by rail; first one launched April 1915

Sunday, 1 November 1914

South East Pacific

Colusa, 5,732/1913, New York & Pacific SS Co, London-reg. (kp - 31/10) - Chased by auxiliary cruiser Prinz Eitel Friedrich, entered Chilean waters, German warned by Chilean warship to withdraw allowing Colusa to escape (H/kp/ms)


Monday, 2 November 1914

U-boat Warfare - Partly because of indiscriminate German minelaying, Britain declared entire North Sea a British military zone as from the 5th

Tuesday, 3 November 1914

North Sea

First Bombardment of British East Coast - Raid on Gorleston

German 1st Scouting Group (Adm Hipper) raided Gorleston/Great Yarmouth apparently with the main aim of laying a minefield off Yarmouth. Light cruiser Kolberg laid a line 5 miles long in Smith's Knoll passage, but the laying was spotted by a Lowestoft fisherman and reported by 1100. A number of British vessels were lost in the Yarmouth minefield, including three fishing vessels the same day:

FRATERNAL, 100grt (L/wi - trawler, 79grt), Lowestoft for fishing. Sank 16 miles NE by N of Lowestoft, Suffolk (wi - in 52.40N, 02.03E); 3 lives lost. Note: "Wreck Index" refers to German submarine-laid mines, but these did not appear until June 1915 (H/L/ap/wi)

WILL & MAGGIE, 100grt (L/wi - trawler, 92grt), Lowestoft-reg, Lowestoft for fishing. (wi - 4th) - Sank 17 miles E by N of Lowestoft (wi - in 52.36N, 02.11E); 6 lives lost (H/L/ap/wi)

COPIOUS, trawler, 100grt, H F Eastick, Great Yarmouth-reg, Skipper G Symonds, fishing. Sank 15 miles E by S of Yarmouth (L/wi - about 9 miles E by S of South Cross Sand Buoy, in 52.36.30N, 02.14E); 9 lives lost in the explosion, including Skipper (H/L/ap/wi)

Wednesday, 4 November 1914

German light cruiser Karlsruhe destroyed by internal explosion in central Atlantic E of Trinidad

Thursday, 5 November 1914

Britain and France declared war on Turkey


Saturday, 7 November 1914

German gunboat Geier (1) interned in Honolulu


Monday, 9 November 1914

Indian Ocean

German light cruiser Emden (1) sunk by Australian light cruiser Sydney

AYESHA, 3-masted schooner, 123/1907, J S C Ross, London-reg, lying in Direction Island harbour, the main Cocos Island. Seized by German landing party after Emden (1) left them ashore to go and fight Sydney, sailed to Padang, Dutch East Indies, on to Turkish-occupied Yemen, believed scuttled 15/12/14. The Germans then travelled overland to Constantinople (H/L/Lr/Rn/nb)

Tuesday, 10 November 1914

North Sea

SPECULATOR, sail fishing smack, 60grt, fishing. Mined, probably Yarmouth field (Kolberg), sank near Smith's Knoll, off Norfolk (wi - in 52.50N, 02.14E); 5 lives lost (H/L/wi)


Thursday, 12 November 1914

North Sea

CYGNUS, trawler, 132/1896, Grimsby & North Sea Steam Trawling, Grimsby-reg, fishing, missing since 13th, posted by Lloyds 24/2/15 (gy - presumed mined on 12th) (L/Lr/gy)


Wednesday, 18 November 1914

North Sea

SEYMOLICUS, sail fishing vessel, c50grt, fishing. Mined, probably Yarmouth field (Kolberg), sank 12 miles E by N 1/2 N of Smith's Knoll, off Norfolk (wi - 12 miles E by N of, in 52.54N, 02.33E); 9 lives lost, including Skipper (H/L/wi)


Friday, 20 November 1914

North Sea

LORD CARNARVON, sail fishing vessel (L - trawler), c80grt, fishing. Mined, probably Yarmouth field (Kolberg), sank off Yarmouth, Norfolk (wi - in 52.35N, 01.54E); 10 lives lost, including Skipper (H/L/wi)


Monday, 23 November 1914

U-boat Warfare - first U-boat sinkings since Glitra a month earlier take place
English Channel

MALACHITE, 718/1902, William Robertson, Glasgow, Mr Stephen Masson, sailed Liverpool on 19th for Havre with general cargo. Stopped by U.21 (Otto Hersing) in the afternoon with shot across the bows, probably 4 miles N by W of Cape de la Heve, near Havre, Seine estuary (the position when captured), after being questioned from the conning tower, crew ordered off, fire opened from 200yds but Malachite stayed afloat and ablaze for 24hrs; after crew took to the boats, Hersing apologised for not being able to take the men on board but "war is war", they rowed toward Havre, reaching there that evening (H/L/Mn/ge/ms/te/un)


Thursday, 26 November 1914

English Channel

PRIMO (1), 1,366/1898, Pelton SS Co, Newcastle, Mr C Whincop, Jarrow for Rouen with coal. Captured by U.21 (Otto Hersing) probably 6 miles NW by N of Cape Antifer, N of Havre (L - 10 miles NW of, again probably the position when first stopped), crew abandoned ship, U-boat opened fire but Primo took some sinking, various vessels reported her on fire and adrift two days later, division of French TB's set out from Boulogne on the 30th, one of them reportedly sinking her; the ship's boats headed for a steamer which on hearing the firing, sheered off, they rowed for F 1/2 camp but about two hours later, picked up by SS Clermiston. (H/L/Mn/ge/ms/te/un)

There was now another short lull in merchant ship sinkings.


Friday, 27 November 1914

North Sea

KHARTOUM, 3,020/1893, Anglo-Bretagne Shipping, London-reg, 23 crew, Mr C Wilson, Tyne for Oran with 4,000t coal. (wi - 26th) - Mined at 1140, possibly Humber field (Nautilus), started to sink, finally abandoned at 1225, sank 20min later 20 miles ESE of Spurn Head (L/wi - 53.31N, 00.40E); survivors picked up at 1445 by trawler Onward, landed at Grimsby (H/L/wi)



British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in December: 10 merchant ships totalling 26,035grt - 5 of 15,995grt to surface ships, 5 of 10,040grt to mines, plus 5 British fishing vessels totalling 780grt - 3 of 294grt to surface ships, 2 of 486grt to mines (H)

Wednesday, 2 December 1914

South Atlantic

DRUMMUIR, 4-masted iron barque, 1,844/1882, Ship 'Drummuir' Co ( 1/2 ), Victoria, BC-reg, Mr James Eagles, Swansea for San Francisco with coal. Captured by Leipzig 70 miles E by N true of Cape Horn, Woolaston Islands, Chile (L - in 50.30S, 65W), towed about 70 miles to north side of Picton Island, coal transferred to colliers for Admiral von Spee's armoured cruiser force, then sunk by bombs on the 6th (kp - in 55.30S, 65W); crew taken on board collier Seydlitz which escaped after Battle of the Falklands, when short of fuel put into Bahia Blanca on 14/2/15, interned by Brazilian authorities, crew released (H/L/Lr/Mn/kp)


Friday, 4 December 1914

Central Atlantic

BELLEVUE, 3,814/1896, Bell Bros McLelland/Bellevue SS Co, Glasgow-reg, Mr Iver Iversen, Glasgow/Liverpool for Montevideo/Buenos Aires with general cargo and 5,400t coal. Overtaken in the early morning by Kronprinz Wilhelm, 460 miles NE 1/2 E true from Pernambuco, Brazil (L/kp - in 3S, 29.09W; kp - also 450 miles NE of Pernambuco), crew transfered to Kronprinz Wilhelm, ship navigated westward by prize crew, coal and supplies transferred to raider starting on the 8th, scuttled on the 20th (L - in 6N, 40W) (H/L/Lr/Mn/kp/ms)


Saturday, 5 December 1914

South East Pacific

CHARCAS, 5,067/1906, New York & Pacific SS Co, London-reg, Mr A Norris, Antofagasta for New York with piece-goods (Mn/kp - small cargo of nitrate of soda), hugging the shore, foggy conditions. Stopped by Prinz Eitel Friedrich, boarding party sent over, bombs laid, sank 70 miles S by W 1/2 W true from Valparaiso, Chile (L - in 34S, 72.05W; kp - 70 miles S of); crew put ashore near Valparaiso later that day (H/L/Lr/Mn/kp)


Tuesday, 8 December 1914

Battle of the Falklands - German armoured cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, light cruisers Nurnberg and Leipzig sunk; Dresden escaped but sunk in March 1915

Friday, 11 December 1914

North Sea

Colchester, passenger & cargo ship, 1,209 (ms - 1,160)/1889 Great Eastern Railway Co, Harwich, Mr F Lawrence, crossing from Rotterdam for Parkeston Quay, Harwich. Submarine sighted on starboard bow at 0820, 22 miles from Hook of Holland, started to close and signal, Colchester went to maximum speed with all stokers turned out to double-bank boiler fires, U-boat gave up the chase after 20min; Admiralty commended the master. Note: first attack by U-boats since the sinking of Malachite and Primo. Wrecked in 54.24N, 10.12E on 2 March 1918, broken up 1919 (H/Mn/ge/ms)

EARL HOWARD, trawler, 226grt, Grimsby-reg. (gy - 11/12/15) - Believed mined, possibly Humber field (Nautilus), sank 90 miles NE by N of Spurn LV; 9 lives lost, including Skipper (H/gy)


Saturday, 12 December 1914

South East Pacific

KILDALTON, 3-masted steel barque, 1,784/1903, Kidalton Barque Co, Glasgow-reg, Mr W Sharp, Liverpool for Callao with general cargo. Captured by Prinz Eitel Friedrich, sunk by bombs 870 miles SW 1/2 S true of Valparaiso, Chile (L - in 44.24N, 82.35W); crew put on board captured French barque Jean, landed at Cook's Bay, Easter Island on 31st, not picked up until 26/2/15 when a Swedish trading ship called at the island, landed Panama 12/3/15 (H/L/Lr/Mn/kp)


Sunday, 13 December 1914

German auxiliary cruiser Cormoran running out of coal and supplies was interned at the US Pacific island of Guam

Wednesday, 16 December 1914

German Raid on English coastal towns of Hartlepool, Scarborough and Whitby

German 1st SG battlecruisers and 2nd SG light cruisers escorted by destroyers sailed to attack the Yorkshire coast

Attack on Hartlepool

Two merchantmen were damaged and two fishing vessels sunk in the docks during the Hartlepool bombardment:

Munificent, 3,270/1892, James Westoll, Sunderland, sailed Archangel for Hartlepool. One life lost. Admiralty collier when sunk on 1 March 1917 (H/L/ms)

Phoebe (1), 2,754/1894, Turnbull Bros, Cardiff, sailed Archangel for Hartlepool. One life lost (H/L/ms)

CONSTANCE (1), motor fishing vessel, 40grt (H/L)

WAYSIDE FLOWER (1), motor fishing vessel, 35grt (H/L)

Attacks on Scarborough and Whitby

Three German ships appeared off Scarborough just before 0800, battlecruisers Derfflinger and Von der Tann opened fire, while light cruiser Kolberg went to lay mines off Flamborough Head. The two battlecruisers then headed north for Whitby, and opened fire just after 0900, departing after 10min and ignoring two tramp steamers passing to the south. Four fishing vessels were damaged in Scarborough during the bombardment:

Eliza, (L - trawler), 58grt (L)

Industria, trawler, 133grt, Hull-reg H14 (L/hw)

Rameses, trawler, 155/1894, Grimsby-reg (L/gy)

Volta, trawler, 157/1890, Hull-reg H111 (L/D)

Other Attacks by German Warships

Cassandra, trawler, (ms - possibly 174/1905), Mr H Pegg, Hull-reg, trawling. German cruiser and TBF withdrawing SE, but still apparently in action with British forces passed her around noon. Fired on by the cruiser, shell landing 50yds away (Mn/ms)

MANX QUEEN, trawler, 219/1906, W H Beeley, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Captured by German destroyers/torpedo boats (L - in 54.12N, 3.02E), not known how sunk or at what time; crew made prisoners (H/L/Lr/gy)

Ships Immediately Lost to Kolberg's Mines

ELTERWATER, 1,228/1907, Sharp & Co/Sharp SS Co, Newcastle-reg, 18 crew, Tyne for London with 1,750t coal. Mined around 2115, sank 3 miles E of Scarborough (wi - 54.17N, 00.18W); 6 lives lost (H/L/Lr/Rn/Mn/ms/sc/wi)

PRINCESS OLGA, 998/1901, M Langlands & Sons, Glasgow-reg, 19 crew, Liverpool for Aberdeen with 1,000t general cargo. Mined in the evening, sank 5 miles ENE of Scarborough (wi - in 54.17.38N, 00.15.58W; L - 5 miles NNE of) (H/L/Lr/Rn/Mn/sc/wi)


Saturday, 19 December 1914

Atlantic off N Ireland

TRITONIA (1), 4,272/1893, Donaldson Line, Glasgow-reg, Mr G Murray, Partington for St John (NB). Mined in Tory Island field (Berlin), foundered 22 miles NNE of Tory Island, off Co Donegal (wi - in 55.38N, 08.05W) (H/L/Rn/Mn/wi)


Wednesday, 23 December 1914

North Sea

OCANA, trawler, 260/1908, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Mined, possibly laid offshore during Scarborough raid (by Kolberg), sank 75 miles NE by E of Flamborough Head, Yorkshire; 9 lives lost, only survivor was the 2nd Engineer found unconscious on an upturned boat by another Grimsby trawler (H/L/Mn/ap/fd/gy)


Friday, 25 December 1914

North Sea

Two British vessels (and an Admiralty trawler), mined in Scarborough field laid by cruiser Kolberg:

GEM, 461/1887, William Robertson, Glasgow, 12 crew, Mostyn for Tyne with 460t salt cake/salt-ash. Mined at 1815, broke in two and sank 3 1/2 m SE by E 1/2 E of Scarborough (Mn - 7 1/2 m SE of Scarborough Rock; wi - in 54.15.29N, 00.15.11W); 10 crew including master killed by explosion, mate and one ordinary seaman saved by SS Alert, landed at Wisbech (H/L/ap/wi)

Gallier, 4,592/1914, Brys & Gylsen Ltd, London, sailing Hartlepool for St Nazaire. Mined off Scarborough, afloat in middle of minefield with no lights showing, patrol drifters Hilda & Ernest and Eager stood by, minesweeping trawler Solon towed her into Scarborough; skippers of Hilda & Ernest and Solon awarded DSC. Sunk 2 January 1918 (H/L/Mn/ap/ms)

Saturday, 26 December 1914

North Sea

LINARIA, 3,081/1911, Stag Line, North Shields-reg, 28 crew, London for Tyne in ballast. Mined in Scarborough field (Kolberg), shortly sank 2.5 miles NNE of Filey, S of Scarborough (wi - in 54.15N, 00.15.30W); crew took to the boats, picked up by Swedish SS Victoria, landed at Sunderland (H/L/Lr/Mn/ap/wi)


Monday, 28 December 1914

Central Atlantic

HEMISPHERE, 3,486/1897, Hemisphere SS Co, Liverpool-reg, Mr Richard Jones, Hull for Buenos Aires/Rosario with coal. Captured by auxiliary cruiser Kronprinz Wilhelm 400 miles NE by E true of Pernambuco (L/kp - in 04.20S, 29.25W), both vessels headed east away from shipping lanes until early morning on 30th to allow transfer of coal, brought alongside raider, stores and useful fittings taken on board, raider joined by German tender SS Holger. Hemisphere scuttled 7/1/15 (L - on 8th, in 01.26S, 24.17W); crew had to sign declaration not to take any further part in the war, transferred to Holger, then raider steamed off (H/L/Mn/kp)



British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in January: 11 merchant ships totalling 32,054grt - 3 of 12,304grt to surface ships, 7 of 17,126grt to submarines, 1 of 2,624grt to mines, plus 2 fishing vessels totalling 222grt, both by mines (H)

U.31 possibly mined in North Sea in January

Friday, 1 January 1915

North Sea

Westergate, 1,742/1881, Weatherley Mead & Hussey, London, sailing Bilbao for Middlesbrough with iron ore. Mined (H - in North Sea; L - 2 miles NNW of S Goodwin LV i.e. southern extremity of North Sea), towed in. Sunk 21 April 1918 (H/L/ms)


Thursday, 7 January 1915

North Sea

ELFRIDA, 2,624/1907, Brewis Line, Newcastle-reg, 21 crew, Tyne for London with 4,150t coal. Mined, possibly Scarborough field (Kolberg), sank 2 miles ENE of Scarborough, Yorkshire (wi - in 54.17.52N, 00.19.17W) (H/L/Lr/Mn/wi)


Sunday, 10 January 1915

Central Atlantic

POTARO, 4,419/1904, Royal Mail Steam Packet Co, Belfast-reg, Mr Henry Bennett, Liverpool for Montevideo/Buenos Aires in ballast. Captured by Kronprinz Wilhelm at 0030, 560 miles E by N 1/2 N true of Pernambuco (L/kp - in 05.48N, 25.58W), retained as a scout, painted grey, fitted with Telefunken transmitter/receiver wireless, but not employed, scuttled somewhere to the south of her capture position 6 February (kp – 30 January) (H/L/Mn/kp)


Thursday, 14 January 1915

Central Atlantic

Two vessels captured by Kronprinz Wilhelm NE by E 1/2 E true from Pernambuco:

HIGHLAND BRAE, passenger ship, 7,634/1910, Nelson Steam Navigation Co, London-reg, Mr R Pond, London for Buenos Aires with passengers and general cargo. Captured 630 miles off (L - in 02.46N, 24.11W; kp - about 230 miles NE of St Paul’s Rocks), retained as temporary stores and prison ship, scuttled 31st (kp - 30th, 100 miles SE of Ilha da Trinidade) (H/L/Mn/kp/wd)

WILFRID M (sometimes Wilfred M or erroneously Wilfrid 19), 3-masted schooner, 251/1909, Ship 'Wilfred M' Co, Bridgetown, Barbados-reg, Mr C Parks, St Johns (NF)/Halifax (NS) for Bahia with dried fish. Captured 625 miles of (L - 02.46N, 26W), rammed four times to save the cruiser's ammunition, but only succeeded in cutting her in two, remained afloat (fore-part only 1/2 ), wreck drifted ashore at Grenada on 28 April (H/L/Lr/Mn/kp)

Thursday, 21 January 1915

U.7 accidentally torpedoed by U.22 off Dutch coast
North Sea

DURWARD, 1,301/1895, George Gibson & Co, Leith, Mr John Wood, sailing Leith for Rotterdam with general cargo, rainy but clear weather, steaming at 12kts. Stopped by U.19 (Constantin Kolbe) after half hour chase, two bombs placed against ship's side, exploded after half an hour, ship settled and went down 22 miles NW of Maas LV, off Hook of Holland. U-boat towed the crew north to within 1 mile of Maas LV, picked up by Dutch pilot steamer, boats taken in tow to the Hook (H/L/Mn/ap/ge/ms/sn/te/un)


Friday, 22 January 1915

North Sea

Two fishing vessels on fishing grounds mined in different fields:

WINDSOR, trawler, 172/1898, Queen Steam Fishing, Grimsby-reg. Possibly Humber field (Nautilus), sank 55 miles E of Spurn Head (H/L/Lr/gy)

GOLDEN ORIOLE, (L - trawler), 50grt. Possibly Yarmouth field (Kolberg), sank 37 miles E by N of Lowestoft (H/L)

Thursday, 28 January 1915

Auxiliary cruiser Prinz Eitel Friedrich sank American sailing ship William P Frye, the first US loss of the war

Saturday, 30 January 1915

U-boat warfare - first merchant ships sunk without warning by a U-boat, apparently as a deliberate policy

English Channel

Three steamships torpedoed without any warning by U.20 (Walther Schweiger). Lt-Cdr Otto Droescher was on the British list of war criminals for the first two sinkings, but Schweiger had taken over command of U.20 from Droescher in December. The cases did not go to court:

TOKOMARU, 6,084/1893, Shaw, Savill & Albion Co, Southampton, Mr Francis Greene, sailing Dunedin/Wellington for Havre/London with general cargo, steaming toward Havre for pilot, sea smooth. Explosion on port-side at 0900 sent water up over the bridge, stoke-hold flooded, listed heavily and started to sink, went down 7 miles NW of Havre LV, Seine estuary (L - 7 miles WSW of Cape Antifer); crew picked up within an hour by French minesweeper Saint Pierre, landed at Havre (H/L/Mn/ge/os/te/un)

IKARIA, 4,335/1900, Leyland Shipping Co, Liverpool, Mr Matthew Robertson, Buenos Aires/Santos for Havre/London/Liverpool with coffee, sugar and general cargo, stopped off Cape La Heve for Havre pilot, slight headway, master on bridge, sea smooth with no wind. Torpedo wake spotted but no time to use helm, hit port-side abreast No.1 hatch, began to sink by the head 25 miles NW of Havre (L - 20 miles NNW of Cape La Heve), still afloat after an hour, master and some crew reboarded, helped by tug in to Havre, berthed alongside Quai d'Escale until noon on 31st, Port Authority concerned and moved ship west of Avan Point towards breakwater, sank there on 2/2/15 with afterpart showing; boats got away, crew originally boarded nearby tug. (H/L/Mn/ge/os/te/un)

ORIOLE ", 1,489/1914, General Steam Navigation Co, London, London, 21 crew, Mr William Dale, sailed London 29th for Havre with general cargo, passed SS London Trader off Dungeness afternoon of 30th, went missing, posted by Lloyds 17/3/15. Probably torpedoed by U.20 (un – confirmed), sank off Dungeness (wi - 50.50N, 01E); all crew lost including master, two Oriole lifebuoys washed ashore near Rye on 6 February, bottle with the message "Oriole torpedoed - sinking" was found by Guernsey fisherman on 20 March, writing confirmed as the ship's carpenter's by his widow (H/L/Mn/sn/te/un/wi)

Irish Sea

Two British steamships (and Admiralty collier Ben Cruachan) captured by U.21 (Otto Hersing), and a fourth probably attacked by her in Liverpool Bay:

LINDA BLANCHE, 369/1914, Anglesey Shipping Co, Bangor-reg, 11 crew, Manchester for Belfast with general cargo including glazed roofing/floor tiles. Stopped (wi - by U.31) about an hour after the Ben Cruachan sinking, sunk at 1230 by bombs below decks, 18 miles NW 1/2 N of Liverpool Bar LV (L/wi - in 53.34N, 03.51W; wi - also 16 miles NW of, in 53.41.18N, 03.43.30W), ship’s papers ordered to be carried across to U-boat; crew shortly picked up by trawler Niblick or Niblet, landed at Fleetwood (H/L/Mn/ap/ge/un/wi)

KILCOAN, 456/1905, W J R Harbinson & C L MacKean, Belfast-reg, 11 crew, Mr James Maneely, Garston for Belfast with coal. U.21 closed with machine gun trained, crew ordered to abandon ship and come alongside, master ordered back for ship's papers accompanied by four armed seamen with bomb and two yards of fuse, charge set port-side amidships and lit, after making provision for the safety of the crew, returned and fired shells into the hull to speed her sinking, went down at 1330, 18 miles NW of Liverpool Bar LV (L/wi - in 53.54N, 03.46W; wi - also 53.44.30N, 03.42.24W); crew returned to their own boats, U.21 then headed for SS Gladys, directed them to rescue Kilcoan’s crew, landed at Fleetwood that night (H/L/Lr/Mn/ge/sn/un/wi)

Graphic, passenger ship, 1,871(ms – 2,017)/1906 Belfast SS Co, Belfast. Chased by U-boat, 22 miles NW of Liverpool Bar LV, escaped (H/Mn/ms)


British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in February: 14 merchant ships totalling 36,372grt - 4 of 10,350grt to surface ships, 8 of 21,787grt to submarines, 2 of 4,235grt to mines (H)

Monday, 1 February 1915

English Channel

Asturias, hospital ship, ex-passenger & cargo steamship, 12,002/1908, Royal Mail Steam Packet Co, Belfast, painted and illuminated, in daylight, visibility good. Attacked by U.20 (tr - U.21), 15 miles NNE of Havre LV, torpedo missed. First attack on a hospital ship (H/Mn/ge/ms/tr)


Thursday, 4 February 1915

U-boat Warfare - Denied a swift victory on land, Germany decided to start unrestricted submarine warfare without warning against merchant shipping from the 18th.

Wednesday, 10 February 1915

North Sea

Laertes, 4,541/1904, Ocean SS Co (Alfred Holt), Liverpool, sailing Liverpool via Amsterdam for Java with general cargo. Gun/torpedo attack by U.2, 12 miles NE by E of Schouwen Bank LV, escaped but damaged according to Lloyds. Sunk 1 August 1917 (H/L/Mn/ms/sn)


Friday, 12 February 1915

North Sea

Torquay, 870/1914, Renwick Wilton & Co, Dartmouth, sailing Torquay for Blyth. Mined off Filey Brigg, possibly in Scarborough field (Kolberg), damaged, towed into Scarborough; one life lost (H/L/ms)

South Atlantic

INVERCOE, 3-masted steel barque, 1,421/1892, G Milne, Aberdeen-reg, Mr William King, sailing Portland (Ore) for Queenstown with wheat. Captured by Prinz Eitel Friedrich 890 miles E by S 1/2 S true from Cape Frio, near Rio de Janeiro (L/kp - in 26.31S, 26.15W), sunk by bombs (H/L/Lr/Mn/kp)


Saturday, 13 February 1915

Dover Straits

Wavelet, 2,992/1905, Needham Bros, Hartlepool, sailing Pensacola for Leith with pitch pine. Mined 11 miles NE by N of N Goodwins, damaged, beached; 12 lives lost. Wrecked 27 August 1916 (H/L/ms)


Sunday, 14 February 1915

North Sea

Kirkham Abbey, passenger & cargo steamship, 1,166/1908, Hull & Netherlands SS Co (J H N Ringrose), Hull. Chased by U-boat, escaped. Sunk 27 July 1918 (H/ms)


Monday, 15 February 1915

North Sea

MEMBLAND, cargo steamship, 3,027/1900, West Hartlepool-reg, G Pyman & Co/Pyman SS, Mr Brochie, Hull for Tyne in light condition, went missing, posted by Lloyds 24/3/15. Possibly 15th - Possibly mined between Spurn Head and Flamborough Head (wi - off Whitby, in 54.30N, 00.30W); 20 lives lost including master (H/L/Mn/ms/wi)

English Channel

DULWICH (1), 3,289/1893, Britain SS Co (Watts, Watts), London, Mr J Hunter, sailing Hull for Rouen with coal, boats already swung out in case of emergency, night-time. Torpedoed starboard side by U.16 (Claus Hansen), listed slightly to starboard, began to settle by the stern, sank within c20min, 27 miles NNE of Cape la Hève, near Havre (L/te/un - 6 miles N of Cape Antifer); 2 lives lost, master and 21 men left in one boat, supposedly 9 in the other, boats became separated, master's picked up shortly after at 2000 by French destroyer, the other boat reached Fécamp but with only seven crew. Not known how the two men died as they were seen leaving the forecastle to enter the boats when the master and chief officer made their final round (H/L/Mn/ge/ms/te/un)

Wednesday, 17 February 1915

North Sea

Colchester, passenger & cargo steamship, 1,209 (ms – 1,160)/1889, Great Eastern Railway, Harwich, Mr Charles Fryatt, sailing Parkeston Quay for Rotterdam, southerly gale, heavy seas with thick rain. Submarine sighted 2 miles ahead, Colchester turned away and went to full speed, chased for 15min and lost sight of the attacker, came back on course. Wrecked 1 March 1918 (H/Mn/ms)


Thursday, 18 February 1915

U-boat Warfare - First German unrestricted submarine campaign came into effect. All waters around British Isles including the English Channel declared a War Zone where all merchant ships could be destroyed without ensuring the safety of passengers and crew; neutral ships would be at risk from attack. Britain extended the defensive arming of merchant ships to protect themselves against surfaced U-boats leading to later German claims that armed vessels should be treated as warships. US protests lead to U-boats being ordered not to attack ships flying neutral flags, hospital ships (unless obviously engaged in trooping) and Belgian Relief ships. The sinking shortly of the liner Lusitania started to swing American opinion strongly against Germany leading to entry into the war two years later. In 1915, only some 20 percent of ships were sunk without warning (some sources list start date as 28th)

Central Atlantic

MARY ADA SHORT, 3,605/1896, James Westoll, Sunderland-reg, Mr A Dobbing, Buenos Aires/Rosario for UK with maize via St Vincent for orders. Captured by Prinz Eitel Friedrich in the morning, boarding party laid dynamite charges in the engine-room, removed stores, and as the charges were ineffective, fired two shells in to the hull, sank around 1100, 400 miles E by N  1/2 N true of Pernambuco (L - in 05.49S, 28.36W) (H/L/Mn/kp)


Friday, 19 February 1915

U-boat Warfare - Norwegian tanker Belridge carrying oil from US to Holland torpedoed without warning and damaged by U.8 in Dover Straits, first neutral ship attacked in the new U-boat campaign

Saturday, 20 February 1915

Irish Sea

Two steamships sunk by U.30 (Erich von Rosenberg-Grusczyski):

CAMBANK, 3,112/1899, Merevale Shipping Co, Cardiff-reg, 24 crew, Mr T Roberts, Huelva for Garston/Liverpool with copper, ingots and sulphur ore, picked up pilot. Torpedoed, broke in two, sank after 20min, 10 miles E of Point Lynas, near Amlwch, N Anglesey (L - 4 miles E of; wi - 5 miles E by N of, in 53.26.45N 04.09.30W, also “various positions.... between four and ten miles E of”); three lives lost by explosion, one drowned abandoning ship, crew of Bull Bay lifeboat James Cullen alerted by torpedo explosion, launched and met up with survivors in two boats, towed them in until arrival of armed yacht Oriana which in turn towed these and a third into Amlwch. Metal cargo salvaged in 1950’s (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

DOWNSHIRE (1), 337/1898, East Downshire SS Co, Belfast-reg, 11 crew, Mr W Connor, Dundrum for Manchester with empty cement bags, steaming at 10kts in the evening. U.30 sighted on starboard bow about 2 miles off and gaining, came up to within quarter of a mile and fired a shell, this was ignored and the collier went to full speed, second and third shell followed, escape impossible so engines stopped, bomb placed against her side, sank 8 miles NW 1/2 W of Calf of Man island, off Isle of Man (L - in 54.03N, 05.15W) (H/L/Mn/ge/un/wi)

Central Atlantic

WILLERBY, 3,630/1912, R Ropner, Stockton-on-Tees-reg, Mr J Wedgwood, Marseilles for La Plata/Buenos Ayres in water ballast. Ordered to stop by Prinz Eitel Friedrich, ignored signal but overhauled after three-quarters of an hour, sunk by bombs 490 miles NE by N true of Pernambuco (L - in 01.18S, 29.54W) (H/L/Mn/kp)


Sunday, 21 February 1915

Irish Sea

Penhale, 3,712/1911, Penhale SS Co (R B Chellew), Falmouth. Chased by U-boat (possibly U.30 1/2 ) 3 miles W of Holyhead, escaped. Sunk 18 May 1917 (H/ms)


Monday, 22 February 1915

Dover Straits

Victoria (2), passenger steamship 1,689/1907, South Eastern & Chatham Railway Co, London. U-boat attack 6 miles from Boulogne, torpedo missed (H/ms)

Central Atlantic

Chasehill, 4,583/1891, Essex Chase SS Co (ms – Kaye Son & Co), Mr R Kidd, sailing Newport News (kp - UK) for Zarate/La Plata with 2,860t coal. Captured by Kronprinz Wilhelm (L - in 06.15S, 28.15W; kp - 06.15S, 26.10W), prize-crew boarded and nearly all coal taken off; crew returned to Chasehill on 9 March with passengers and crew of French mail steamer Guadaloupe, released and arrived Pernambuco morning of 12th, hull considerably damaged during coaling. Foundered 18 January 1916 (H/L/Mn/kp/ms)


Tuesday, 23 February 1915

Dover Straits

Kalibia, 4,930/1902, Clyde Shipping Co, Glasgow. Chased by U-boat off Dungeness, escaped. Sunk 30 November 1917 (H/ms)


Wednesday, 24 February 1915

North Sea

DEPTFORD, 1,208/1912, William Cory, London-reg, sailing Granton for Chatham with coal. Mined, possibly Scarborough field (Kolberg), sank 3 miles off Scarborough (L - 3 miles E by N of; wi - Whitby area, off Boulby, Staithes, in 54.17N, 00.18.06W); one life lost (H/L/Lr/wi)

English Channel

Three steamships torpedoed by U.8 (Alfred Stoss) and a fourth probably chased off Beachy Head, Sussex:

RIO PARANA, 4,015/1902, Leander SS Co (un – London-American Maritime Trading Co), London-reg, Mr J Williams, Tyne for Portoferrajo with coal. Hit starboard side, ports and doors stove in and saloon flooding, ship abandoned, by then considerably down by head and water level with deck, at first thought mined, sank 4 miles SE of (L - 7 miles ESE of; wi - in 50.42.20N, 00.26.52E) (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

WESTERN COAST (1), 1,165/1913, Powell, Bacon & Hough Lines, Liverpool-reg, Mr J Ratcliffe, London for Plymouth/Liverpool with general cargo. Destroyer gave warning about presence of enemy submarines and 2nd officer was about to report ship in distress when there was an explosion, column of water rose 40-50ft, ship immediately settled, went down in 2 or 3min, 8 miles SE by E 1/2 E of (wi - 50.38.24N, 00.23.28E) (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

HARPALION, 5,867/1910, J & C Harrison, London-reg, Mr A Widders, London for Newport News in ballast. (L/te - 26th) - Torpedoed 6 1/2 m W of Royal Sovereign LV, off Eastbourne (L - 4 miles SSE of), violent explosion, ship enveloped in steam, water poured over port side, headed for French coast but sank 40 miles off Cape Antifer (wi - 24 miles SSE of Beachy Head, in 50.20N, 00.23E, also 40 miles off Le Havre); explosion killed three firemen (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

Hungarian Prince, 4,765/1901, James Knott, Newcastle. Chased by U-boat, escaped. Sunk 31 July 1917 (H/Mn/ge/ms)

Thursday, 25 February 1915

Dover Straits

Surrey, passenger & cargo ship, 5,987 (or 5,4550/1899, Federal Steam Navigation Co, London, sailing Liverpool for Dunkirk with coal and meat. (L - 26th) - Mined off Calais (L - Dunkirk), damaged, beached near Deal 26th, refloated 28th, beached Mucking Flat in Thames Estuary on 29th, refloated 20 June. Wrecked 13 November 1916) (H/L/ms/tl)

St Andrew, ambulance ship, ex-passenger ship, 2,528/1908, Fishguard & Rosslare Railways & Harbours Co, London. Chased by U-boat 10 miles NW by W of Boulogne, escaped (tr - avoided torpedo fired by U.8) (H/ge/ms/tr)

Saturday, 27 February 1915

South East Pacific

CONWAY CASTLE, 3-masted steel barque, 1,694/1893, Ship 'Conway Castle' Co, London-reg, Mr John Williams, Valparaiso for Queenstown/Liverpool with barley. Captured by Dresden, scuttled 560 miles SW by W 1/2 W true from Valparaiso (L/Mn - in 37.21S, 81.58W; kp - off Isla Mocha, in 37.21S, 76.15W); crew sent into Talcahuano aboard Peruvian barque Lorton a week later (H/L/Lr/Mn/kp)


Sunday, 28 February 1915

English Channel

Thordis, cargo steamship, 501/1905, T Thommesen & Son, Arendal, Mr J Bell, sailing Blyth for Plymouth with coal, steaming at 5kts, max speed 10kts, heavy head seas. Periscope seen close by starboard side about 8 or 10 miles SW by S of Beachy Head, U-boat (possibly U.8 1/2 ) crossed to port and fired torpedo, track seen, helm put over and ship went to full speed. Claimed to have run over the submarine, keel and propeller damaged, posted by Lloyds as damaged, submarine was also apparently damaged but reached port. Skipper awarded commission as Lt RNR and DSC, crew granted £200. Sunk 10 August 1918 (H/L/Mn/ms)


MARCH 1915

British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in March: 23 merchant ships totalling 71,479grt - 2 of 7,031grt to surface ships, 21 of 64,448grt to submarines, plus 1 fishing vessel of 289grt by mine (H)

Monday, 1 March 1915

North Sea

SAPPHIRE, trawler, 289/1912, Kingston Steam Trawling, Hull-reg H675, Skipper G Leighton, Iceland for Hull. Mined (Kolberg 1/2 ), foundered off Filey, S of Scarborough (wi - in 54.16N, 00.13W); one life lost (H/L/hw/wi)


Tuesday, 2 March 1915

North Sea

Wrexham, passenger & cargo steamship, 1,414/1902 (ms - 1366/1903), 14kts, Great Central Railway, Grimsby (Mn - Great Eastern Railway), Mr Charles Fryatt, running between Harwich and Rotterdam, heavy northerly swell, weather fine and clear. U-boat appeared at 1235 in 51.50N, 03.00E, circled to the north, Wrexham turned away with deckhands helping the firemen in the boiler-room to reach 16kts, U-boat flew signals ordering her to stop, but Wrexham slowly drew away, chase given up after 40min within a mile of Maas LV. Wrecked Archangel 19 June 1918. Capt Fryatt later captured and shot as franc-tireur in 1916 (H/Mn/ms/tl)

BEESWING, cargo steamship, 1,924/1889, Bowser Ormston, Newcastle, sailing Tyne for Dieppe, missing en route after 2nd, presumed war loss – mined or torpedoed (ms/un only)

Thursday, 4 March 1915

U.8 detected by indicator nets in their first success, then sunk by destroyers Ghurka and Maori in Strait of Dover

Bristol Channel

Ningchow, cargo steamship, 9,021 (ms – 8,813)/1902, China Mutual Steam Navigation Co (Alfred Holt), Liverpool. Chased by U-boat, escaped (H/ms)


Friday, 5 March 1915

English Channel

Lydia, passenger ship, 1,133 (or 1,059)/1890, London & South Western Railway, Southampton. U-boat torpedo missed (H/ms/tl)


Tuesday, 9 March 1915

North Sea

TANGISTAN, 3,738/1906, Strick Line, London-reg, 39 crew, Benisaf for Middlesbrough with 6,000t iron ore, approaching Middlesbrough, too early for tide so reduced speed as night fell. Explosion around midnight, lights went out, hands rushed on deck as she sank rapidly 9 miles N of Flamborough Head (wi - in 54.15.42N, 00.05.08W); 38 crew lost, boats ordered lowered, but she just disappeared taking down everyone with her, some men came back up, but only AB J O'Toole survived. Holding on to a spar, he heard the other voices stop, three ships passed by and he was in the water for 2 hours when his cries were heard by SS Woodville, picked up and landed at West Hartlepool. Not known if mined or torpedoed at the time, was confirmed post-war as torpedoed by U.12, but no longer. now attributes this attack to SS Aberdon following, with Tangistan lost on a mine laid by cruiser Kolberg (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

ABERDON, cargo steamship, 1,005/1911, Adam Bros, Aberdeen, sailed from Seaham Harbour for Aberdeen with coal, went missing with all hands, probably sunk by U.12 (un – confirmed) (ms/un only)

Dover Straits

BLACKWOOD, 1,230/1907, Tyneside Line, North Shields-reg, Mr John Souter, Blyth for Havre with coal. Torpedoed by U.35 (Waldemer Kophamel), sank 18 miles SW by S of Dungeness (L - 18 miles SW by W of; wi - 7 1/2 m S of Hastings, in 50.43.30N, 00.36.30E) (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

Irish Sea

One steamship torpedoed by U.20 (Walther Schweiger), another probably chased by her off Liverpool Bar LV, off Mersey estuary:

PRINCESS VICTORIA, 1,108/1894, M Langlands & Sons, Glasgow-reg, Mr John Cubbin, Aberdeen for Liverpool with general cargo. Sunk by U.20, 16 miles NW by N of (wi - in 53.43.30N, 03.41W) (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

Clan MacRae, cargo steamship, 5,058/1912, Cayzer, Irvine & Co (Clan Line), Glasgow. Escaped (H/ms)

Wednesday, 10 March 1915

U.12 rammed and sunk by destroyer Ariel off Fife Ness in North Sea


Thursday, 11 March 1915

German auxiliary cruiser Prinz Eitel Friedrich, running out of coal and with machinery wearing out, entered Newport News (Va), interned around 8 April 1915

English Channel

Adenwen, cargo steamship, 3,798/1913, W & C T Jones Steam Sailing Co, Cardiff, Mr W Ladd, sailing Rouen for Barry in ballast. Captured by U.29 (Otto Weddigen), 20 miles NW of Casquets, off Alderney, crew took to boats, ship damaged by bombs but stayed afloat, discovered later in the day by French destroyer Claymore, towed into Cherbourg on 12th, temporarily repaired, arrived Cardiff 1 April. Ship's boats towed by submarine for some time, then transferred to Norwegian SS Bothnia, landed at Brixham that afternoon. Sunk 25 March 1917 (H/L/Mn/ms/un)

Irish Sea

Helen, cargo steamship, 322 (also 333)/1904, R Neill & Sons, Belfast. U-boat attack 8 miles NNW of Liverpool Bar LV, torpedo missed. Sunk 1 May 1917) (H/ms)

Atlantic off SW England

FLORAZAN, 4,658/1913, Liverpool Shipping Co, Liverpool, Mr E Cawsey, sailing Havre for Liverpool in ballast. Torpedoed by U.20 (Walther Schweiger), 53 miles NE 1/2 E of Longships LH, off Lands End (L - 53 miles N of), took immediate list to port, soon on fire amidships and settling slowly by the head, ship abandoned, survivors stood by for 2 or 3 hours, but could not reboard because of the flames, still afloat next day, taken in tow by eight drifters, sank morning of the 13th (L/un - 50 miles SW 1/2 S of St Ann’s Head); one fireman believed killed in explosion, survivors rescued from their boats by drifter Wenlock (H/L/Mn/te/un)


Friday, 12 March 1915

Irish Sea

Atlantic City, cargo steamship, 4,707/1912, Reardon Smith & Sons, Cardiff. Chased by U-boat 6 miles E of South Rock, S of Belfast Lough, escaped (H/ms)

Atlantic off SW England

Three British steamships sunk by U.29 (Otto Weddigen) off Scillies, two of them captured first:

ANDALUSIAN, 2,349/1911, Papayanni Line (un – Ellerman Lines), Liverpool-reg, 34 crew, Mr L Malley, Liverpool for Patras with general cargo. U-boat sighted on port bow, attempted to run, overtaken and stopped at 0045, ship’s boats used by Germans to board, sea-cocks opened, sank 25 miles WNW of Bishop Rock (L - 20 miles NW of; te - in 49.08N, 07.00W; un/wi - in 49.50N, 07.05W; un – also in 49.41N, 06.52W); crew towed until transferred to French barque Jacques Coeur (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

INDIAN CITY, 4,645/1915, Instow SS Co (Wm Reardon Smith & Co), Bideford, Cardiff-reg, 37 crew, Mr John Williams, Galveston/Newport News for Havre with cotton and spelter. U.29 surfaced close by, master tried to escape but soon overhauled, ordered to stop and abandon ship, ship’s log book carried across, single torpedo fired, sank 10 miles S of St Mary's (L - torpedoed 10 miles S of Bishop Rock on 12th, sank 25 miles S of Bishop Rock on 13th; wi - reverses Lloyd's locations; un – in 49.30N, 06.15W). U-boat took lifeboats in tow, cast off when two patrol boats came up, tow picked by patrol boat - probably HMT Ulysses, brought into St Mary’s (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

HEADLANDS, 2,988/1882, Sefton SS Co, Liverpool-reg, 23 crew, Mr Herbert Lugg, Marseilles for Swansea/Bristol in ballast (un – with ore and fruit; wi - from Burriana with 1,800t flints and mineral ores), heading for burning ship about 5 miles off, presumably Indian City. U.29 came up at full speed, Headlands turned away but soon overhauled, shouted at to stop but ignored the order, submarine drew off and fired torpedo, hitting her abaft engine-room 8 miles S of Scillies (L - 10 miles S of Bishop Rock) at 1025, started settling, U-boat chased away by patrol vessels, ship taken in tow but sank (L - 1 mile SE of Bishop Rock; wi - 1 mile S of Scilly, in 49.51.20N, 06.26.15W); crew towed into port by patrol craft (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)


Saturday, 13 March 1915

U-boat Warfare - First neutral sinking, possibly by mistake, Swedish steamer Hanna, 1,598grt carrying coal from Tyne to Las Palmas torpedoed without warning and sunk in North Sea off Scarborough (L, not in un)

Irish Sea

HARTDALE, 3,839/1910, Trechmann SS Co, West Hartlepool-reg, sailing Clyde/Glasgow for Alexandria (te/wi - with stone; un – with coal), 31 crew, Mr Thomas Martin. U.27 (Bernd Wegener) appeared off port bow at 0500, shortly ordered her to stop and abandon ship within 10min, master ignored the command and zig-zagged ahead at full speed. Submarine ordered her to stop twice more, fired rockets and small shells until at 0600 a torpedo was fired, hitting the ship port side in No.3 hold, sank 7 miles SE by E of South Rock, S of Belfast Lough (un – in 54.25N, 05.08W; wi - in 54.19N, 05.15W); crew took to the boats without orders, leaving master, chief officer, a steward and a seaman on board who had to jump in the sea, they were picked up by the U-boat and transferred to the Swedish SS Heimdal, which also picked up the other crew members. H/un/wi - two lives lost, but only the seaman, drowned when he went overboard is identified (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

Sunday, 14 March 1915

Light cruiser Dresden discovered at Chilean island of Mas a Fuera, Juan Fernandez group in SE Pacific by armoured cruiser Kent, light cruiser Glasgow & armed merchant cruiser Orama, shelled, then scuttled

North Sea

Quentin, passenger & cargo steamship, 1,274/1892, G Gibson & Co, Leith. Chased by U-boat 5 miles NNW of Maas LV, escaped

English Channel

Two cargo steamships attacked by U-boat(s), torpedoes missed:
Sutton Hall, Belgian Relief ship, 4,460/1905, Ellerman Lines (R Alexander), Liverpool (H/ms)

Umtata, 2,655/1898, Bullard King & Co, London (H/ms)

Atlantic off W Ireland

Atalanta, 519/1905, J & P Hutchinson, Glasgow, armed, Mr J MacLarnon, sailing Galway for Glasgow. Captured by U.29 (Otto Weddigen), 12 miles WSW of Inishturk Is (L - 6 miles SSW of Achill Head), set on fire and damaged, towed into Cleggan, repaired (H/L/Mn/ge/ms/un)


Monday, 15 March 1915

Aviation war - start of German aircraft attacks on shipping in North Sea, 10 vessels bombed in March and April near North Hinder and Galloper LV's

North Sea

FINGAL, passenger ship, 1,562/1894, London & Edinburgh Shipping, Leith-reg, sailing London for Leith with general cargo. Torpedoed by U.23 (Hans Schultess), sank 6 miles E by S of Coquet Is, off Amble (wi - in 55.21N, 01.21W); 6 lives lost, including 1 MN stewardess (H/L/te/tr/un/wi)

Blonde, 613grt, Mr A Milne, Cowes for Tyne in ballast, 3 miles E of North Foreland. Second mate on bridge noticed an aircraft flying from the east, five bombs dropped but just missed, ship went to full speed, zigzagged and sounded her whistle, armed trawler came up, fired one shot and the plane disappeared (ms – the only possible match is cargo steamship, 610/1863, disposal not listed) (H/Mn/ms)

English Channel

Hyndford, cargo steamship, 4,286/1905, Scottish Shipowners’ Co (Robertson Paterson & Co), Glasgow, Mr John Horne, sailing Bahia Blanca for London with oats and wheat, steaming up-Channel at full speed, weather fine, sea smooth. Torpedoed by U.35 (Waldemar Kophamel) 12 miles S of Beachy Head (L/un - 12 miles S of Royal Sovereign LV), damaged, water in forehold, but No.2 dry, aft ballast tanks filled to trim down the ship which proceeded at full speed for The Downs, arrived there on 16th at 2330, towed to Gray's Flats, beached for temporary repairs; one life lost, crew started to abandon ship without waiting for orders, master ordered them to stop but port lifeboat slipped throwing two men into the sea. Engine-room staff went below to stop engines, boat launched to rescue the men, but only one was saved (H/L/Mn/ms/un)


Tuesday, 16 March 1915

English Channel

Highland Scot, passenger & cargo steamship, 7,604 (ms – 7,343)/1910, W & W Nelson, London. Chased by U-boat, escaped. Wrecked 6 May 1918 (H/ms)

Black Sea

Wolverton, cargo steamship, 3,868/1914, Denaby & Cadeby Main Collieries, Hull, sailing Port Said for Novorossisk. Mined off Russian coast, 5-6 miles E by S of Fontana LH, Odessa, damaged, towed in to Odessa same day; one life lost. Voyage details must be in doubt as since 29 October 1914, the Dardanelles through to the Black Sea had been closed to Allied shipping; she was probably trapped in the Black Sea (H/L/ms)


Wednesday, 17 March 1915

North Sea

LEEUWARDEN, 990/1903, General Steam Navigation Co, London, sailing London for Harlingen in ballast. Captured by U.28 (Georg-Günther Freiherr von Forstner), sunk by gunfire 4 miles W by N 1/2 N of Maas Light, near Hook of Holland (L - 4 miles SE of) (H/L/te/un)


Thursday, 18 March 1915

Naval Aviation - Only days after construction had been approved by the Admiralty on 28 February, the maiden flight of small non-rigid Sea Scout-class SS.1 airship took place at RNAS Station, Kingsnorth, Kent; sometimes referred to as SS Submarine Scout. Smaller and cheaper than the planned rigid airships, they joined RNAS aircraft on maritime patrols off the British coasts. By the end of the war more than 200 British non-rigid airships of different types had been built, of which more than 100 were operational, plus 200 naval balloons,

U.29 rammed and sunk by battleship Dreadnought in North Sea

North Sea

Colchester, passenger & cargo steamship, 1,209 (ms – 1,160)/1889, Great Eastern Railway Co, Harwich. Chased by U-boat off Hook of Holland, escaped. Wrecked 1 or 2 March 1918 (H/ms/tl)

English Channel

Two, possibly three steamships attacked by U.34 (Claus Rücker) off Sussex:

GLENARTNEY (1), 5,201/1911, Caledonia SS Co, Glasgow-reg, Mr J Craig, sailing Bangkok for London/Liverpool with rice and rice meal. Torpedoed by U.34, sank 4 miles S of Royal Sovereign LV, off Eastbourne (un – in 50.36N, 00.25E; wi - in 50.38.48N, 00.25.32E); one crew lost (H/L/te/un/wi)

Blue Jacket, 3,515/1904, G Hallett, Cardiff (un – J L Thompson & Sons, Sunderland), sailing La Plata for London with maize. Torpedoed by U.34, 15 miles E of Owers LV, off Selsey Bill, damaged, put into Southampton Water (H/L/ms/un)

Strathfillan, cargo ship, Belgian Relief ship, 4,353/1906, Strathfillan SS Co (Burrell & Son), Glasgow. Chased by U-boat off Beachy Head, escaped (H/ms)

Friday, 19 March 1915

English Channel

San Dunstano, tanker, 6,220/1912, Eagle Oil Transportation Co, London. Chased by U-boat, escaped (H/ms)

Saturday, 20 March 1915

English Channel

Two cargo steamships chased by U-boat(s) and escaped:

John Duncan (ms – J Duncan), 1,832/1914, J T Duncan & Co, Cardiff. Near Royal Sovereign LV (H/ms)

Dorset Coast, 672/1908, F H Powell & Co, Liverpool. Sunk 26 February 1916 (H/ms)

Sunday, 21 March 1915

North Sea

Ennismore, 1,499/1880, William Johnston & Co, Liverpool. U-boat attack 10 miles NE by N of Coquet Is, off Northumberland, torpedo missed. Listed as owned by James Cormack & Co, Leith when sunk 29 December 1917 (H/ms/tl)

Three cargo steamships attacked by aircraft, all bombs missed:

Elfland, Belgian Relief ship, 4,190 (ms – 4,211)/1914, Fred Drughorn Ltd, London. Off North Hinder LV (H/Mn/ms)

Pandion, 1,279/1904, Cork Steam Shipping Co, Cork. Between North Hinder & Galloper. Lost in collision 15 March 1917 (H/Mn/ms)

Lestris, 1,384/1905, Cork Steam Shipping Co, Cork. Some 14 miles E of Galloper, off Harwich (H/Mn/ms)

Dover Straits

Tycho, cargo steamship, 3,216/1904, T Wilson Sons & Co, Hull. U-boat attack in The Downs, torpedo missed. Sunk 20 May 1917 (H/ms)

English Channel

CAIRNTORR, cargo steamship, 3,588/1904, Cairn Line of Steamship (Cairns Noble & Co), Newcastle-reg, Mr R Purvis, Tyne for Genoa with coal. Torpedoed by U.34 (Claus Rücker), sank 7 miles S of Beachy Head (L - 3 miles S of; un – 50.40N, 00.15E; wi - in 50.37N, 00.14.30E). Note: “Wreck Index” suggests the HMSO & Lloyd’s positions are the torpedoed and loss locations respectively, ms – torpedoed 7 miles S of Beach Head (H/L/ms/te/un/wi)


Monday, 22 March 1915

North Sea

Osceola, tanker, 393/1897, Anglo-American Oil (ms – Oxceola SS Co (Bliss), London). Aircraft attack, bombs missed (H/Mn/ms)

English Channel

CONCORD, 2,861/1902, Thomas Smailes & Sons SS Co, Whitby-reg, Mr H Layment, sailing Rosario for Leith with bulk grain, linseed cake and maize. Torpedoed by U.34 (Claus Rücker), sank 9 miles SE by E 1/2 E of Royal Sovereign LV, off Eastbourne (L - S 20 deg E 8 miles from; wi - in 50.40N, 00.39.30E) (H/L/te/un/wi)


Tuesday, 23 March 1915

North Sea

Teal (1), cargo steamship, 764 (also 716 and 830grt)/1876, General Steam Navigation Co, London. Aircraft attack, bombs and darts missed. Sunk 29 April 1916) (H/Mn/ms/tl)

Thursday, 25 March 1915

U-boat Warfare - First deliberate neutral sinking, Dutch SS Medea, 1,235grt, sailing Valencia for London with oranges, stopped and searched, then sunk by U.28 in English Channel off Beachy Head. Dutch government made strong protests

North Sea

Groningen, passenger & cargo steamship, 988/1902, General Steam Navigation Co, London. Chased by U-boat, escaped. Sunk 23 September 1915 (H/ms)

English Channel

Two cargo steamships attacked by U.37 (Erich Wilcke):

Delmira, 3,459/1905, Strathclyde Shipping Co (W Lowden) (un – Kyle Transport Co (A Bicket)), Liverpool, 32 crew, Mr William Lancefield, sailing Boulogne for Port Talbot, steaming at 9kts. U.37 appeared astern 2 miles off, made signals to stop but ignored, firing started and as the U-boat closed, Delmira stopped 23 miles NNE of Cape Antifer, N of Le Havre (L - 25 miles N of), damaged by bombs, drifted ashore at St Vaast la Hogue on 26th, later refloated, arrived Cherbourg on 1 April; U.37 towed the three ship's boats for over an hour towards the English coast, sighted SS Lizzie (following), cut the tows and dived to attack (H/L/Mn/ms/un)

Lizzie, 802/1888, Lewis & Co, Liverpool, Mr Jonathan Evans. As the submerged U.37 approached, Lizzie went to full speed and attempted ram but missed, stopped to pick up Delmira's men from their boats, landed them at Portsmouth (H/Mn/ms)

off SW Scotland

Tewfikieh, passenger & cargo steamship, 2,490(ms – 2,495grt)/1893, Khedivial Mail Steam Shipping Co, London. Chased by U-boat off Ailsa Craig island, escaped. Sunk 9 June 1918 (H/ms)

Central Atlantic

TAMAR, 3,207/1902, Royal Mail Steam Packet Co, Middlesbrough-reg, Mr F Hannan, sailing Santos for Havre with coffee, to eastward of normal track. (Mn/kp - 24th) - Overhauled by raider Kronprinz Wilhelm and stopped, sunk by gunfire 500 miles ENE true from Pernambuco, Brazil (L - 02.06S, 28.50W); crew and passengers had to sign a declaration of neutrality (H/L/Mn/kp)


Saturday, 27 March 1915

North Sea

Ousel, cargo steamship, 1,284/1901, Cork Steam Shipping Co, Cork. Aircraft attack between North Hinder and Galloper, bombs missed. Lost in collision 14 September 1917 (H/Mn/ms)

St George's Channel & Atlantic off SW England

Three steamships sunk by U.28 (Georg-Günther Freiherr von Forstner), two of them captured first:

AGUILA, passenger ship, 2,114/1909, Aguila SS Co (Yeoward Bros), Liverpool-reg, 43 crew, Mr Bannerman, Liverpool for Lisbon/Las Palmas with general cargo and 3 passengers. Sunk by torpedo 47 miles SW of The Smalls, E of Milford Haven (L/wi - 20 miles SW of, in 51.30N, 06.05W); 8 lives lost, including 1 passenger and 1 MN stewardess (H/L/ge/te/tr/un/wi)

SOUTH POINT (1), 3,837/1912, Norfolk and North American SS Co (Furness, Withy & Co), West Hartlepool-reg, Mr G Newman, Fowey/Cardiff for Philadelphia with china clay in bulk and casks. Sunk by torpedo 60 miles W of Lundy Is, off Devon (H/L/ge/te/un/wi)

VOSGES, 1,295/1911, Moss SS Co, Liverpool-reg, Mr John Green, Bordeaux for Liverpool with general cargo, two 1st-class and 5 consular passengers. Chased and sunk by gunfire 38 miles W by N of Trevose Head, Cornwall (L/te/wi - attacked in 50.27N, 6W, sank in 50.42N, 05.35W); chief engineer killed by shell (H/L/Mn/ge/sn/te/un/wi)

Central Atlantic

COLEBY, 3,824/1907, R Ropner, Stockton-on-Tees-reg, Mr William Crighton, Rosario/Buenos Aires for St Vincent (CV) with 5,000t wheat. Captured by raider Kronprinz Wilhelm, sunk by gunfire and scuttling charges 460 miles NE 1/2 N true from Pernambuco (L - in 01.58S, 30W; kp - 460 miles NE by E of) (H/L/Lr/Mn/kp)


Sunday, 28 March 1915

North Sea

Brussels, passenger ship, 1,380/1902, Great Eastern Railway Co, Harwich, Mr Charles Fryatt. Attacked by U.33, 8 miles W of Maas LV, turned towards the U-boat and forced it to break off the attack. Captured 23 June 1916, master shot as franc-tireur (H/ge/ms)

St George's Channel

FALABA, passenger ship, 4,806/1906, Elder Line (Elder, Dempster & Co), Liverpool-reg, c99 crew, Mr J Davis, Liverpool for Sierra Leone/West Africa with c147 passengers including 7 women and one American, cargo unknown but included 13t of ammunition. U.28 (Georg-Günther Freiherr von Forstner), reportedly flying the White Ensign, German ensign hoisted as it approached, Falaba tried to run but unable to do so, hove to and started to abandon ship, with only five boats swung out, torpedo hit amidships, sank within 10min, 38 miles W of The Smalls, E of Pembrokeshire (L/wd - 36 miles SW by W of); 104 lives lost including master, 2 MN stewardness' and the American citizen; survivors picked up by drifters Eileen Emma and Wenlock. US Government strongly protested (H/L/Mn/ge/kt/nh/te/tr/un/wd)

Dunedin, cargo steamship, 4,796/1909, Henderson McIntosh, Leith. Chased by U-boat, escaped (H/ms)

Atlantic off SW England

City of Cambridge, 3,844 (tl - 3,788)/1882, Ellerman's City Line (was G Smith/City Line), Glasgow, Mr Alfred Fry, sailing Alexandria for Liverpool with general cargo, preparations had been made for a possible attack. Submarine sighted close by around 1830 some 25 miles NW by N of Bishop Rock, Scillies, City of Cambridge turned away, went to full speed and chased for 1 1/2 hr. The U-boat kept closing and firing, but the swell probably spoiled her aim, City of Cambridge meanwhile worked up from normal maximum of 10kts to a little over 13kts, heading into wind and sea and slowly drawing ahead. By now it was a bright moonlight night, the U-boat gave one last parting shot before being lost to sight. Sunk 3 July 1917 (H/Mn/ms/tl)

Monday, 29 March 1915

Atlantic off SW England

Two ships attacked by U.28 (Georg-Günther Freiherr von Forstner) off the Scillies:

FLAMINIAN (1), 3,500/1914, Papayanni Line (un – Ellerman Lines), Liverpool-reg, Mr David Cruikshank, Clyde for Port Natal with general cargo. Captured, sunk by gunfire 50 miles SW by W of (L/te - in 49.08N, 7W; un/wi - 49.50N 07W) (H/L/Mn/ge/te/un/wi)

Theseus, passenger & cargo steamship, 6,724/1908, Ocean SS Co (Alfred Holt), Liverpool, sailing Liverpool for Java with general cargo. Gun attack, 40 miles SW of (L/un - 40 miles W of), damaged, escaped (H/L/ms/un)

Tuesday, 30 March 1915

North Sea

Staffa, cargo steamship, 1,008/1902, Leith, Hull & Hamburg Steam Packet Co (J Currie), Leith. Aircraft attack off North Galloper Buoy, bombs missed (H/Mn/ms)

Atlantic off SW England

CROWN OF CASTILE, 4,505/1905, Crown SS Co (Prentice, Service & Henderson), Glasgow-reg, 43 crew, Mr T Fyfe, St John (NB) for Havre with cattle fodder - oats and hay for BEF animals in France. Sighted by U.28 (Georg-Günther Freiherr von Forstner) around 0818, tried to escape but soon overtaken, single shell hit at 0900, crew abandoned ship at 0920. Seven more rounds were fired into the hull but she refused to sink, boarded and two bombs placed, finished off at 1257, 31 miles SW of Bishop Rock, Scillies (L - 34 miles SSW of; un/wi - in 49.25N, 06.50W); crew picked up by French SS Magellan, landed at Barry next day (H/L/ge/te/un/wi)

APRIL 1915

British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in April: 11 merchant ships totalling 22,453grt - all to submarines, plus 11 fishing vessels totalling 1,930grt - 10 of 1,760grt to submarines, 1 of 170grt to mines (H)

U-boat Warfare - First Flanders UB flotilla commissioned, six boats operational by end of April; U.37 possibly mined off Zeebrugge, Belgium during the month

Thursday, 1 April 1915

North Sea

Three trawlers on fishing grounds captured by U.10 (Fritz Stuhr) and sunk by bombs NE by E of the Tyne:

GLOXINIA, 145/1896, John Colquhoun, Glasgow, Milford-reg. Sunk 40 miles off (un – 40 miles NE by E of) (H/L/Lr/ge/un)

JASON, 176/1898, A J Freeth, North Shields-reg SN76, hired 8/14 as minesweeper, returned to mercantile service 9/14. Sunk 40 miles off (un – 40 miles NE by E of, in 55.27N, 00.25W) (H/L/Lr/D/ge/un)

NELLIE (L - Nelly), 109/1898, North Shields-reg, G Stephenson. Sunk 35 miles off (un – 40 miles NE by E of) (H/L/Lr/ge/un)

English Channel

SEVEN SEAS, 1,194/1888, Leach & Co, Cork-reg, sailing London for Liverpool in ballast. Torpedoed forward by U.37 (Erich Wilcke) in afternoon, sank almost immediately 6 miles S of Beachy Head (L - 5 miles off Royal Sovereign LV; wi - in 50.38.53N, 00.15.33E); master, chief engineer, both mates, steward, three seaman and a boy drowned, 9 survivors picked up by destroyer Flirt, landed at Newhaven (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)


Friday, 2 April 1915

English Channel

San Silvestre, tanker, 6,233/1913, Eagle Oil Transportation Co, London. Chased by U-boat 21 miles S of Eddystone Rocks, escaped (H/ms)


Sunday, 4 April 1915

English Channel

OLIVINE, 634/1902, William Robertson, Glasgow-reg, 12 crew, Mr A Lamont, St Samson’s, Guernsey for Calais with granite, weather fine and clear, proceeding at 8kts. Captured by U.33 (Konrad Gansser), sunk by torpedo 30 miles S of St Catherine's Point, IoW (un – in 50.26N, 01.12W; wi - in 50.05N, 01.20W) (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

Atlantic off SW England

CITY OF BREMEN, 1,258/1899, Palgrave, Murphy & Co, Dublin-reg, Mr Richard Martin, Port Talbot for Nantes/Bordeaux with coal. Torpedoed by U.24 (Rudolph Schneider), capsized and sank in 5min, 20 miles S  1/2 W of Wolf Rock (un/wi - in 49.40N, 06.05W; wi – also 20 miles SW of); 4 crew lost, survivors landed at Penzance (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

Monday, 5 April 1915

North Sea

ACANTHA, trawler, 322/1914, Equitable Steam Fishing Co, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Captured by U.10 (Fritz Stuhr), sunk by torpedo 25 miles E by N of Longstone, Outer Farne Is (L - in 55.43N, 01.00W; un – in 55.41N, 01.00W) (H/L/Lr/ge/gy/un)

English Channel

NORTHLANDS, 2,776/1900, Northlands SS Co (Jones, Hallett & Co), Cardiff-reg, 24 crew, Mr S Taylor, La Goulette for Middlesbrough with iron ore. Captured by U.33 (Konrad Gansser), sunk by torpedo 24 miles SW of Beachy Head (L - 25 miles SW of; un – in 50.03N, 00.16W; wi - in 50.22.30N, 00.06W), W/T codes & Admiralty instructions burnt in the galley fire, ship’s papers saved by master (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)


Wednesday, 7 April 1915

North Sea

ZARINA, trawler, 154/1894, H L Taylor, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Torpedoed by U-boat (not listed in, sank 72 miles E by N of Spurn LV, Humber estuary (L - 68 miles E by N of); 9 lives lost including skipper (H/L/Lr/gy)


Thursday, 8 April 1915

English Channel

Two attacks possibly by same U-boat:

Homer, steam tug, c157grt (ms – believed 142/1915), coastal tug in government service, armed with small gun forward, fitted with W/T, Mr H Gibson, towing French barque General De Sonis up-Channel, bound for Sunderland with grain. U-boat approached about 15 miles off St Catherine’s Point (H - 25 miles SW of Owers LV) and ordered tug abandoned, instead the tow was cast off and in rough seas under machine gun fire, Homer attempted to ram but missed. The U-boat fired a torpedo and that missed, chased Homer for 10min before giving up, the tug escaping and putting into St Helens Roads. Although the wheelhouse and bridge were damaged by bullets, there do not apear to have been any casualties. The General De Sonis was later picked up by tug Lady Crundall and towed into The Downs (account from “British Steam Tugs”) (H/Mn/ms/tu)

Denaby, cargo steamship, 2,987/1900, Denaby & Cadeby Main Collieries (Nicholas), Hull. U-boat attack off St Catherine's Point, torpedo missed. Listed as owned by West House SS Co (F. H. Barnett, Lambert & Co, Cardiff/London) when sunk 24 February 1916 (H/ms)

Friday, 9 April 1915

Auxiliary Patrol - British order for 50 American-built motor launches (ML.1-50) placed with Elco of Bayonne, NY through Canadian Vickers; further orders reached ML.580

Saturday, 10 April 1915

North Sea

HARPALYCE, 5,940/1911, J & C Harrison, London, 44 crew including 33 Chinese, Mr Wawn, with Commission for Relief in Belgium, sailed Rotterdam about 0230 for Norfolk (Va) flying large Commission flag, with the Commission's name painted on the side and safe conduct granted by the German minister at The Hague, in ballast. Torpedoed starboard-side by UB.4 (Karl Gross) at 1000, poop and after well deck submerged within 2min, impossible to swing out lifeboats, shortly went down 7 miles E by S of North Hinder LV, midway between Harwich & Hook of Holland (L - 7 miles NE of; Mn - 7 miles SSE of); 15 lives lost including master, survivors picked up by Dutch SS’s Elizabeth, Constance Catherine and US schooner Ruby (H/L/Mn/te/un)

English Channel

THE PRESIDENT, 647/1904, J Hay & Sons, Glasgow-reg, 10 crew, Mr Neil Robertson, Clyde for St Malo with coal tar/pitch. Captured by U.24 (Rudolph Schneider), sunk by bomb 14 miles S by W of Lizard Point, Cornwall (L - 30 miles SE of; un/wi - in 49.44N, 05.11W) (H/L/Mn/ms/te/un)


Sunday, 11 April 1915

German auxiliary cruiser Kronprinz Wilhelm entered Newport News (Va) in poor mechanical condition, interned on 27th

North Sea

Serula, cargo steamship, 1,388/1905, Cork Steam Shipping Co, Cork, Mr T Sharp. Two seaplanes started attack at 1550 around 5 miles W of North Hinder LV, lasted until 1630. The larger aircraft dropped seven bombs which either missed or were avoided by helm changes, rifle fire was then aimed at the smaller one as it dropped bombs on either side. More bombs were dropped in a joint attack from the stern, in single attacks from the stern, and in a last attempt by the smaller seaplane, each one again either missing or avoided. Sunk 16 September 1918 (H/Mn/ms)

Atlantic off SW England

Wayfarer, troopship/transport, cargo steamship, 9,599/1903, Charente SS Co (T & J Harrison), Liverpool, 61 crew, sailing from Avonmouth, carrying 6 military officers and 189 other ranks. Torpedoed by U.32 (Edgar Freiherr von Spiegel von und zu Peckelsheim) 60 miles WNW of Scillies (L/un - in 50.08N, 8W), damaged, towed into Queenstown; 5 military other ranks and 2 crew lost (H/L/dk/ge/me/ms)


Monday, 12 April 1915

North Sea

Imber, passenger & cargo steamship, 2,154/1914, Cork Steam Shipping Co, Cork. Aircraft attack 3 miles W of North Hinder LV, bombs missed (H/ms)


Thursday, 15 April 1915

North Sea

PTARMIGAN, 784/1891, General Steam Navigation Co, London, Mr W Hore, Rotterdam for London with general cargo. Torpedoed by UB.5 (Wilhelm Smiths), sank 6 miles W by N of North Hinder LV; 8 lives lost (H/L/Mn/te/un)

Friday, 16 April 1915

Aegean Sea

Manitou, passenger & cargo steamship, now transport, 6,849/1898, Atlantic Transport Line, believed Belfast, carrying 29th British Division contingent of 20 officers, 626 men and 615 horses, passing Skyros island, stopped for approaching torpedo boat, believed to be British, in fact German-commanded Turkish TB Demir Hissar. Manitou ordered to abandon ship but little time given, overloaded boats capsized, two torpedoes fired but missed. The TB went away to deal with despatch-boat Osiris which escaped, returned to Manitou, fired last torpedo and also missed. Demir Hissar was then chased by other warships, trapped and beached herself. Manitou lost 51 lives by drowning and exposure, but HMSO only lists 8 crew, presumably 43 were Army (H/Rn/ms)


Saturday, 17 April 1915

Atlantic off S of Ireland

La Rosarina, passenger & cargo steamship, 8,332/1912, British & Argentine Steam Navigation Co, West Hartlepool, armed. Chased by U-boat, driven off by gunfire. Described as the first successful self-defence by a British armed merchant ship (H/ge/ms)


Sunday, 18 April 1915

North Sea

GLENCARSE, trawler, 188/1900, W Hutchinson, Aberdeen-reg. Between 18 & 20th (L - 18th, un – 14th) - Captured by U.6 (Reinhold Lepsius) between Shetlands & Aberdeen, taken as prize into Hamburg (un – off Scotland, conducted into List (Sylt)); crew taken prisoner (H/L/Lr/un)

Two Grimsby-reg trawlers together on fishing grounds attacked by U-boat (not in off Inner Dowsing LV, E of Mablethorpe, Lincolnshire:

VANILLA, 158/1897, South Western Steam Fishing, 3 miles SW of Swarte Bank. Torpedoed, sank 53 miles E by S of; 9 lives lost including skipper (H/L/Lr/Mn/gy)

Fermo, 175/1898, GY773. Went to rescue Vanilla's survivors but another torpedo was fired, forced to escape (Mn/D)

Monday, 19 April 1915

North Sea

Lestris, 1,384/1905, Cork Steam Shipping Co, Cork. Chased by U-boat 2 miles E of North Hinder LV, escaped (H/ms)


Wednesday, 21 April 1915

North Sea

Envoy, trawler, 156grt, fishing, probably Aberdeen-reg A507. Attacked and damaged by U-boat (not in 56 miles E by S 1/2 S of Aberdeen, towed to Tyne on 25th (L/D)


Thursday, 22 April 1915

North Sea

Two Grimsby-reg trawlers lost on fishing grounds, one in uncertain circumstances:

ST LAWRENCE, 196/1899, Grimsby Victor Steam Fishing, GY1131, hired 10/14 as auxiliary patrol vessel, returned to mercantile service 11/14. (gy - 29th) - Captured by U.22 (Bruno Hoppe), sunk by bomb 88 miles E 1/2 N of Spurn LV, off S Yorkshire (L - 80 miles E 1/2 N of; un – in 54.14N, 03.02E); 2 lives lost (H/L/Lr/D/gy/un)

CANCER, 183/1900, Grimsby & North Sea Steam Trawling, missing since 13th. Probably 22nd - Captured by German destroyer/torpedo boat (L - by U-boat; un – not listed in U-boat sinkings), fate unknown; crew taken prisoners (H/L/Lr/gy/un)

English Channel

Arvonian, cargo steamship, 2,794/1905, SS Goidelian & Coranian Co (O & W Williams), Cardiff. U-boat torpedo missed. Served as Royal Navy Q-ship from 8/17, then US Q-ship Santee from 11/17 (H/ms/qs)

Monday, 26 April 1915

North Sea

RECOLO, trawler, 170/1912, G F Sleight, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Mined, probably surface-ship-laid (un – not included, so presumably not U-boat-laid), sank 60 miles E by N of Spurn Head (L - 60 miles ENE of; Mn - S of Dogger Bank); 2 lives lost (H/L/Lr/Mn/gy)


Wednesday, 28 April 1915

Diplomatic Incidents - US merchant ship Cushing bombed by German aircraft in North Sea

North Sea

LILYDALE, trawler, 129/1899, Lilydale Steam Fishing (un – J Reed and Sons, North Shields), North Shields-reg, Skipper W Melton, from North Shields for fishing and return. Captured by U.10 (Fritz Stuhr), sunk by bomb 37 miles E of St Abbs Head, SE Scotland (wi - in 55.57N, 01.39W) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)



MAY 1915

British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in May: 19 merchant ships totalling 84,025grt - all to submarines; plus 32 fishing vessels totalling 5,648grt - 4 of 689grt to surface ships, 22 of 3,982grt to submarines, 6 of 977grt to mines (H)

Saturday, 1 May 1915

U-Boat Warfare - First US ship attacked without warning, tanker Gulflight carrying oil from Port Arthur for Rouen, torpedoed and damaged by U.30 off Scillies, Captain and two crew killed. More strong US protests followed; UB.3 went missing in Aegean Sea during the month

Atlantic off SW England

EDALE, 3,110/1901, Dale SS Co (Lucas & Co), Middlesbrough, sailing Rosario for Manchester with linseed cake and wheat. Torpedoed by U.30 (Max Valentiner), sank 45 miles NW by W of Scillies (L/ms/te/un/wi - in 50.09N 07.30W) (H/L/ms/te/un)


Sunday, 2 May 1915

North Sea

Six trawlers on fishing grounds sunk by gunfire of two U-boats; five of them were first captured.

Two by U.39 (Walter Forstman):

ST LOUIS No.1, 211/1909, R Hastie & Sons, North Shields-reg. Sunk 60 miles E by N 1/2 N of May Is, Firth of Forth (H/L/Lr/un)

SUNRAY, 167/1892, A J Freeth, North Shields, Aberdeen-reg. Sunk 56 miles NNE of Longstone, Outer Farne Is (H/L/Lr/un)

Four by U.41 (Claus Hansen):

ST GEORGE, 215/1906, R Hastie & Sons, North Shields-reg. Sunk around 65 miles E 1/2 N of Aberdeen; crew taken prisoner (H/L/Lr/un)

MARTABAN, 148/1890, bought by Moon family, butchers in 1912, owned by R & J Moon, Aberdeen-reg A527, Skipper N Denoon. Sunk 22 miles E 1/2 N of Aberdeen (L - 22 miles E 1/2 N; wi - 22 miles E by N, in 57.12N, 01.22W); crew reached Stonehaven after rowing for 17hr (H/L/fd/un/wi)

MERCURY (1), 222/1900, Kingston Steam Trawling Co, Hull-reg H518. Sunk 14 miles E 1/2 N of Aberdeen (L - 14 miles E by N of Girdle Ness) (H/L/Lr/hw/un)

CRUISER, c146/1898, T L Devlin, Granton-reg. Attacked and sunk by gunfire 50 miles SE of Aberdeen; 4 lives lost including skipper (H/L/Lr/un)

Monday, 3 May 1915

North Sea

SCOTTISH QUEEN, trawler, 125/1889, R Brown, Aberdeen-reg, fishing. Captured by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), sunk by gunfire 50 miles ESE of Aberdeen (H/L/Lr/un)

Seven trawlers on fishing grounds all but one Hull-reg, captured and sunk by U.9 (Johannes Spiess). An eighth was sunk on the 4th:

HERO, 173/1906, Hellyers Steam Fishing Co, H886. Sunk by bomb 150 miles ENE of Hornsea, Yorkshire around 1515 (H/L/Lr/hw/un)

NORTHWARD HO!, 180/1899, S T White, H455. Sunk by bomb 145 miles ENE of Hornsea (un – 125 miles NE of) (H/L/Lr/hw/un)

IOLANTHE (1), 179/1896, Hellyers Steam Fishing Co, H328. Sunk by bomb about 140 miles ENE of Hornsea around 1605 (H/L/Lr/hw/un)

COQUET, 176/1905, Hull Steam Fishing & Ice Co, 9 crew, Skipper Odell, fine clear day with light breeze and moderate swell, trawler Progress 2 miles away in one direction, Hector 2 1/2 m away in the other, trawl out and steaming ahead at 3kts. In the afternoon a U-boat surfaced a mile away, approached within hailing distance and gave the crew 5min to abandon ship and go onboard which they did, five German sailors used the boat to carry across an explosive charge and coil of time fuse. While this was being laid, the U-boat, with Coquet's crew on the casing and holding on to lifelines for dear life to avoid being washed off, headed for Progress to deal with her. Half an hour later, the crew were back with Coquet, returned to their boat, given supplies and cast off, the demolition party came off with all the charts. Coquet sank around 1645, about 160 miles ENE of Spurn Head, Yorkshire (H/L/Lr/Mn/un)

PROGRESS, 273/1899, Great Northern SS Fishing Co, H475. As the U-boat came up, Progress got in her trawl, steamed away but was soon overhauled, from a quarter of a mile, four shots were fired, she stopped and the crew again given 5min to get off. They presumably joined Coquet's crew on the submarine's deck, their boat was used to carry across the scuttling charge, they then returned to their boat, pulled off 300yds, and saw Progress' port side blown out, she sank like a stone 160 miles ENE of Spurn around 1730. The U-boat now returned to Coquet before heading for Hector (H/L/Lr/Mn/hw/un)

HECTOR, 179/1906, Hellyers Steam Fishing Co, H896. Captured, 20 rounds fired into her, sank 160 miles ENE of Spurn around 1800. The German then went after two more craft to the NW, one of them possibly Bob White following and perhaps Rugby, whose loss is dated the 4th (H/L/Lr/Mn/hw/un)

BOB WHITE, 192/1915, Kelsall Bros & Beeching, H290. Sunk by gunfire 155 miles NE by E 1/2 E of Spurn Head (H/L/Lr/hw/un)


UXBRIDGE, trawler, 164/1898, Consolidated Steam Fishing & Ice, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Caught mine in trawl, exploded and destroyed her 90 miles E by S of Spurn LV. The 30 miles long minefield, laid by surface ships on the Swarte Bank, was believed aimed at Grand Fleet movements and discovered by trawler Sutterton (H/L/Lr/Mn/gy)

Atlantic off SW England

MINTERNE, 3,018/1903, Minterne SS Co, London, sailing Cardiff for Buenos Aires with coal. Torpedoed by U.30 (Erich von Rosenberg-Grusczski), sank 50 miles SW of Wolf Rock, off Lands End (L - 50 miles WSW of); 2 crew drowned (H/L/Mn/te/un)


Tuesday, 4 May 1915

North Sea

RUGBY, 205/1900, W Grant, Grimsby-reg. Captured by U.9 (Johannes Spiess) and sunk by bomb (un – torpedo) about 100 miles NE of Spurn Head (H/L/Lr/gy/un)

Atlantic off SW Ireland

Cayo Romano, 3,675 (ms – 3,777)/1911, E Bigland & Co, London. U-boat attack, believed by U.20 (Walther Schweiger), off Fastnet, torpedo missed (H/ms/www)


Wednesday, 5 May 1915

North Sea

Two trawlers on fishing grounds captured by different U-boats and sunk by gunfire:

SCEPTRE, 166/1902, W Buthlay, Aberdeen-reg (un – A C Cameron, Dundee). Sunk by U.30 (Walther Forstmann) 40 miles SE by S of Peterhead, Aberdeenshire (H/L/Lr/un)

STRATON (1), 198/1899, Standard Steam Fishing, Grimsby-reg GY694. Stopped by U.9 (Johannes Spiess) (un – seacocks opened), sank 40 miles E of Hartlepool, Tees estuary (H/L/Lr/D/gy/un)

Atlantic off S Ireland

EARL OF LATHOM, 3-masted wooden schooner, 132/1885, William Hancock (Hawarden), Liverpool-reg, 5 crew, Mr T Jones, Connah's Quay/Mostyn for Limerick with fire clay goods and general cargo. Captured by U.20 (Walther Schweiger), sunk by gunfire 8 miles S by W of Old Head of Kinsale, Co Cork (L/un/wi - 8 miles SSW of, in 51.30N, 08.40W) (H/L/Lr/Mn/un/wi)


Thursday, 6 May 1915

North Sea

TRURO, 836/1898, Wilson Line/Wilsons & North Eastern Railway Shipping Co, Hull, sailing Christiania (now Oslo) for Grimsby with wood. (L - 7th) - Captured by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), sunk by torpedo 85 miles ENE of St Abb's Head, SE Scotland (L - 100 miles ENE of; un – also 4 miles NW of Eyemouth) (H/L/te/un)

MERRIE ISLINGTON, trawler, 147/1891, Humber Steam Trawling Co, Hull-reg H183, Skipper J Marsham, Hull for fishing. Captured by U.9 (Johannes Spiess), sunk by bomb around 0900, 6 miles NNE of Whitby Rock Buoy, off Yorkshire (wi - in 54.34N, 00.30W) (H/L/Lr/hw/un/wi)

DON (1), trawler, 151/1893, W Ellis, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Mined in Swarte Bank field, believed surface-ship-laid (un – not included, so presumably not U-boat-laid), sank 100 miles E by S of Spurn Head (L - 85 miles ESE of); 7 lives lost (H/L/Lr/Mn/gy)

St George's Channel

Two steamships both Liverpool-reg and owned by Charente SS Co (T & J Harrison), Liverpool, 44 crew, carrying general cargo, torpedoed by U.20 (Walther Schweiger:

CANDIDATE, 5,858/1906, Mr A Sandiford, sailing Liverpool for Kingston (Ja). Captured, sunk 13 miles S by E 1/2 E of Coningbeg LV, SE of Waterford Harbour (L - 13 miles S by E 1/2 E of; wi - 13 miles SE of, in 51.57N, 06.20W) (H/L/te/un/wi)

CENTURION (1), 5,495/1908, Mr G Kearne, Liverpool for Durban, proceeding at 11kts. Sank 15 miles S of Barrel LV (L/te/un/wi - 20 miles S of Coningbeg LV, in 51.44N, 06.30W) (H/L/te/un/wi)

Friday, 7 May 1915

U-boat Warfare - Sinking of British liner Lusitania with the loss of 785 passengers including 124 US citizens caused major US-German diplomatic row with United States; notes of protest issued on 14 May, 9 June and 21 July 1915 about U-boat policy. Germany claimed the liner had been an armed merchant cruiser, was believed to be a troop transport and carrying a small quantity of ammunition, but immense diplomatic damage had been done. The Kaiser shortly banned attacks on large passenger ships.

North Sea

BENINGTON, trawler, 131/1890, Lighthouse Fishing, Aberdeen-reg A236, Skipper A Bridge, fishing. Captured by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), sunk by gunfire 10 miles SE of Peterhead, Aberdeenshire (L - 100 miles SE of; un – 180 miles SE of; wi - 10 miles E of, off Cruden Skares - probably The Skares, S end of Cruden Bay - in 57.23N, 01.32.30W); crew picked up by Norwegian steamer, landed at Aberdeen from trawler Forth (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

Atlantic off S Ireland

LUSITANIA (1), passenger liner, 30,396/1907, accomodation for 550-1st, 500-2nd and 1,300-3rd class passengers, Cunard SS Co, Liverpool-reg, requisitioned by Admiralty as armed merchant cruiser 10/8/14, shortly released and returned to commercial service, 702 crew, Mr W Turner, sailed New York on 1st for Liverpool with 1,287 passengers (Mn/wi – 1257; un – 1,959 – probably passengers plus crew) and general cargo including some military stores. Approaching waters in which submarines had been reported on the 6th, boats swung out, bulkhead-doors closed, total of 1,989 on board (Mn/Wi - 1,959). Torpedoed starboard side between 3rd & 4th funnels by U.20 (Lt-Cdr Walther Schweiger) around 1415, hit only once, although two explosions heard on board, engines stopped but still had way on her, took list to starboard, sank 15min later 15 miles S of Old Head of Kinsale, Co Cork (L - 8 miles S by W of Kinsale, in c51.30N, 08.35W; un – in 51.42N, 08.31W; wi - 12 miles S by W of, in 51.24.15N, 08.32W;); 1,198 lives lost - 413 crew & 785 passengers, including 291 women, 94 children, 1 MN matron, 13 stewardess' and 1 typist. Some 761 survivors rescued by trawlers Bluebell, Peel and many other craft which headed out from the Irish coast. Because of the many American casualties, this was one of the major incidents that eventually led to US entry into the war on the side of the Allies (H/L/Mn/D/te/tr/wd/wi)

Three steamships heading towards the Lusitania's position were all attacked, presumably by U.20, two of them chased off Queenstown (Cobh), but escaped:

Narragansett, tanker, 9,196/1903, Anglo-American Oil Co, Greenock. Torpedo missed. Sunk 16 March 1917 (H/ms)

City of Exeter, passenger & cargo steamship, 9,300/1914 (ms – 9,373grt), Ellerman Lines (City Line), Glasgow (H/ms)

Etonian, passenger & cargo steamship, 6,438 (also 6,515)/1898, Leyland Line/Fred Leyland & Co, Liverpool (ms - Wilsons & Furness, Hull, believed earlier owner). Sunk 23 March 1918 (H/ms/tl)

Saturday, 8 May 1915

North Sea

British steamship (and an Admiralty collier) captured and torpedoed by U.9 (Johannes Spiess):

QUEEN WILHELMINA, 3,590/1898, Furness, Withy & Co, Sunderland, London-reg, Mr E Dickinson, Leith for Fowey in ballast. Hit and damaged 20 miles S by E of Longstone, Outer Farne Is (L - 20 miles N by W of), beached at Bondicar, 1 1/2 m SSE of Amble (55.19N, 01.26W), total loss (H/L/te/un/wi)

HELLENIC, trawler, 159/1890, Grimsby Steam Fishing, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Caught mine from Swarte Bank field in her trawl, believed surface-ship-laid (un – not included, so presumably not U-boat-laid), blown up and sank 98 miles E by S of Spurn Head (L - in 53.38N, 3.01E); 3 lives lost (H/L/Lr/Mn/gy)

Sunday, 9 May 1915

English Channel

Arabia, passenger & cargo ship, 7,933(ms - 7,903grt)/1898, Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Co (P&O), Greenock, armed. Chased by U-boat, escaped. Sunk 6 November 1916 (H/ms)


Monday, 10 May 1915

North Sea

City of Dortmund, Belgian Relief ship, 803grt (no further information). U-boat attack 8 miles E 1/2 N of North Hinder LV, torpedo missed.

English Channel

Poona, passenger & cargo steamship, 7,626/1905, Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Co (P&O), Greenock. Chased by U-boat, 40 miles SW of Portland, escaped (H/ms)


Monday, 17 May 1915

North Sea

German minefield covering a large area S of 56N, E of 02.30E in the Dogger Bank area laid by old light cruiser Hamburg; two U-boats and a large destroyer took part, supported by High Seas Fleet battlecruisers. To prevent its early discovery, four trawlers on fishing grounds in NW Dogger Bank area were captured by torpedo boat(s) and their crews taken prisoner, not known how they were sunk, one on the 17th, three on the 18th:

KING CHARLES, 163/1901, Consolidated Steam Fishing & Ice, Grimsby-reg. Captured (L - in 55.27N, 03.59E) (H/L/Lr/ap/gy)


Tuesday, 18 May 1915

North Sea

Three more trawlers, all Hull-reg, captured and sunk by Hamburg minelaying force on 18th:

DUKE OF WELLINGTON, 182/1898, National Steam Trawling, H388. By torpedo boat (L - in 55.46N, 04.05E) (H/L/Lr/hw)

EUCLID, 165/1897, Great Northern SS Fishing, H370. (L - in 55.27N, 04.19E) (H/L/Lr/hw)

TITANIA, 179/1906, Hellyers Steam Fishing, H903 (H/L/Lr/hw)

Atlantic off SW England

DRUMCREE, 4,052/1905, Astral Shipping Co, Liverpool-reg, 36 crew, Mr A Hodgson, Barry for Port Arthur in ballast, weather hazy with heavy NW swell. Torpedoed amidships by U.27 (Bernd Wegener), considerably damaged including radio room, boats lowered and crew ordered to stand by, nearby Norwegian SS Ponto asked to take her in tow, then a second torpedo hit aft, and she started to settle, Ponto dropped the tow and by 1730 Drumcree was sinking by the bow 11 miles N by E of Trevose Head, Cornwall (L - 11 miles NE of; wi - in 50.40.48N, 04.59.50W); crew took to the boats after second hit, picked-up by Ponto without any interference from the U-boat, survivors landed at Cardiff (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

Wednesday, 19 May 1915

North Sea

Three trawlers on fishing grounds captured by U.23 (Hans Schulthess) and sunk by bombs:

CHRYSOLITE (1), 222/1900, Kingston Steam Trawling Co, Hull-reg H409, Skipper J Flint. Sunk 25 miles SW by S of Lerwick, Shetlands (wi - in 59.48N, 01.35W) (H/L/Lr/hw/un/wi)

CRIMOND, 173/1899, A Walker, Aberdeen-reg A344, Skipper W Morrison, Aberdeen for fishing. Sunk 60 miles E of Wick, Caithness (L/un - 50 miles SSW of Fair Isle; un – also 60 miles E of Wick; wi - off Copinsay, Orkneys, in 58.52N, 02.36W) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

LUCERNE, 154/1896, R Moon, Aberdeen, Fleetwood-reg, Skipper R Leadbetter. Sunk 50 miles NE by N of Rattray Head, near Peterhead, Aberdeenshire (L/wi - 40 miles NE by E of Rattray Head, in 58.05N, 00.40W) (H/L/Lr/fd/un/wi)
Atlantic off SW England

DUMFRIES, 4,121/1905, Sutherland SS Co, Newcastle-reg, 54 crew, Mr N Kragn, Cardiff for Leghorn/Livorno with coal, steaming at 8kts, weather fine, sea smooth. Torpedoed by U.27 (Bernd Wegener) at 1100 and took heavy list to starboard, engines stopped and starboard boats lowered, by the time the survivors left the area, she was still afloat, now listing to port with bow under water. Fishing vessel Lent Lily reported she went down next day at 1330, 13 miles N of Trevose Head (L - 25 miles SW of Hartland Point; wi - in 50.45.30N, 05.01.35W); 2 lives lost but not known how, falls of the after boat slipped throwing men into the water, but all were rescued, crew then picked up by HMT Kudos, landed at Ilfracombe at 1900 (H/L/te/un/wi)


Thursday, 20 May 1915

North Sea

Comeric, cargo ship, Belgian Relief ship, 3,980/1898, A Weir & Co, Glasgow. U-boat attack near North Hinder LV, torpedo missed (H/ms)


Friday, 21 May 1915

North Sea

Two Hull-reg trawlers owned by Hellyers Steam Fishing and on fishing grounds mined, possibly in same extended field (laid by cruiser Hamburg):

ANGELO, 173/1906, H890. Sank in Dogger Bank field (L - in 55.30N, 03.40E) (H/L/Lr/ap/hw)

SABRINA, 179/1897, H346. Sank 160 miles ENE of Spurn LV; 9 lives lost including skipper (H/L/Lr/hw)
Atlantic off SW Ireland

GLENHOLM, full-rigged steel sailing ship, 1,968/1896, Charter Shipping Co, Liverpool, Port Glasgow-reg, 27 crew, Mr J Cantpoel, sailing Iquique for Falmouth with 3,400t nitrates. Captured by U.27 (Bernd Wegener), sunk by torpedo 16 miles WSW of Fastnet Rock, off Co Cork (wi - in 51.16N, 10.00W) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)


Tuesday, 25 May 1915

First U-boat attacks on warships off Gallipoli by U.21

English Channel

Marquette, passenger & cargo steamship, 7,057/1898, Atlantic Transport Co, West Hartlepool. Chased by U-boat, escaped. Sunk 23 October 1915 (H/ms/tl)


Wednesday, 26 May 1915

Naval Aviation - Maiden flight of larger non-rigid C-class Coastal airship at RNAS Station, Kingsnorth, Kent, designed for extended anti-submarine patrols
Atlantic off SW Ireland

MORWENNA, 1,414/1904, St Lawrence Shipping Co, Montreal, sailing Cardiff for Sydney (CB) in ballast. Captured by U.41 (Claus Hansen), sunk by torpedo 72 miles S by E of Fastnet Rock (L/te/un - in 50.27N, 08.44W; Mn - 160 miles W by S of St Ann's Head); one life lost (H/L/Mn/te/un)


Thursday, 27 May 1915

North Sea

Ousel, cargo steamship, 1,284/1901, Cork Steam Shipping Co, Cork. Chased by U-boat 2 miles E of Elbow Buoy, off Kent, escaped. Lost in collision 14 September 1917 (H/ms)
English Channel

Argyllshire, passenger & cargo steamship, 12,097 (ms – 10,329; tl – 9,564)/1911, Turnbull Martin & Co, Glasgow, armed. Two U-boat torpedoes missed off Havre (H/ms/tl)

Atlantic off SW England

CADEBY, 1,130/1892, Cadeby SS Co (A F & J C Blackwater), Hull-reg, 18 crew, Oporto for Cardiff/Glasgow (un – Hull) with pitwood, 5 passengers plus one stowaway, steaming at 5 1/2 kts. U.41 (Claus Hansen) approached making signals that were not understood, red ensign hoisted, in reply a shot was fired across the bows and another hit the bridge, crew abandoned ship while firing continued, hitting her midships section. Finally sank 20 miles SW by S of Wolf Rock, off Lands End (un/wi - in 49.40N, 06.10W; wi – also 19 miles SE by S of Bishop Rock); crew picked up by fishing vessel Bonafide, landed in Newlyn on 28th at 0130 (H/L/te/wi)


Friday, 28 May 1915

English Channel

Two British steamships (and an Admiralty collier) captured and sunk by U.41 (Claus Hansen):

ETHIOPE, 3,794/1906, Elder Line (Elder, Dempster & Co), Liverpool, sailing Hull/London for Calabar/West Africa with general cargo. Sunk by torpedo 40 miles SW by S of Start Point, Devon (L - 45 miles S of Plymouth; te/un - in 49.39N 04.16W) (H/L/te/un)

TULLOCHMOOR, 3,520/1899, Moor Line (W Runciman & Co), London, sailing Genoa for Tyne in ballast. Sunk by gunfire 52 miles N of Ushant island, off NW Brittany (L/te/un - in 49.19N, 05.21W) (H/L/te/un)

Saturday, 29 May 1915

North Sea

CONDOR (3), trawler, 151/1894, Ramsdale Steam Trawling Co, Scarborough-reg. Mined (laid by cruiser Kolberg 1/2 ), sank 30 miles NE of Scarborough, Yorkshire; 9 lives lost including skipper (H/Lr)

English Channel & Approaches

Ping Suey, 6,458/1899, China Mutual Steam Navigation Co, London, armed, Batavia for London. U-boat gun attack in English Channel, saved by own gunfire, damaged according to Lloyds. Not listed in as damaged (H/L/ms)

Two steamships captured by U.41 (Claus Hansen) and sunk by torpedo:

DIXIANA, 3,329/1901, Dixiana SS Co (Thomas Kitching), London, sailing Savannah for Havre with pig iron, cotton and general cargo. Sank 40 miles N of Ushant (H/L/te/un)

GLENLEE (1), 4,140/1904, Western SS Co (J Gardiner & Co), Glasgow, sailing Barry for Aden with coal. Sank 67 miles SSW of Wolf Rock, off Lands End (L - 50 miles NW of Ushant) (H/L/te/un)


Sunday, 30 May 1915

North Sea

Colchester, passenger & cargo steamship, 1,209 (ms/tl – 1,160)/1889, Great Eastern Railway Co, Harwich. Chased by U-boat, escaped. Wrecked 1 or 2 March 1918 (H/ms/tl)

Atlantic off S Ireland

Megantic, passenger & cargo liner, 14,878/1909, Oceanic Steam Navigation Co (Ismay, Imrie), Liverpool. Chased by U-boat, escaped (H/ms)


Monday, 31 May 1915

English Channel

Hambleton Range, cargo steamship, 3,682/1914, Furness Withy & Co, West Hartlepool. Chased by U-boat, escaped (H/ms)

St George's Channel & Bristol Channel

Three cargo steamships chased by U-boat(s):

Highland Laird, 4,223/1899 (ms – 4,117grt), H & W Nelson, Liverpool. Escaped +ms)

Kelvinia, 5,039/1913, Glasgow SS Co (J Black & Co), Glasgow. Rescued. Sunk 2 September 1916 (H/ms)

Garmoyle, 1,229/1897 (also 1896), Clyde Shipping Co, Glasgow, armed. Saved by own gunfire. Sunk 10 July 1917 (H/ms)
Atlantic off S Ireland

Demerara, passenger ship, 11,484/1912, Royal Mail Steam Packet Co, Belfast, 1-4.7in gun, master, Lt G Gillard RNR (Rtd), sailing Liverpool for Lisbon. Periscope sighted on starboard quarter, U-boat surfaced and chased, firing from time to time, Demerara went to full speed, returned fire at 1,000yds, at which the submarine dived, ship continued to fire at periscope until submarine disappeared (H/Mn/ms)


JUNE 1915

British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in June: 31 merchant ships totalling 83,198grt - 29 of 76,497grt to submarines, 2 of 6,701grt to mines, plus 60 fishing vessels totalling 8,117grt - 58 of 7,749grt to submarines, 2 of 368grt to mines (H)

U-boat Warfare - first U-boat mines laid off English coast by Flanders-based UC-boats

Tuesday, 1 June 1915

North Sea

SAIDIEH, 3,303/1878, Khedival Mail Steamship & Graving Dock Co, London-reg, 41 crew plus 8 distressed seamen, Mr J Ryall, Alexandria for Hull with 8,000t cottonseed, onions and taconite low grade iron ore, carrying Trinity pilot taken on at Deal. Torpedoed by UB.6 (Erich Haecker) at 1400, sank within 6min, 6 miles NE of Elbow Buoy, off North Foreland, Kent (L - 7 miles NE of North Foreland; wi - 6.25 miles WNW of Drill Stone Lightbuoy, in 51.27.27N, 01.33.39E); 8 crew lost including six firemen and an AB missing, probably killed by explosion. While No.3 boat was being lowered, the falls were cut and boat capsized throwing several crew into the sea, one a stewardess, all picked up by patrol vessels but she died of shock, the survivors and her body were landed at Chatham (H/L/Mn/te/tr/un/wi)

Atlantic off SW England

Pontypridd, cargo steamship, 1,556 (tl – 1,681)/1883, Morel Bros, Cardiff, armed. Chased by U-boat 40 miles S  1/2  W of Wolf Rock, saved by own gunfire. Sunk 12 March 1917 (H/ms/tl)

Atlantic off S Ireland

VICTORIA (1), trawler, 155/1890, T Hudson, Hull-reg, (un – Charles Curzon (Brand & Co), Milford Haven), 9 crew, Skipper Steve Stephenson, sailed Milford Haven on 25 May to trawl Labadie Bank 75 miles off Fastnet Rock, carrying schoolboy James Jones on a trip. Attacked by U.34 (Claus Rücker), hit and ship’s boat smashed, stopped, submarine came alongside and set explosive charges, sank 145 miles W by S of St Ann’s Head, W entrance to Milford Haven (Mn - about 130 miles W by S of; un – in 50.36N, 06.20W); 6 lives lost including skipper blown to bits, mate who lost both legs, chief engineer, trimmer and the schoolboy all killed by three hits, four survivors escaped on a lashed-together raft, taken on board the U-boat and treated well, joined next morning by survivors from trawler Hirose. Rücker was on the original British list of war criminals for this sinking, progressed post-war as Naval Case No.20, but did not go to court (H/L/Lr/Mn/ge/os/un)


Wednesday, 2 June 1915

Atlantic off SW England

HIROSE, trawler, 274/1906, Neale & West, Cardiff-reg, 10 crew, Skipper Francis Ward, sailing Cardiff for fishing grounds at 9kts. U.34 (Claus Rücker) gun attack started about 0530, Hirose eventually stopped, boarded and sunk by bombs 130 miles W by S 1/2 S of Lundy Is, off Devon (un – about 32 miles W of Scillies, in 49.50N, 07.10W); crew ordered off, joined in their boat by the four survivors from Victoria (see 1st), sighted 24hr later by Liverpool-reg SS Ballater, picked up in heavy sea, landed at Milford the same day at 1600 (H/L/Lr/Mn/os/un)


Thursday, 3 June 1915

North Sea

Six vessels captured and sunk by U.19 (Constantin Kolbe):

IONA, steamship, 3,344/1892, Cairn Line of Steamships, Dundee-reg, 54 crew, Mr D Ritchie, Middlesbrough for Montreal with 2,800t general cargo. Shelled and damaged, stopped and sunk by torpedo 22 miles SSE of Fair Isle (L/Mn/te/un/wi - in 59.13N, 01.12W; wi - also 46 miles E of Stronsay, Orkneys), ship’s W/T code books thrown overboard & papers burnt; crew joined with survivors of trawler Chrysoprasus (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

CHRYSOPRASUS, trawler, 119/1907, Andrew W Ritchie, Aberdeen-reg, Skipper A W Ritchie, Aberdeen for fishing. Sunk by gunfire around noon, 45 miles E by S of Papa, Stronsay island, E Orkneys (un/wi - 45 miles ENE of; wi - also in 59.13N, 01.12W). The crews of Chrysoprasus and Iona rowed through the night until picked up by HMT Dover next day at 0800, landed Kirkwall at 1130 (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

DOGBERRY, trawler, 214/1909, Hellyers Steam Fishing Co, Hull-reg H46, Skipper C Read, Hull for fishing. Sunk by bomb 120 miles NNE of Aberdeen (L/un/wi - 25 miles E of Fair Isle; L/wi - also in 59.30N, 02.33W) (H/L/Lr/hw/un/wi)

ENA MAY, drifter, 90/1891, R Irvin, Peterhead-reg PD66, fishing. Sunk by gunfire 60 miles SW by S 1/2 S of Sumburgh Head, S Shetlands (L/un - 66 miles SW by S of) (H/L/pd/un)

KATHLEEN (1), drifter, 92/1903, A W & J Cow (un – Leask & Mitchell), Peterhead-reg PD471, fishing. Sunk by bomb 40 miles ESE of Start Point, off E Sanday island, NE Orkneys (L/wi - 40 miles E of Papa Stronsay island, in 59.15N, 01.15W) (H/L/pd/un/wi)

STRATHBRAN, trawler, 163/1899, Steam Herring Fleet (un – A Robertson), Aberdeen-reg A137, Skipper A Main, fishing. Sunk by gunfire 35 miles ESE of Pentland Skerries, Pentland Firth (wi - in 58.17N, 02.07W) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

Three sailing smacks on fishing grounds captured by UB.16 (Hans Valentiner) and sunk by bombs off Lowestoft:

E. & C., 60grt. Sunk 40 miles SE by E of (H/L/un)

BOY HORACE, 69grt. Sunk 50 miles SE by E of (un – 50 miles SE of) (H/L/un)

ECONOMY, 69grt, fishing. (H/L – 4th) - Sunk 50 miles SE (H/L/un)

Friday, 4 June 1915

North Sea

Six vessels captured and sunk by U.19 (Constantin Kolbe) which had been active in this area the day before:

CORTES, trawler, 174/1899, A Walker, Aberdeen-reg, fishing. Sunk by bomb 50 miles ESE of Copinsay island, Orkneys (L - 68 miles ENE of Wick) (H/L/Lr/un)

EVENING STAR, trawler, 120/1895, A Ritchie, Aberdeen-reg, fishing. Sunk by gunfire 50 miles ESE of Copinsay (L - 68 miles ENE of Wick) (H/L/Lr/un)

DUNNET HEAD, steamship, 343/1913, A F Henry & J MacGregor, Leith-reg, 9 crew, Mr J Campbell, Baltasound for Arbroath in ballast. Sunk by torpedo 35 miles E by S of Duncansby Head, Caithness (L/un - in 58.42N, 01.55W; wi - in 58.35.15N, 01.57W) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

EBENEZER, trawler, 113/1903, J King (un – T Davidson), Aberdeen-reg A892, Skipper G King, Aberdeen for fishing. Sunk by gunfire 117 miles SW by S 1/2 S of Out Skerries, SE of Yell island, Shetlands (L/wi - 50 miles NE by N of Kinnairds Head; L/un/wi - also in 58.31N, 01.21W) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

EXPLORER, trawler, 156/1894, J M Barber & H W Foulger, Aberdeen-reg, fishing. Large U-boat came under the stern around 1930, shot was fired, crew ordered in to their boat without delay, 8 more shells fired, sank 73 miles NE by N of Buchan Ness, near Peterhead; crew picked up by HMS Acacia, one the first Flower-type sloops in commission (H/L/Lr/Mn/Cn/un)

PETREL (1), trawler, 187/1902, Silver City Steam Trawling Co, Aberdeen-reg A515, Skipper A Frost, Aberdeen for fishing. Sunk by gunfire 55 miles NNE 1/2 E of Buchan Ness (wi - 55 miles NNE of, in 58.22N, 01.30W) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

English Channel

INKUM, 4,747/1901, Gulf Transport Co, Liverpool, sailing New York for London with general cargo. Torpedoed by U.34 (Claus Rücker), sank 40 miles SW of Lizard Point, Cornwall (L/te/un - in 49.25N, 06.35W) (H/L/te/un)

Atlantic off W Ireland

GEORGE & MARY, wooden schooner, 100/1875, William Hughes, Portavogie, Co Down, Belfast-reg, 4 crew, Mr W Hughes, Tralee for Glasgow with bones, lead and scrap iron. Captured by U.35 (Waldemar Kophamel), sunk by gunfire 15 miles SW of Eagle Is, off Co Mayo (wi - 15 miles of, in 54.30N, 10.20W) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)


Saturday, 5 June 1915

U.14 sunk by trawler Oceanic II in North Sea off Peterhead

North Sea

Six more trawlers, five on fishing grounds, all but possibly one, captured and sunk by gunfire of U.19 (Constantin Kolbe). As usual at this stage in the war, the crews were allowed to abandon ship first:

BARDOLPH, 215/1911, Hellyers Steam Fishing Co, Hull-reg H296. Sunk 115 miles S by W of Sumburgh Head, S Shetlands (H/L/Lr/hw/un)

STAR OF THE WEST, 197/1902, Walker Steam Trawl Fishing Co, Aberdeen-reg A458, Skipper A Reynolds, Aberdeen for fishing. (wi - 5/6/16) - Sunk 55 miles NE 1/2 N of Buchan Ness, near Peterhead (L/un/wi - in 58.00N, 01W; L/wi – also 38 miles NNE of Kinnairds Head). reports U.19 did not claim this sinking, and that this trawler may have been sunk by U.14 before she too was lost that day off Peterhead (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

PERSIMON, 255/1911, W J Barrett, Grimsby-reg GY126, hired 8/14 as auxiliary patrol vessel, returned to mercantile service 1/15, Grimsby for Iceland to fish. Sunk 50 miles NE of Buchan Ness (L/wi - 50 miles ENE of Peterhead, in 58N, 00.30W) (H/L/Lr/D/gy/un/wi)

JAPONICA, 145/1896, Richard Watson Lewis, Aberdeen-reg A193, Skipper William Butler, Aberdeen for fishing. Gun heard about 2300 and shell landed ahead, shaking the ship, hands went aft to launch the boat, U-boat came up at full speed, ordered them to hurry, then from 200yds fired four rounds - first two missed, third went through the cabin, fourth into the boiler, sank at 2325, 45 miles E of Kinnairds Head, Fraserburgh (wi - in 57.36N, 00.34W); crew rowed towards the submarine but were ordered away, picked up by sloop Acacia next day (H/L/Lr/Mn/un/wi)

CURLEW (1), 134/1895, James Hall, Sunderland-reg, Skipper D Stroud, sailed Sunderland for fishing. Sunk 50 miles E by N of Aberdeen (L/wi - 40 miles E 1/2 S of Peterhead, in 57.28N, 00.33W) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

GAZEHOUND, 138/1891, James Hall, Sunderland, Hull-reg, Skipper J Stroud, Hull for fishing. Sunk 50 miles E by N of Aberdeen (L/wi - 40 miles E 1/2 S of Peterhead, in 57.28N, 00.33W) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

ARCTIC, trawler, 169/1899, Witham Steam Fishing Co, Boston, Granton-reg, fishing. (un – 6th) - Gun attack by U-boat, sank 65 miles ESE of Spurn Head, Humber estuary (L/un - 77 miles SE by S of); 4 lives lost including skipper. Note: attributes her loss to U.19 (Constantin Kolbe), but this would have meant U.19 moving her position from the Peterhead area, south to the Humber, then back to sink trawler Dromio the next day. If Dromio (following) was sunk early on the 6th and Arctic late on the 6th, this change of position was possible (H/L/Lr/un)


Sunday, 6 June 1915

North Sea

DROMIO, trawler, 208/1910, Hellyers Steam Fishing Co, Hull-reg H102, Skipper J Snelling, Hull for fishing. Captured by U.19 (Constantin Kolbe), sunk by scuttling charges 35 miles NE by E of Buchan Ness, near Peterhead (wi - 35 miles NE of, in 57.50N, 01.55W) (H/L/Lr/hw/un/wi)

Atlantic off S Ireland

Ballycotton, passenger & cargo steamship, 1,273/1911, Clyde Shipping Co, Glasgow. U-boat attack 30 miles S of Waterford, torpedo missed (H/ms)

SUNLIGHT, steel-hulled barque, one of two tankers completed for bulk molasses trade, 1,433/1907, Lever Bros (later Unilever), Port Sunlight, Liverpool-reg,, 20 crew, Mr C Dagwell, sailing Macoris for Glasgow with c1,500t molasses. Captured by U.35 (Waldemar Kophamel), sunk by torpedo 20 miles SW of Galley Head, S of Clonakilty, Co Cork (wi - in 51.16N, 09.15W) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

Monday, 7 June 1915

German Minefield - Auxiliary minelayer Meteor laid large minefields on the 7th/8th along the North Russian Murman coast at the entrance to the White Sea to interrupt the flow of munitions to and cargoes from Russia. SS Arndale was the first ship sunk; three more went down in the same month.
North Sea

Four British trawlers on fishing grounds captured and sunk by gunfire of U.25 (Otto Wünsche):

SATURN, 183/1900, Grimsby & North Sea Steam Trawling Co, Grimsby-reg. Sunk 86 miles NE of Spurn Head (H/L/Lr/gy/un)

VELOCITY, 186/1904, Abbey Steam Fishing (un – H L Taylor & H G Hopwood), Grimsby-reg. Sunk 75 miles NE of Spurn Head (H/L/Lr/gy/un)

NOTTINGHAM, 165/1898, Consolidated Steam Fishing & Ice Co, Grimsby-reg. Sunk 70 miles NE of Spurn Head (H/L/Lr/gy/un)

PENTLAND, 204/1914, Hull Steam Fishing & Ice Co, Hull-reg H70. Sunk 75 miles ENE of Hornsea (H/L/Lr/hw/un)


Tuesday, 8 June 1915

St George's Channel area

Two sailing schooners (and an Admiralty collier) captured and sunk by U.35 (Waldemar Kophamel) off The Smalls:

EXPRESS, 3-masted schooner, built as paddle steamer, 115/1885, J Westcott, Plymouth-reg, Mr J Smith. (L - 7th; un – or 7th) - Sunk with bombs 44 miles SSW 1/2 W of (L - 44 miles SW 1/2 W of; un – in 44 miles SW 1/2 S of; wi - in 51.20N, 06.40W) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

SUSANNAH, schooner, 115/1873, A E Benney, Preston-reg, Mr A Cundy, Preston for Truro with coal. Captured by U.35, sunk with bombs 40 miles SSW of (un/wi - in 50.55N, 05.35W) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

Atlantic off NW Spain

Llandovery Castle, passenger & cargo ship, 11,423/1914, Union-Castle Line, London. Chased by U-boat off Cape Finisterre, escaped. Sunk 27 June 1918 as hospital ship (H/ms/tr)


Wednesday, 9 June 1915

North Sea

Four trawlers on fishing grounds captured by U.25 (Otto Wünsche) and sunk by gunfire off Spurn Head, Humber:

TUNISIAN, 211/1906, Thomas Robinson, Grimsby-reg. Sunk 95 miles NE by N of (H/L/Lr/gy/un)

CARDIFF, 163/1896, Consolidated Steam Fishing & Ice Co, Grimsby-reg. Sunk 90 miles NE by E of (H/L/Lr/gy/un)

CASTOR, 182/1900, Grimsby & North Sea Steam Trawling Co, Grimsby-reg. Sunk 85 miles NE by E of (L - 80 miles NE by E of; un – 80 miles NE by N of) (H/L/Lr/gy/un)

J. LEYMAN, 197/1909, J Leyman Jnr, Scarborough-reg. Sunk 100 miles E by N of (H/L/Lr/un)

Five sailing smacks on fishing grounds captured by UB.2 (Werner Fürbringer) and sunk with bombs/scuttling charges off Lowestoft, NE Suffolk:

BRITANNIA, 43grt. Sunk 55 miles E of (L - 50 miles E of; 50 miles SE of) (H/L/un)

EDWARD, 52/1902, W H Podd, Lowestoft. Sunk 48 miles E by S of (H/L/un)

QUI VIVE (1), 50grt. Sunk 48 miles E by S of (un – 50 miles SE of) (H/L/un)

WELFARE, 45grt. Sunk 50 miles ESE of (L/un - 62 miles ESE of, "by Zeppelin" is noted by her name in Lloyds) (H/L/un)

LAURESTINA, 48/1901, W H Painter, Lowestoft-reg LT426, fishing, 30 miles NNW of Maas LV, near Hook of Holland (un – 50 miles SE of Lowestoft) (H/L/bm/un)

Two colliers heading for London with coal, originally believed torpedoed, now attributed to mines laid by UC.11 (Walter Gottfried Schmidt) off Sunk LV, off Harwich:

LADY SALISBURY, 1,446/1890, Gresham SS Co, London, Newcastle-reg, Mr Duncan, sailing from Hartlepool. Sank about 1 mile N of (wi - in 51.52.20N, 01.36.01E); 3 crew lost (H/L/te/un/wi)

ERNA BOLDT, 1,731/1908, German prize, now The Admiralty (Everett & Newbigin), London-reg, sailing from Newcastle. Sank  1/2 m NE by E of (L -  1/2 m SW by S of; wi - in 51.51.54N, 01.36.04E) (H/L/te/un/wi)

Bristol Channel

Teespool, cargo steamship, 4,577/1905, R Ropner & Co, West Hartlepool. U-boat gun attack, escaped (H/ms)

Atlantic off S Ireland

Tenasserim, passenger & cargo steamship, 5,089/1905, British & Burmese Steam Navigation Co (P Henderson), Glasgow. Chased by U-boat, escaped. Lost by fire 19 December 1918 (H/ms/tl)


Thursday, 10 June 1915

North Sea

INTREPID, sailing smack, 59grt, fishing. Captured by UB.2 (Werner Fürbringer), sunk by bomb 60 miles SE of Lowestoft (H/L/un)
Bristol Channel

Orthia, 4,225/1896, Donaldson Bros, Glasgow. Chased by U-boat, escaped (H/ms)


Friday, 11 June 1915

Barents Sea

ARNDALE, 3,583/1906, T Smailes SS Co, Whitby-reg, Cardiff for Archangel with coal. Mined, laid by auxiliary minelayer Meteor, sank at entrance to White Sea (L - in 67N, 41.32E); 3 lives lost (H/L/Lr/Mn)

North Sea

Two Grimsby-reg trawlers on fishing grounds captured by U.19 (Constantin Kolbe) and sunk off Spurn Head:

WAAGO, 154/1898, H Smethurst. Sunk by bomb 80 miles NE by N of (H/L/Lr/gy/un)

PLYMOUTH, 165/1898, Consolidated Steam Fishing & Ice Co. Sunk by gunfire 67 miles NE 1/2 N of (L - 65 miles NE  1/2  N of) (H/L/Lr/gy/un)

DOVEY, trawler, 160/1897, East Anglia Steam Fishing, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Mined in Outer Silver Pit field, blew up and sank 50 miles E by S of Spurn Head; 9 lives lost including skipper. Note: this newly discovered field was laid by surface vessels in January (H/L/Lr/Mn/ap/gy)

Brussels, passenger ship, 1,380/1902, Great Eastern Railway Co, Harwich, Mr Charles Fryatt. Chased by U-boat, escaped. Captured 23 June 1916, master shot as franc-tireur (H/ge/ms)


Saturday, 12 June 1915

North Sea

LEUCTRA, 3,027/1899, SS Leuctra Co (R H Littlehales), Liverpool-reg, Mr W Bushell, sailing Rosario for Hull with linseed cake. Torpedoed by UB.16 (Hans Valentiner), sank 1 1/2 m SE by S of Shipwash Bank LV, off Suffolk (wi - in 52.00.48N, 01.43.24E) (H/L/te/un/wi)

St George's Channel

CROWN OF INDIA, 4-masted iron barque, 2,034/1885, ‘Crown of India’ Ship Co (un – J Joyce & Co), Liverpool-reg, 23 crew, Mr C Branch, Barry for Pernambuco with 3,000t coal, light southerly winds, misty. U.35 (Waldemar Kophamel) opened fire on the unarmed ship from half a mile, two boats hoisted out and crew got away, firing continued, sank within half an hour about 70 miles WSW of St Ann's Head, Pembrokeshire (L/un/wi - 50.55N, 06.35W); crew rowed for Norwegian barque Bellglade lying becalmed 3 miles off, but U.35 came up and sank her as well, drifter Queen Alexandra appeared and U.35 disappeared assuming her to be a patrol vessel, both crews picked up, landed at Milford Haven (H/L/Lr/Mn/un/wi)


Sunday, 13 June 1915

North Sea

QUEEN ALEXANDRA, trawler, 208/1902, Cameron & McFarlane, Dundee-reg, Skipper T McNaughton, fishing. Mined, sank 8 miles E by S 1/2 S of Todhead Point, S of Stonehaven (L - 56.52N, 02.02W). Not listed in, presumably not U-boat-laid (H/L/wi)

Atlantic off SW England

Two colliers captured by U.35 (Waldemar Kophamel):

HOPEMOUNT, 3,300/1904, Hopemount Shipping Co, Newcastle, sailing Cardiff for Alexandria with coal. Sunk by gunfire 70 miles W by S of Lundy Is, off Devon (L - 70 miles W of) (H/L/te/un)

PELHAM, collier (wi - Admiralty collier transport No.604), 3,534/1906, Thompson SS Co, Sunderland-reg, 26 crew, Malta for Barry Roads in water ballast. U.35 appeared on the surface half a mile away, opened fire, ship turned away and went to full speed but hit repeatedly, engines stopped and ship abandoned. Germans placed bombs which sank her sometime after 1545, 30 miles NW of the Scillies (L - 30 miles N of; un/wi - in 50.16N, 06.55W); survivors picked up by drifter Our Allies, landed in Newlyn on 16th at 0145 (H/L/te/un/wi)


Tuesday, 15 June 1915

North Sea

ARGYLL, trawler, 280/1906, Great Northern SS Fishing, Hull-reg H923, Harwich for fishing. Believed torpedoed at the time (wi - may have been mined), confirmed as sunk by mine laid by UC.11 (Walter Gottfried Schmidt)  1/2 m from Sunk LV, off Harwich (L/wi - 12 miles ESE of Harwich, in 51.52N, 01.36E); 7 lives lost including skipper (H/L/hw/un/wi)

Two Great Eastern Railway Co, Harwich steamships possibly attacked by same U-boat:

Brussels, passenger ship, 1,380/1902, Mr Charles Fryatt. Chased near Sunk LV, escaped. Captured 23 June 1916, master shot as franc-tireur (H/ge/ms)

Cromer, cargo steamship, 812/1902. Chased near Galloper, escaped (H/ms)

St George's Channel

STRATHNAIRN, 4,336/1906, Strathnairn SS Co (Burrell & Son), Glasgow-reg, 33 crew, Mr John Browne, sailing Cardiff/Penarth for Archangel with 7000t coal, conditions fine and clear. Torpedoed by U.22 (Bruno Hoppe) at 2130, sank 25 miles N by E of Bishop and Clerks rocks (the rocks are located 1 or 2 miles W of Ramsey Island, off SW Wales; L – 25 miles NE of Bishop Rock (off Scilly Isles); te/un - also 2 miles W of Ramsey Island (the position of the Bishops and Clerks); un – also 50.16N, 06.37W (off Scilly Isles); wi – 25m N by E of South Bishop Rock LH, in 52.11N, 05W (off W Wales, LH is in 51.51N, 05.25W)); 21 crew lost including the master, mostly drowned, survivors included the 2nd mate and a number of Chinese crew who got away in a gig, rowed east, picked up early the following morning by the Amanda of Padstow, landed later that day at Milford Haven. The 1st engineer and Chinese carpenter had to jump overboard, and clung to a capsized boat for 9 hours before being picked up by the the Abbotsford of Glasgow, landed at Swansea. Note: from the confusing range of loss positions, the Bishop and Clerks, off SW Wales, is probably the correct location, especially when the destination is taken into account (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

Alt, cargo steamship, 1,004/1911, Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway Co, Goole. U-boat torpedo missed (H/tl)


Wednesday, 16 June 1915

St George's Channel

Two vessels captured by U.22 (Bruno Hoppe):

TRAFFORD, 215/1896, Manchester, Liverpool & North Wales SS Co (un – Trafford SS Co), Manchester-reg, Mr A Hughes, Newport for Lydney (un – Sydney) in light condition. (L/wi - 17th; un – or 17th) - Sunk by gunfire 30 miles WSW of Tuskar rock, which is off Rosslare (L/wi - about 30 miles WSW of The Smalls, in 51.30N, 06.25W). Note: If Lydney, this is further up the Bristol Channel; if Sydney, Australia, this appears to be a small vessel for the voyage – a puzzle (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

Turnwell, 4,264/1901, Gunwell SS Co (Roth Bros), London, sailing Liverpool for New York in light condition. Captured 35 miles SW of Tuskar Rock (L/un - 30 miles WNW of The Smalls), damaged by bombs, reached Milford Haven (H/L/ms/un)

Friday, 18 June 1915

North Sea

AILSA, 876/1884, Christian Salvesen & Co, Leith-reg, 17 crew, Mr J Currie, sailing Trondheim for Leith with flax and wood. Captured by U.17 (Hans Walther), scuttled off Arbroath, Angus, 30 miles E by N of Bell Rock (L - 41 miles E 1/2 S of; wi - in 56 34N, 01.30W) (H/L/te/un/wi)


Saturday, 19 June 1915

North Sea

DULCIE, 2,033/1900, C Nielsen & Sons, West Hartlepool-reg, 18 crew, Mr G Manson, Newcastle/Dunston for Havre with coal. Torpedoed by UB.13 (Walter Gustav Becker), sank 6 miles E of Aldeburgh, Suffolk (L - 5 1/2 m E of; wi - in 52.08.18N, 01.45.10E); one crew lost (H/L/te/un/wi)

Atlantic off NW Scotland

Phoebe (2), trawler, believed 278/1907, Fleetwood-reg FD121, skipper, Mr J Goulding, Fleetwood for Iceland fishing grounds. Passing west of Outer Hebrides via St Kilda island, off Barra Head on 18th she was warned about submarines by a patrol boat, early next morning off St Kilda informed that two vessels were sunk off the Butt of Lewis, and proceeded a further 55 miles. Sighted U-boat at 0820, 1 1/2 m to the east, went to full speed and headed for the enemy which hauled off and opened fire from a mile. Phoebe now turned away and zigzagged, near-missed a number of times but lost the U-boat and reached St Kilda (Mn/D/ms)

Sunday, 20 June 1915

Barents Sea

Twilight, cargo steamship, 3,100/1905, J Wood & Co, West Hartlepool, sailing Blyth for Archangel with coal. Mined, presumably laid by Meteor, reached Archangel (H/L/ms)

Atlantic off N Scotland

PREMIER (1), trawler, 169/1901, W H Dodds, Aberdeen-reg, fishing. Captured by U.22 (Bruno Hoppe) and sunk by gunfire 75 miles N by W of Troup Head according to HMSO, but this would place her in the Moray Firth, off NE Scotland. Lloyds and locate her loss 70 miles NNE of Cape Wrath, in the Atlantic; if Troup Head should read Noup Head (NW Orkneys), then the two bearings (from Noup Head and Cape Wrath) approximately coincide i.e. in the Atlantic (H/L/Lr/un)

Irish Sea

Cameronia, passenger & cargo ship, 10,963/1911, Anchor Line, Glasgow. Chased by U-boat 23 miles W of Skerries rocks, Anglesey, escaped. Sunk 15 April 1917 (H/ms)

St George's Channel

Clan Robertson, 4,826 (ms – 4,839)/1897, Clan Line, Glasgow. Chased by U-boat, escaped (H/ms)


Monday, 21 June 1915

North Sea

CARISBROOK, 2,352/1907, Brook SS Co, Glasgow, London-reg, 22 crew, Mr D Hunter, sailing Montreal for Leith with 3,600t wheat, steaming at 8kts. Captured by U.38 (Max Valentiner), sunk by gunfire 70 miles S  1/2 W of Start Point LH, off Sanday island, Orkneys (L/wi - 40 miles N of Kinnaird Head, in 58.15N, 02.25W) (H/L/te/un/wi)

Irish Sea

Sachem, cargo steamship, 5,354 (ms/tl - 5,204)/1893, George Warren & Co, Liverpool. Chased by U-boat 23 miles W of Liverpool Bar LV, escaped (H/ms)


Tuesday, 22 June 1915

North Sea

Herbert Fischer, 938grt. U-boat attack 2 miles SE of Southwold, torpedo missed (ms – believed ex-German cargo steamship, 1,005/1901, F W Fischer) (H/ms)


Wednesday, 23 June 1915

U.40 sunk by decoy combination trawler Taranaki/submarine C.24 off Aberdeen, first success by decoy ship against a U-boat.

North Sea

Sixteen fishing vessels on their fishing grounds were all captured and sunk around this time by U.38 (Max Valentiner) off N and E Shetlands. Note: HMSO lists 13 on the 23rd and 3 on the 24th, Lloyds Losses all on the 23rd, and all on the 24th. The HMSO dates are used here:

LEBANON, trawler, 111/1907, D Noble/Mitchell, Noble & Summers, Peterhead, Aberdeen-reg. (un – also night of 23rd/24th) - Sunk by gunfire 30 miles E 1/2 N of Muckle Flugga islet (un – or about 40 miles ENE of Outer Skerries Light) (H/L/Lr/Rn/un)

QUIET WATERS, drifter, 63/1903, J & J N Stephen, Peterhead-reg PD475. Sunk by gunfire 35 miles E by N of Balta Sound, Unst island (pd - “Reported that SS Josephine - should read ‘trawler’ (below) - sank 4 miles to SSW, also that six other drifters sunk in vicinity”; un – also 25 miles E of Skerries Light) (H/L/Rn/pd/un)

RESEARCH (1), drifter, 89/1908, A J & W Buchan & Irvin, (un – J Falconer & Sons, Scotstown, Banff), Peterhead-reg PD98. (un – also night of 23rd/24th) - Sunk by gunfire 42 miles NE of Out Skerries islands/Outer Skerries Light, SE of Yell island (H/L/Rn/pd/un)

PRIMROSE (1), drifter, 91/1904, Scottish Steam, Peterhead-reg PD17. (un – also night of 23rd/24th) - Sunk by gunfire 40 miles NE by E of Out Skerries/Outer Skerries Light (H/L/Rn/pd/un)

FOUR, drifter, 84/1900, J S Summers, G Murray, W Strachan, Peterhead-reg PD108. (un – also night of 23rd/24th) - Sunk by gunfire 45 miles NE by E 1/2 E of Out Skerries (un – 40 miles ENE of Outer Skerries Light) (H/L/Rn/pd/un)

JOSEPHINE, (L - trawler), 85grt. (un – also night of 23rd/24th) - Sunk by gunfire 40 miles NE by E 1/2 E of Out Skerries (un – 40 miles ENE of Outer Skerries Light) (H/L/Rn/un)

VICEROY, trawler, 150/1899, A Brodie (un – Dodds Steam Fishing Co), Aberdeen-reg. (un – also night of 23rd/24th) - Sunk by gunfire 50 miles ENE of Out Skerries (H/L/Lr/R/unn)

UFFA, drifter, 79/1908, J Reid & R Irvin, Peterhead-reg PD82. (un – also night of 23rd/24th) - Sunk by gunfire 45 miles ENE of Out Skerries (un – about 40 miles ENE of Outer Skerries Light) (H/L/Rn/pd/un)

J. M. & S., drifter, 78/1908, J Mitchell, Peterhead-reg PD191. (un – also night of 23rd/24th) - Sunk by gunfire 42 miles ENE of Out Skerries/Light (H/L/Rn/pd/un)

PISCATORIAL, (L - trawler), 84grt. (un – also night of 23rd/24th) - Sunk by gunfire 41 miles ENE of Out Skerries/Light (H/L/Rn/un)

ELIZABETH, drifter, 94/1907, J S Summers, G & T Bruce, W Buchan, Peterhead-reg PD203. (un – also night of 23rd/24th) - Sunk by gunfire 40 miles ENE of Out Skerries/Light (pd - 45 miles ENE of) (H/L/Rn/pd/un)

STAR OF BETHLEHEM, drifter, 77/1903, G Heask, J & A Forman (un – R Irvin & Sons, North Shields), Peterhead-reg PD527. (un – also night of 23rd/24th) - Sunk by gunfire 40 miles ENE of Out Skerries/Light (H/L/Rn/pd/un)

UGIEBRAE, drifter, 79/1902, J & A Buchan, Peterhead-reg PD63. (un – also night of 23rd/24th) - Sunk by gunfire 35 miles ENE of Out Skerries (un – about 40 miles ENE of Outer Skerries Light) (H/L/Rn/pd/un)


TUNISIANA, steamship, 4,220/1906, Furness, Withy & Co, London-reg, Mr A Wallace, Montreal for Hull with 6,000t grain and wheat. Torpedoed by UB.16 (Max Valentiner) off Lowestoft, Suffolk, beached at Barnard Sands, Kessingland (wi - in 52.25.24N, 01.46.23E), total loss, small part of cargo salvaged (H/L/te/un/wi)


Thursday, 24 June 1915

Barents Sea

DRUMLOIST, 3,118/1905, W Christie, London-reg, sailing Archangel for London with sleepers. (L - 26th) - Mined, presumably laid by Meteor, sank at entrance to White Sea (H/L/Lr)

North Sea

Three more fishing vessels on fishing grounds captured by U.38 (Max Valentiner) and sunk by gunfire off Shetlands (Note: Lloyds Losses lists the losses on the 23rd, and on the 24th):

COMMANDER (1), trawler, 149/1899, R Sinclair (un – R Craig and others), Aberdeen-reg. (L - 23rd) - Sunk 49 miles E of Balta Sound, Unst island (un – also 40 miles ENE of Outer Skerries Light) (H/L/Lr/Rn/un)

MONARDA, drifter, 87/1913, C B & R T Milne, Peterhead-reg PD92. (L/pd - 23rd; un – also night of 23rd/24th) - Sunk 41 miles ENE of Out Skerries, SE of Yell island (H/L/Rn/pd/un)

VINE, trawler, 110/1900, T Davidson, Aberdeen-reg. (L - 23rd; un – also night of 23rd/24th) - Sunk 30 miles NE by E of Out Skerries (H/L/Lr/Rn/un)

Saturday, 26 June 1915

Atlantic off N Scotland

CAMPANIA, trawler, 167/1895, W Walker, Aberdeen-reg, fishing. Captured by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), sunk by gunfire 60 miles N by W of Hoy Head, SW Orkneys (H/L/Lr/un)


Sunday, 27 June 1915

St George's Channel/Atlantic off S Ireland

Two British vessels (an Admiralty squadron supply ship), and probably a fourth attacked by U.24 (Rudolf Schneider):

LUCENA, 243/1913, Joseph Monks & Co, Liverpool-reg, 7 crew, Mr R Evans, Granton (wi - Garston) for Bantry Bay with coal. Captured by U.24, sunk by gunfire 4 miles S of Capel Is, off Youghal, Co Cork (wi - also off Knockadoon Head, Capel Is, in 51.48.50N, 08.51W, although this should probably read 07.51W; L - 4 miles S of Youghal) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

EDITH, steel schooner, 78grt, J Rooney, 3 crew, sailing Silloth for Cork with 155t plaster of paris. Captured by U.24, sunk by gunfire 10 miles SE of Capel Is (wi - in 51.45.55N, 07.39.45W). Note: from Lloyd’s Register, possibly 3-masted wooden schooner, but 113grt (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

Kenmare, passenger & cargo steamship, 1,330 (ms – 1,346)/1895, City of Cork Steam Packet Co, Cork. U-boat gun attack between Ardmore and Capel Is, escaped. Sunk 2 March 1918 (H/ms)

Monday, 28 June 1915

St George's Channel/Atlantic off SW England

Two, probably three more vessels attacked by U.24 (Rudolf Schneider):

DUMFRIESSHIRE, 4-masted steel barque, 2,622/1890, Shire Line (T Law & Co), Glasgow-reg, Mr R Furness, from San Francisco with 4,100t barley, reached Falmouth 25th for orders, directed to Dublin. Torpedoed by U.24, sank 25 miles SW of The Smalls, off Pembrokeshire (wi - in 51.30N, 06.15W); survivors picked up by steam trawler Weymouth, landed at Milford Haven (H/L/Lr/Mn/un/wi)

Orduna, passenger & cargo steamship, 15,499/1914, Pacific Steam Navigation Co, Liverpool. Chased by U-boat 20 miles SW of Smalls, escaped (H/ms)

ARMENIAN, passenger ship, 8,825/1895, Leyland Line/F Leyland & Co, Liverpool-reg, 162 crew, Mr J Trickery, Newport News for Avonmouth with 3,000 mules for army in France and general stores. U.24 sighted 3 miles distant at 1840, ship turned away but soon overhauled, shelled and badly damaged within 30min, engines stopped and crew abandoned ship. Two torpedoes sank her at 1950, 20 miles W of Trevose Head, Cornwall (L - 15 miles W of; un – in 50.40N, 06.24W and questions 20 miles W of; wi - in 50.29.15N, 05.33W); nine crew and 20 cattle attendants killed, 14 others wounded. One boat capsized during lowering, survivors in other boats or on rafts picked up by Belgian trawler President Stevens, transferred to two destroyers, landed at Avonmouth on 29th (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

Tuesday, 29 June 1915

North Sea

Brussels, passenger ship, 1,380/1902, Great Eastern Railway Co, Harwich, Mr Charles Fryatt. Chased by U-boat 56 miles E of Sunk LV, escaped. Captured 23 June 1916, master shot as franc-tireur (H/ge/ms)

Atlantic off S Ireland

SCOTTISH MONARCH, 5,043/1906, Monarch SS Co (Raeburn & Verel), Glasgow, sailing New York for Manchester with general cargo. Captured by U.24 (Rudolf Schneider), sunk by gunfire 40 miles S of Ballycottin/Ballycotton Is, off Co Cork (L/te/un - in 51.10N, 8W); 15 lives lost (H/L/Mn/te)


Wednesday, 30 June 1915

Atlantic off SW England

LOMAS, 3,048/1898, Buenos Ayres Great Southern Railway Co, London, Mr Phillip Evans, Buenos Aires/La Plata for Belfast with maize. Captured by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), sunk by torpedo 65 miles W of Bishop Rock, Scillies (L/te/un - in 49.30N, 08.15W); one life lost (H/L/Mn/te/un)

Eastern Mediterranean

Teiresias, passenger & cargo steamship, 7,606/1915, Alfred Holt & Co, Liverpool, sailing Liverpool for Penang with general cargo. Mined at south end of Small Bitter Lake, Suez Canal, laid by Turkish troops at night, ship swung and blocked the channel, cleared by Suez Canal Company that night and towed in - the one Turkish success in their attempts to mine the Canal (H/L/ms/nh)

JULY 1915

British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in July: 20 merchant ships totalling 52,847grt - 19 of 48,844grt to submarines, 1 of 4,003grt to mines, plus 39 fishing vessels totalling 4,427grt - 36 of 3,966grt to submarines, 3 of 461grt to mines (H)

Tuesday, 1 July 1915

Atlantic off SW England

Three British steamships (an Admiralty oiler and an Admiralty collier) captured and sunk by U.39 (Walter Forstmann) off Cornwall:

GADSBY, 3,497/1899, Sir R Ropner & Co, West Hartlepool, sailing Sydney (CB) for London with wheat. Sunk by torpedo 33 miles SSW of Wolf Rock, off Lands End (L/un - 49.23N, 05.52W) (H/L/te/un)

CRAIGARD, 3,286/1901, Craigmhor SS Co (Russell & Co), Leith-reg, Mr A McCullough, Galveston for Havre with cotton. Sunk by torpedo 50 miles SW by S of Wolf Rock (L/te/un - in 48.18N, 06.10W) (H/L/Mn/te/un)

RICHMOND, 3,214/1904, Britain SS Co (Watts, Watts & Co), London, sailing Gulfport for Boulogne with sleepers. Sunk by gunfire about 54 miles SW by S of Wolf Rock (L/te/un - in 49.11N, 06.10W) (H/L/te/un)

Atlantic off SW Ireland

Two British vessels sunk by U.24 (Rudolf Schneider):

L. C. TOWER, 4-masted schooner, 518/1915, Cochrane & Co, Parrsborough (NS)-reg, Mr L C Tower, sailing Parrsboro' for Newport with wood/deals, all sails set, making for Lundy Island. Overhauled by U.24 and ordered to abandon ship, difficult to set on fire but eventually ablaze from end-to-end and burnt down to water's edge, sank 30 miles S of Fastnet Rock, off Co Cork (L/un/wi - 25 miles SSW of; L/wi - in 51N, 10W; Mn - afloat and towed into Berehaven); crew reached Crookhaven in their motor boat (H/L/Mn/un/wi)

WELBURY, 3,591/1907, Bury Shipping Co (Sydney Hogg & Co), West Hartlepool-reg, Mr Robert Newton, sailing Kingston (Ja)/Matanzas for Queenstown with sugar for orders, proceeding at 7kts. U.24 sighted in vicinity of attack on L. C. Tower, signalled abandon ship immediately, but Welbury turned away, U.24 steered to cut her off, fired a warning shot, then opened a steady fire until one shell went through the engine-room, ship stopped and abandoned, finished off by gunfire 40 miles W of Fastnet (wi - in 51.10N, 10.35W; L - 15 miles W of Bull Rock), ship’s papers burnt by master in the galley fire (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

Friday, 2 July 1915

UC.2 believed rammed by SS Cottingham in North Sea off Yarmouth, otherwise own mines (un - own mined on 30 June, Cottingham probably hit the wreck)

English Channel

Two steamships attacked by U-boat(s):

City of Edinburgh, 6,255/1899, Ellerman Lines (G Smith & Sons), Liverpool. Torpedo/gun attack by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), torpedo missed but damaged by gunfire; 4 crew killed (H/ms/un)

Zealandic, passenger & cargo steamship, 8,090 (ms – 10,898)/1911, White Star Line/Ismay, Imrie & Co, armed. Chased but escaped (H/ms/tl)

Saturday, 3 July 1915

North Sea

Guido, 2,093/1913, Thomas Wilson & Co, Hull. U-boat gun attack, escaped. Sunk a few days later (H/ms)

English Channel

Arabia, passenger & cargo ship, 7,933 (ms – 7,903)/1898 Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Co, Greenock, armed. Chased by U-boat, escaped. Sunk 6 November 1916 (H/ms)

Atlantic off SW England

Two steamships sunk by gunfire of U.39 (Walter Forstmann):

LARCHMORE, 4,355/1912, Johnston Line, Liverpool, Mr Isaac Jones, sailing Cardiff for Bombay with coal. Captured and sunk 70 miles SW 1/2 S of Wolf Rock (L/te/un - in 48.54N, 06.28W); one life lost (H/L/Mn/te/un)

RENFREW (1), 3,488/1898, Sutherland SS Co, Newcastle, Mr J Stevenson, sailing Marseilles for Barry Roads in ballast. Refused to stop, shelled then sunk 85 miles SW by S of Wolf Rock (L - 59 miles NW of Ushant); crew landed at Falmouth (H/L/Mn/te/un)

Sunday, 4 July 1915

North Sea

SUNBEAM, 3-masted schooner, 132/1878, C A Reney ( 1/2 ),Chester-reg, 5 crew, Mr Moodie, Leith for Kirkwell with 190t coal, becalmed. U.25 (Otto Wünsche) sighted 2 miles distant, approached on surface to within 30yd, gave crew 3min to abandon ship, three shells sank her at 1500, 17 miles S by E of Wick, Caithness (L/un - 16 miles E of; wi - in 58.14N 02.40W); crew picked up by naval patrol boat, probably HMT Elm, landed at Wick (H/L/Lr/D/un/wi)

Atlantic off S Ireland

Anglo-Californian, cargo ship, nitrate carrier converted to horse transport, 7,333/1912, Lawther Latta & Co/Nitrate Producers SS Co, London, not armed, sailing Montreal/Quebec for Avonmouth with 927 horses for Western Front, 150 crew, master, Lt Frederick Parslow RNR aged 60. U.39 (Walter Forstmann) (dx - U.38; ge – or U.20) surfaced about 0800 a mile or more away on port beam 90 miles SW of Queenstown (L/un - in 50.15N, 9W; dx - 50.10N, 09W), ship turned stern on and went to full speed, reached 14kts, submarine opened a steady fire about 0900 frequently hitting, Anglo-Californian continued to manoeuvre in an attempt to escape while transmitting SOS’s. Ordered at 1030 by the U-boat to stop and abandon ship, the master decided to do so, then in response to his signals, destroyers Mentor and Miranda requested him to delay as long as possible. He got under way again, but now U.39 opened a heavy fire wrecking the bridge, all the port-side lifeboats and hitting the superstructure. By the time the U-boat had closed to 50yds, the master was dead and the Germans fired on anything that moved. Throughout the action, the master's eldest son, Fred Parslow was at the wheel or what remained of it. When the destroyers arrived, U.39 dived away and Anglo-Californian was brought into Queenstown on the 5th; 21 lives lost including Lt Frederick Daniel Parslow RNR who was awarded the Victoria Cross. His son and the chief engineer received the DSC and others MID. Sunk 9 June 1918 (H/L/Mn/dx/ge/ms/un/vc)


Tuesday, 6 July 1915

North Sea

Groningen, passenger & cargo steamship, 988/1902, General Steam Navigation Co, London. Aircraft attack 4 miles from Galloper, off Harwich, bombs missed, ship undamaged. Sunk 23 September 1915 (H/Mn/ms)


Wednesday, 7 July 1915

North Sea

CHESHIRE, trawler, 148/1898, North Lincolnshire Steam Fishing, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Mined, sank 50 miles E by S of Spurn Head, Humber estuary; 8 lives lost (H/L/Lr/gy)


Thursday, 8 July 1915

North Sea

GUIDO, 2,093/1913, Wilson Line/Thomas Wilson & Co, Hull, sailing London/Hull for Archangel with general cargo. Captured by U.25 (Otto Wünsche), sunk by torpedo 27 miles NE 1/2 N of Rattray Head, N of Peterhead (L/te/un - in 58.03N, 01.28W; un – also in 58.17N, 01.22W) (H/L/te/un)

Traquair, cargo steamship, 1,067/1915, G Gibson & Co, Leith. Chased by U-boat in Knock Deep, off Clacton, escaped. Sunk 12 January 1916 (H/Mn/ms)


Friday, 9 July 1915

St George's Channel

Two, believed three steamships attacked by U.20 (Walther Schweiger):

MEADOWFIELD, 2,750/1904, Glasgow Navigation Co (Maclay & McIntyre), Glasgow-reg, Mr Thomas Dunbar, Huelva for Glasgow with copper ore, also 5 passengers including 2 women and 2 children. Shot heard and submarine sighted on port quarter, another shot wrecked the chart-room and wheelhouse killing the helmsman, ship stopped, boats lowered while firing continued, finally went down 50 miles SW of Tuskar Rock, off Rosslare (wi - in 51.28N, 06.55W); mate and 14 crew took to port boat, master, rest of crew and passengers in starboard, sighted at 2100 by Grimsby trawler Majestic, landed at Holyhead just after midnight (wi - one crew member lost while abandoning ship) (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

ELLESMERE, passenger ship, 1,170/1906, Watson SS Co, Manchester-reg, Mr C Heslop, sailing Valencia for Liverpool/Manchester with citrus fruit. U.20 sighted 2 miles away on starboard bow, ship turned away and shelled, second shell carried away starboard boat's after davit, four more hit, others missed, then a shell went through the bridge deck killing one man and wounding a second, ship stopped and crew got away, sunk by torpedo 48 miles SW of The Smalls (L/wi - 55 miles W by S of, in 51.30N, 07.05W); one life lost, crew rescued by armed trawler Osprey II (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

Orduna, passenger & cargo steamship, 15,499/1914, Pacific Steam Navigation Co, Liverpool, Mr T Taylor. Torpedo/gun attack (ge - by U.20), 30 miles S of Queenstown (Cobh), gunfire ineffective, torpedo missed (H/Mn/ge/ms)

Atlantic off S Ireland

Etonian, passenger & cargo steamship, 6,438 (also 6,515)/1898, Leyland Line/Fred Leyland & Co, Liverpool (ms - Wilsons & Furness, Hull, believed earlier owner). Chased by U-boat, escaped. Sunk 23 March 1918 (H/Mn/ms)


Saturday, 10 July 1915

English Channel

Panama, passenger & cargo steamship, 5,981/1902, Pacific Steam Navigation Co, Liverpool. Chased by U-boat 11 miles S of Lizard Point, escaped (H/ms)

possibly Atlantic off S Ireland

Winlaton, cargo steamship, 3,263/1912, Gordon Steam Sailing Co, London, Mr J Murray. U-boat, possibly U.20 seen steaming hard for her late afternoon, ship too slow to escape so steered for the attacker which submerged about a mile off, came back up 20min later, then steered away. Mr Murray granted commission as Lt RNR and MID. Admiralty collier when sunk 23 August 1917 (Mn/ms)


Sunday, 11 July 1915

North Sea

Three Grimsby-reg. trawlers on fishing grounds attacked by U.25 (Otto Wünsche) off Hornsea:

HAINTON, 156/1899, Frank & Thomas Ellis. Captured, sunk by gunfire 45 miles NE by E (H/L/Lr/Mn/gy/un)

SYRIAN, 176/1904, F W Robinson. Captured, sunk by gunfire 45 miles ENE of (H/L/Lr/Mn/gy/un)

Fleetwood, 122grt, possibly Grimsby-reg GY166, 1896, but 163grt. Damaged 30 miles E 1/2 N of (L/D/un)

Monday, 12 July 1915

North Sea

Five sailing smacks on fishing grounds attacked by UB.6 (Erich Haecker) off Lowestoft, Suffolk. Four of them confirmed as Lowestoft-reg, sailed Lowestoft for fishing, captured before being sunk:

WOODBINE, ketch-rigged, c29/1906, W H Painter, LT481. (bm – 12 June) - Set on fire 18 miles SE of (wi - sunk by bomb in 52.17N, 02.09E) (H/L/bm/un/wi)

SPEEDWELL (1), 38grt. Sunk by bomb 19 miles SE by E of (wi - in 52.25N, 02.16E) (H/L/un/wi)

MERLIN, 47grt. Sunk by bomb 20 miles ESE of (wi - in 52.28N, 02.18E) (H/L/un/wi)

PURPLE HEATHER, 42grt. Sunk by bomb 23 miles SE by S of (wi - in 52.25N, 02.23E) (H/L/un/wi)

Emerald, 57grt. Damaged between Yarmouth and Southwold, (L/un/wi)

Wednesday, 14 July 1915

North Sea

Warri, cargo steamship, 2,493/1901, British & African Steam Navigation Co (Elder Dempster), Liverpool. U-boat attack 3 miles SW of Shipwash, torpedo missed (H/ms/tl)


Thursday, 15 July 1915

English Channel

Corso, cargo ship, 1,178/1900 (ms – 1,778grt), G H Wills & Co, Cardiff, armed. Chased by U-boat, saved by own gunfire. Sold and renamed Frimaire, sunk 15 March 1917 (H/ms/te).


Sunday, 18 July 1915

North Sea

Batoum, tanker, 4,054/1893, Associated Oil Carriers (J I Jacobs & Co), Swansea (ms – Batoum Ltd (A Stuart), London), sailing Killingholme for Harwich. Torpedoed by UB.17 (Ralph Wenninger) 2 1/2 m S by E of Southwold LH, damaged, beached on Outer Shoal, refloated sometime before the 24th; 6 lives lost. Admiralty chartered red-ensign oiler when sunk 19 June 1917 (H/L/ms/un)

Tuesday, 20 July 1915

U.23 sunk by combination decoy trawler Princess Louise/submarine C.27 off Fair Isle

North Sea

Brussels, passenger ship, 1,380/1902, Great Eastern Railway Co, Harwich, Mr Charles Fryatt. U-boat attack 20 miles E 1/2 S of S Inner Gabbard Buoy, off Orford Ness, torpedo missed. Captured 23 June 1916, master shot as franc-tireur (H/ge/ms)

Sheerness, passenger & cargo steamship, 1,274/1903, Clyde Shipping Co, Glasgow, armed. Chased by U-boat, saved by own gunfire (H/ms)


Thursday, 22 July 1915

Atlantic off NW Scotland

Two trawlers on fishing grounds captured and sunk by U.36 (Ernst Graeff) off Hoy Head, SW Orkneys:

KING ATHELSTAN, 159/1899, Consolidated Steam Fishing & Ice Co, Grimsby-reg. Sunk by bomb 100 miles N by W of (L/un - in 60.20N, 05W) (H/L/Lr/Rn/gy/un)

STAR OF PEACE, 180/1900, A Walker/Walker Steam Trawl Fishing Co, Aberdeen-reg. Sunk by gunfire 114 miles N 1/2 W of (H/L/Lr/Rn/un)

Friday, 23 July 1915

Atlantic off NW Scotland

Three trawlers on fishing grounds captured by U.36 (Ernst Graeff) and sunk by gunfire off Cape Wrath:

HERMIONE, 210/1908, Hellyers Steam Fishing, Hull-reg H992. Sunk 135 miles NNW of (L - 60 miles N by W of Hoy, Orkneys) (H/L/Lr/Rn/hw/sk/un)

SUTTON, 332/1911, City Steam Fishing Co, Hull-reg H363. Sunk 130 miles NNW of (L - 60 miles N by W of Hoy) (H/L/Lr/Rn/hw/sk/un)

HONORIA (1), 207/1898, Rushworth Steam Fishing, Grimsby-reg. Sunk 35 miles NNW of (L/un - 60 miles N by W of Hoy Is) (H/L/Lr/Rn/gy/sk/un)

Saturday, 24 July 1915

U.36 sunk by Q-ship Prince Charles in Atlantic off N Scotland, first success by submarine decoy ship working alone.

North Sea

PERSEUS, trawler, 155/1892, Grimsby & North Sea Steam Trawling, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Mined, probably surface-ship-laid (un – not included, so presumably not U-boat-laid), sank 60 miles E of Spurn Head, Humber estuary (L - 55 miles E by S of Hornsea); 10 lives lost including skipper (H/L/Lr/gy)


Four sailing smacks from Lowestoft for fishing, captured by UB.12 (Hans Nieland) and sunk by bombs 30 miles ENE of Lowestoft (wi - in 52.41N, 02.29E):

ACTIVITY, 56grt. Sunk (L - 12 miles E of Smith’s Knoll Spar Buoy; un – 30 miles from Lowestoft) (H/L/Mn/un/wi)

HENRY CHARLES, 41grt (H/L/Mn/un/wi)

KATHLEEN (2), 46grt (un – 59grt) (H/L/Mn/un/wi)

PROSPER, 45grt (un – 30 miles from Lowestoft) (H/L/Mn/un/wi)

Atlantic off NW Scotland

Four trawlers on fishing grounds captured by U.36 (Ernst Graeff) before her own loss to HMS Prince Charles, and sunk by gunfire:

ANGLIA, 107/1898, R Irvin & Sons, North Shields-reg SN.251. Sunk 25 miles NW of Sulisker/Sula Sgeir rock, near Rona island, NW of Cape Wrath. Crew picked up by Q-ship Prince Charles, landed at Widewall Harbour, South Ronaldsay (H/L/Lr/Rn/sk/un)

CASSIO, 172/1906, Hellyers Steam Fishing Co, Hull-reg H889. Sunk 123 miles NW by W of Hoy Head (L - 60 miles N by W of Hoy), SW Orkneys (H/L/Lr/Rn/hw/un)

ROSLIN, 128/1899, John Lewis & Sons, Aberdeen-reg. Sunk 60 miles N by W of Butt of Lewis, N Hebrides (H/L/Lr/Rn/sk/un)

STRATHMORE, 163/1899, Steam Herring Fleet (un – A Robertson), Aberdeen-reg. Sunk 60 miles N by W of Butt of Lewis (H/L/Lr/Rn/sk/un)

Sunday, 25 July 1915

North Sea

FIRTH, 406/1908, C R Davidson, Aberdeen-reg, 10 crew, Mr W Wright, Treport for Methil in ballast. Torpedoed by UB.6 (Erich Haecker), sank 4 miles E by S of Aldborough/Aldeburgh Napes Buoy (L - 9 miles N of Shipwash; wi - in 52.06.45N, 01.50E, also 52.14.20N, 01.47.31E); 4 crew lost (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

Atlantic off N Scotland

One steamship and five trawlers captured by U.41 (Claus Hansen); the trawlers, all on fishing grounds, were sunk by gunfire:

GRANGEWOOD, 3,422/1902, Gratitude SS Co (E W Morgan & Co), London-reg, 24 crew, Mr F Hatswell, Archangel for Havre with flax and wheat. (L/Rn/te/un - 24th) - Sunk by torpedo 20 miles ENE of Flugga/Muckle Flugga LH, off North Unst island, Shetlands (L - 25 miles E of Lamba Ness, Orkneys; wi - in 61.03N, 00.20W). Note: the distance between the Grangewood and fishing vessel sinkings may lend support to the 24th as the likely loss date (H/L/Rn/te/un)

CELTIC, 264/1907, Grimsby Steam Fishing Co, Grimsby-reg. Sunk 70 miles N by W of Hoy Head, Orkneys (un – in 59.53N, 01.18W) (H/L/Lr/Rn/gy/un)

CYDONIA (1), 259/1908, North Eastern Steam Fishing Co, Grimsby-reg. Sunk 70 miles N by W of Hoy Head (un – in 59.53N, 01.18W) (H/L/Lr/Rn/gy/un)

GADWALL, 192/1902, Harley & Miller (un – H A Holmes, Aberdeen), Liverpool-reg. Sunk 70 miles N by W of Hoy Head (un – in 59.53N, 01.18W) (H/L/Lr/Rn/un)

EMBLEM (1), 157/1895, R W Sutherland (un – Great Northern SS Fishing Co (Charles Curzon)), Hull-reg H301. Sunk 60 miles N by W of Hoy Head (H/L/Lr/Rn/hw/un)

HONORIA (2), 179/1896, Hellyers Steam Fishing Co, Hull-reg H325. Sunk 100 miles WNW of North Ronaldshay, NE Orkneys (H/L/Lr/Rn/hw/un)


Monday, 26 July 1915

Barents Sea

Madura, cargo steamship, 4,484/1901, Glasgow Navigation Co (Maclay & McIntyre), Glasgow, sailing Archangel for Leith with flax, oilcake, wheat and wood. Mined, presumably laid by Meteor, 2 1/2 m E by N 1/2 N of Danilov Is, reached Archangel. Sunk 18 October 1917 (H/L/ms)


Tuesday, 27 July 1915

North Sea

Three sailing smacks, sailed Lowestoft for fishing, two captured by UB.13 (Walter Gustav Becker) and one by UB.16 (Hans Valentiner), sunk by scuttling charges off Yarmouth/Lowestoft:

ICENI, 44grt (un – 57grt). (L/wi - 28th) - Sunk by UB.13, 15 miles E of Lowestoft (L/wi -15-20 miles ESE of, in 52.25N, 02.10E; un – 15 miles E of Yarmouth) (H/L/Mn/un/wi)

SALACIA, 48grt (un – 61grt). (L/wi - 28th) – Sunk by UB.13, 15 miles E of Lowestoft (L/wi - 15-20 miles ESE of, in 52.25N, 02.10E; un – 15 miles E of Yarmouth) (H/L/Mn/un/wi)

WESTWARD HO! 47grt. Sunk by UB.16, 25 miles SE of Lowestoft (wi - in 52.10N, 02.13E) (H/L/Mn/un/wi)

Wednesday, 28 July 1915

North Sea

Two more vessels sunk by UB.13 (Walter Gustav Becker) and UB.16 (Hans Valentiner)

YOUNG PERCY, ketch-rigged sailing smack, c45/1905, W Robbens, Lowestoft-reg LT455, sailed Lowestoft for fishing. Captured by UB.13, sunk by bomb 30 miles E by N of Lowestoft (un – 15 miles E of Yarmouth; wi - in 52.35N, 02.32E) (H/L/Mn/bm/un/wi)

MANGARA, 1,821/1889, SS Mangara Co (MacLay & McIntyre), Glasgow-reg, 18 crew, Mr H Beattie, sailing Bilbao for West Hartlepool with 2,400t iron ore, steaming at 8kts with pilot in charge. Torpedoed by UB.16, sank  1/2  miles E of Sizewell Bank Buoy, Aldeburgh (L - 50yd off; wi - in 52.12.30N, 01.41.30E); 11 crew lost (H/L/te/un/wi)

Canto, cargo steamship, 1,202/1904, Pelton Steam Shipping Co (Gardner & Reay), Newcastle. U-boat torpedo missed (H/ms)

Friday, 30 July 1915

North Sea

TORS, trawler, 158/1891, Hartlepool-reg, C Hall, fishing. Mined, probably surface-ship-laid (un – not included, so presumably not U-boat-laid), sank 43 miles E of Spurn Head, Humber; 8 lives lost (H/L/Lr)


Eight sailing smacks, sailed Lowestoft for fishing, all captured by UB.10 (Otto Steinbrinck) and sunk by scuttling charges off Lowestoft:

PROSPECTOR, ketch-rigged, 59/1893, J Lang, Lowestoft-reg LT554. Sunk 28 miles ENE of (wi - in 52.38N, 02.28E) (H/L/Mn/bm/un/wi)

VENTURE, 44grt. Sunk 27 miles ENE of (L/un - 30-35 miles ESE of; wi - c30 miles ESE of, in 52.41N, 02.29E) (H/L/Mn/un/wi)

ACHIEVE, 43grt. Sunk 35 miles E by N of (L/wi - 30-35 miles ESE, in 52.41N, 02.29E; un – 30 miles ENE of) (H/L/Mn/un/wi)

QUEST, 46grt. Sunk 35 miles E by N of (L/wi - 30 miles ENE from, in 52.41N, 02.29E) (H/L/Mn/un/wi)

ATHENA, 45grt. Sunk 35 miles E by N of (L/wi - 30-35 miles ESE from, in 52.41N, 02.29E) (H/L/Mn/un/wi)

STRIVE, 63grt. Sunk 35 miles E by N of (wi - in 52.31N, 02.30E) (H/L/Mn/un/wi)

CORIANDER, 46grt. Sunk 20 miles ESE of (L/wi - 30-35 miles ESE from, in 52.41N, 02.29E) (H/L/Mn/un/wi)

FITZGERALD, 51grt. Sunk 30 miles ESE of (L/wi - 30-35 miles ESE from, in 52.41N, 2-29E) (H/L/Mn/un/wi)

Atlantic off SW Ireland

IBERIAN, 5,223/1900, Leyland Line/Fred Leyland & Co, Liverpool-reg, Mr Thomas Jago, Manchester/Liverpool for Boston with general cargo. Captured by U.28 (Georg-Günther Freiherr von Forstner), sunk by torpedo 9 miles S by W of Fastnet Rock (L/te/un - in 51.15N, 09.36W; wi - 9 miles SW of, in 51.18N, 09.40W); crew allowed to abandon ship, but 7 lost (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)


Saturday, 31 July 1915

Dover Straits

Galicia (1), passenger & cargo steamship, 5,922 (ms – 5,896)/1901, Pacific Steam Navigation Co, Liverpool, sailing London for Liverpool with general cargo. Mined, laid by UC.1 (Egon von Werner) 2 miles from N Goodwin LV, damaged, beached at Deal, refloated sometime before 10 August. Sunk 12 May 1917 (H/L/ms/un)

Atlantic off Portugal

Chinkoa, cargo steamship, 5,222/1913, British India Steam Navigation Co. Chased by U-boat off Tagus estuary, escaped (H/ms)


British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in August: 49 merchant ships totalling 148,464grt - 42 of 135,153grt to submarines, 7 of 13,311grt to mines, plus 38 fishing vessels totalling 2,890grt - 36 of 2,454grt to submarines, 2 of 436grt to mines (H)

U.26 probably sunk in August/September by Russian mine in Gulf of Finland

Sunday, 1 August 1915

North Sea

Two vessels sunk by UB.10 (Otto Steinbrinck) off Lowestoft:

FULGENS, 2,512/1912, Gas Light & Coke Co (Stephenson Clarke & Co), London-reg, 24 crew, Mr A Laird, Hartlepool for London with coal and 2 passengers, steaming at full speed. Torpedoed and sunk 1 mile off Palling/Sea Palling, between Cromer and Yarmouth (L/wi - 3 miles ESE of Haisbro’ LV, in 52.49.04N, 01.36.29E) (H/L/te/un)

ALERT, sailing smack, 59grt, fishing. Captured by UB.10, set on fire and sank 18 miles NE of (L/un - 4 miles SE of Newarp LV; wi - in 52.42N, 02.05E) (H/L/un/wi)


LARK, sail fishing boat, fishing. Sunk by unidentified U-boat off Lowestoft (wi - in 52.28N, 01.47E); crew believed escaped in their boat (H/L/un/wi)

Atlantic off NW France

Three ships sunk by U.28 (Georg-Günther Freiherr von Forstner) off Ushant island, off NW Brittany:

CLINTONIA, 3,830/1907, Stag Line (J Robinson & Sons), North Shields-reg, Mr Geoffrey Donnelly, Marseilles for Tyne in ballast. Subjected to heavy gunfire, eventually stopped, sunk by torpedo 30 miles SW by W of; 10 lives lost - 5 Europeans and 5 Lascars drowned when a boat capsized, number of men were wounded during the chase (H/L/Mn/te/un)

BENVORLICH, 3,381/1896, Ben Line/William Thomson & Co, Leith-reg, sailing Manila for London with general cargo (L/un - in ballast). Captured, sunk by torpedo 50 miles SW of (L - 30 miles W of) (H/L/te/un)

RANZA, 2,320/1902, F H Barnett/David P Barnett, London, sailing Tyne for Gibraltar with coal. Overtaken by U.28 (Mn - U.68), ship abandoned, sunk by torpedo 50 miles SW of; 3 crew drowned. Note: U.68 not commissioned until 17/8/15 (H/L/Mn/te/un)

Tuesday, 3 August 1915

Atlantic off SW England

COSTELLO, 1,591/1903, Atlantic & Eastern SS Co (J Glynn & Son), Liverpool-reg, Liverpool for Genoa with general cargo. Captured by U.28 (Georg-Günther Freiherr von Forstner), sunk by gunfire 95 miles W by S of Bishop Rock, Scillies (L/te/un - in 49.02N 08.30W); one life lost (H/L/te/un)


Wednesday, 4 August 1915

North Sea

Como, cargo steamship, 1,246/1910, T Wilson Sons & Co, Hull. Chased by U-boat near North Ronaldshay, Orkneys, rescued (H/ms)

GRIMBARIAN, trawler, 146/1894, T B Roberts, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Mined, probably surface-ship-laid (un – not included, so presumably not U-boat-laid), sank 56 miles E by N of Spurn Head, Humber; 6 lives lost (H/L/Lr/gy)

Two sailing smacks on fishing grounds captured by UB.12 (Hans Nieland) and sunk by bombs 23 miles E by N of Lowestoft (L - 6 miles S of Smith’s Knoll Spar buoy; wi - in 52.36N, 02.20E) on 4th, crews possibly rescued by destroyer Firedrake on 5th:

CHALLENGER, 50grt (H/L/bw/un/wi)

HELIOTROPE, 28grt (H/L/bw/un/wi)

Atlantic off SW Ireland

MIDLAND QUEEN, 1,993/1901, Canada Steamship Lines, Midland, Ontario-reg, 21 crew, Sydney (CB) for Newport (Mon) with 2,200t steel bar/sheet/rod, nails, wire and 2 passengers. Captured by U.28 (Georg-Günther Freiherr von Forstner), sunk by gunfire 70 miles SW by W of Fastnet Rock (wi - in 50.35N, 10.50W; L - 70 miles SW of) (H/L/te/un/wi)


Thursday, 5 August 1915

North Sea

Cito, cargo steamship, 819/1899, Thomas Wilson Sons & Co/Wilson Line, Hull. Chased by U-boat 2 1/2 m E by S of Aldeburgh Napes, escaped. Sunk 17 May 1917 (H/ms)

Friday, 6 August 1915

North Sea

Two trawlers captured by U.38 (Max Valentiner) and sunk by bombs off Muckle Flugga rocks, off North Unst island, Shetlands:

OCEAN QUEEN, 185/1900, Aberdeen Fish Supply Association, Aberdeen-reg A175, Skipper R Robinson, Iceland for Grimsby with fish. Sunk 23 miles N by W of (wi - 25 miles NW of, in 61.05N, 01.35W) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

WESTMINSTER, 252/1906, Premier Steam Fishing Co, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Sunk 20 miles ESE of Muckle Flugga of (L - 30 miles E by S of Balta Sound; un – in 60.38N, 00.12E) (H/L/Lr/gy/un)

Four sailing smacks on fishing grounds captured by UB.17 (Ralph Wenninger), sunk by bombs off Lowestoft:

C. E. S., 47grt. Sunk 42 miles ENE of (L - 7.5 miles E by S of Jim Howe Bank) (H/L/un)

IVAN, 44/1907, W H Podd. Lowestoft. Sunk 42 miles ENE of (wi - in 52.40N, 02.35E) (H/L/un/wi)

FISHERMAN, 24grt. Sunk 37 miles ENE of (wi - in 52.52N, 02.28E) (H/L/un/wi)

HESPERUS, 57grt (un – 47grt). Sunk 37 miles ENE of (wi - in 52.38N, 02.42E) (H/L/un/wi)

XMAS ROSE, ketch-rigged sailing smack, 27/1909, E Painter, Lowestoft-registered LT294, Lowestoft for fishing. (un – 8th) – Captured by UB.10 (Otto Steinbrinck) and sunk by bombs off Lowestoft (wi - in 52.28N, 01.47E). Note: see also Arbor Vitae listed below, on 8th (H/L/bm/un/wi)

Atlantic off SW England

Highland Harris, cargo & passenger steamship, 6,032/1904, Nelson Line (Liverpool) Ltd (H & W Nelson), London. Chased by U-boat north of Scillies, escaped. Sunk 6/7 August 1918 (H/ms)


Saturday, 7 August 1915

German Minefield - Moray Firth field of nearly 400 mines laid by German auxiliary minelayer Meteor (1,912grt, ex-British Vienna seized Hamburg 4/8/14), night of 7th/8th to foul the approach to Cromarty and the Grand Fleet base of Invergordon, discovered the morning of the 8th by a minesweeping trawler


Sunday, 8 August 1915

Barents Sea

BENARTHUR, 2,029(ms – 1,965)/1889, R T Arthurs & Co, Glasgow-reg, sailing Archangel for Clyde with sawn goods. Mined 8 miles SE of Orloff LH, Kola Peninsula (L - about 8 miles S of), presumably Meteor-laid field, beached and wrecked (Lr - stranded, refloated 8/15) (H/L/Lr/ms)

North Sea

One vessel sunk, a second possibly attacked by U.17 (Hans Walther):

GLENRAVEL, 1,092/1906, Antrim Iron Ore Co, Belfast-reg, 14 crew, Mr A Cameron, Belfast for Leith with 800t iron ore and general cargo. U.17 approached around 0650 from two miles distant, Glenravel headed for the nearest land at top speed, from 0700 for the next hour several shells fell close until the U-boat came up within a quarter mile, ship stopped, crew took to the boats and Germans went alongside. Explosive scuttling charges placed below decks and Glenravel slowly sank stern first at 1025, 25 miles N of Kinnairds Head, Fraserburgh (L/wi - 12 miles NNE of, in 57.54N, 01.53W); crew headed for shore, met and taken in tow by Fraserburgh lifeboat Lady Rothes, landed at Fraserburgh (H/L/te/un/wi)

Edenside, cargo steamship, 322/1909, T Rose. Chased by U-boat off Rattray Head, N of Peterhead, escaped (H/ms)

ARBOR VITAE, sailing smack, 26grt, fishing. Captured by UB.10 (Otto Steinbrinck), sunk by bomb 35 miles NE by N of Lowestoft (wi - in 52.50N, 02.20E). Note: see also Xmas Rose listed above, on 6th (H/L/un/wi)


Monday, 9 August 1915

German auxiliary minelayer Meteor, 1,912grt, ex-British Vienna seized Hamburg 4/8/14. First laid mines off north Russia, now on second mission to lay mines in North Sea, sank HMS Ramsey the day before, now in danger of interception by British light cruisers and scuttled
Atlantic off W Ireland

THRUSH, trawler, 264/1906, Pioneer Steam Fishing Co (Moody & Kelly), Grimsby-reg, fishing. Captured by U.39 (Max Valentiner), sunk by bomb 50 miles W of Eagle Is, off Co Mayo (H/L/Lr/gy/un)


Tuesday, 10 August 1915

North Sea

UTOPIA (1), (H - merchant ship; L/ms/wi - steam trawler; un – fishing trawler converted to cargo ship), 155/1891, W A Leith & R W Lewis, Aberdeen-reg, Skipper J Smith, St Abbs for fishing. Captured by U.17 (Hans Walther) 12 miles E of St Abb's Head (L/un - 15 miles E of), 13 shells fired into her, sank around 1800 in 55.55N, 01.47W; crew spent 5 hours in boat, picked up by Danish SS Rodfare, landed from own boat in Leith Roads next day at 1100 (H/L/ms/un/wi)

One vessel torpedoed, another captured by UB.10 (Otto Steinbrinck) off Norfolk:

ROSALIE (1), 4,243/1914, New Ruperra SS Co (J Cory & Sons), Cardiff-reg, Mr J Couch, Tyne for San Francisco. Torpedoed by UB.10 some 3 miles off Blakeney Buoy (L - off Blankney; wi - beached near Sheringham Beach, Cley-next-the-Sea, in 52.57.02N, 01.08.15E) (H/L/te/un/wi)

ESPERANCE, sailing smack, 46grt, fishing. (un – 11th) - Sunk by gunfire 17 miles NE by E of Cromer (L/wi - 9 miles SSW of N Haisborough LV, off Happisburgh, in 52.54N, 01.30E) (H/L/un/wi)

Bristol Channel

Moto, cargo steamship, 1,941/1913, Pelton Steam Shipping Co, Newcastle. U-boat torpedo missed. Lost in collision 10 December 1918 (H/ms)


Wednesday, 11 August 1915

North Sea

Nine sailing smacks on fishing grounds captured by UB.10 (Otto Steinbrinck) and sunk by bombs mainly off Cromer, Norfolk, crews allowed to abandon ship according to normal practice. Note: lists a tenth sailing smack sinking (Esperence), but this is entered under the 10th. Such differences between and other sources may be due to the former using German sources, where times can differ from Allied ones by an hour. This is significant if actions take place around midnight:

GEORGE BORROW, 62grt. Sunk 15 miles ENE of (L - 6 miles off Haisborough LV; wi - in 53.01N, 1-41E) (H/L/un/wi)

ILLUSTRIOUS, 59grt. Sunk 17 miles E by N of (L - 6-8 miles ENE of Haisborough LV, off Happisburgh; wi - in 52.57N, 01.32E) (H/L/un/wi)

PALM, 47grt. Sunk 17 miles E by N of (L/wi - 6-8 miles ENE of Haisborough LV, in 52.57N, 01.32E) (H/L/un/wi)

TREVEAR, 47grt. Sunk 17 miles E by N of (L - about 20 miles NE of; wi - in 52.57N, 01.32E) (H/L/un/wi)

WELCOME, 56grt. Sunk 17 miles E by N of (L - 6-8 miles ENE of Haisborough LV; wi - in 52.57N, 01.32E) (H/L/un/wi)

GEORGE CRABBE, 42grt. Sunk 16 miles E by N of (L/wi - 6-8 miles ENE of Haisborough LV, in 53.03N, 01.43E) (H/L/un/wi)

YOUNG ADMIRAL, 60grt, possibly Lowestoft-reg LT349. (L/wi - 10th) - Sunk 17 miles E by N of (L/wi - 6-8 miles ENE of Haisborough LV, in 52.52N, 01.43E) (H/L/lt/un/wi)

OCEAN'S GIFT, 60grt. Sunk 36 miles E of (L - 15-37 miles NE of; wi - in 52.58N, 02.18E) (H/L/un/wi)

HUMPHREY, 41/1908, W H Podd, Lowestoft. Sunk 48 miles E  1/2 S of (H/L/un)

LEADER (un – Leander), sailing smack, 57grt. UB.6 (Erich Haecker) surfaced to the SE about 3 miles off, closed and ordered crew to launch their boat which was used to carry over scuttling charges, sank 20 miles E by N of Lowestoft (L/un - 5 miles S of Smith’s Knoll Spar Buoy; wi - in 52.35N, 02.17E); crew allowed to return to the boat, U-boat then headed for naval-manned smack G. and E. which opened fire with her single 3pdr, claiming to sink the German (H/L/Mn/un/wi)

Atlantic off S Ireland

OAKWOOD, 4,279/1903, Oakwood SS Co (J I Jacobs & Co), London, Swansea-reg, 35 crew, Mr G Nicholson, Liverpool for Cienfuegos in ballast. Captured by U.38 (Max Valentiner), sunk by gunfire 45 miles SSE of Old Head of Kinsale, Co Cork (L/wi - in 51.04N, 07.40W) (H/L/te/un/wi)


Thursday, 12 August 1915

Norwegian Sea

GRODNO, 1,955/1912, Wilson Line/T Wilson, Sons & Co, Hull, sailing Hull for Archangel with general cargo. Captured by U.22 (Bruno Hoppe), sunk by torpedo 98 miles NW of Lofoten Is (L/te/un - in 68.55N, 09.08E; un – also in 69.11N, 09.08E) (H/L/te/un)

North Sea

JACONA, 2,969/1889, Cairn Line, Dundee-reg, sailing Tees for Montreal with general cargo. Mined, sank 25 miles NNW of Troupe Head, near Banff, possibly Meteor-laid mine; 29 lives lost (H/L/Lr)

SUNFLOWER, sailing smack, 60grt, Lowestoft for fishing. Captured by UB.5 (Wilhelm Smiths), sunk by bomb 30 miles E by N of Lowestoft (wi - in 52.33N, 02.30E) (H/L/un/wi)

Bristol Channel

Woodfield (1), cargo steamship, 3,584/1905, Woodfield SS Co (Woods, Tylor & Brown), London, armed. U-boat torpedo missed. Sunk 3 November 1915 (H/ms)
Atlantic off W Ireland

OSPREY (1), 310/1905, Hugh Flinn, Liverpool-reg, 8 crew, Mr D Elliot, Baltimore (Ire) for Cleggan with 146t salt in 1,465 barrels. Captured by U.24 (Rudolf Schneider), sunk by gunfire 40 miles NE by N of Nush Terragh, Co Kerry (L/un/wi - 30 miles WSW of Slyne Head; L/wi - in 53.30N, 10.40W) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)


Friday, 13 August 1915

U-boat Warfare - Troop transport Royal Edward was first British merchant ship sunk in Mediterranean – with heavy casualties; French ammunition ship Carthage was sunk earlier on 4 July.

North Sea

PRINCESS CAROLINE, passenger ship, 888/1910, M Langlands & Son, Glasgow-reg, Mr W Taylor, Liverpool for Aberdeen with 900t general cargo, steering course from Noss Head to Kinnaird Head, stopped at 1800 by naval patrol boat and instructed “to steam three miles to the east to avoid a newly laid German minefield” and did so. Detonated mine aft at 2120 under No.4 hatch blowing covers & deck area into the air, sank about 3min later 14 miles N by E 1/2 E of Kinnaird Head, Fraserburgh (wi - in 57.56.30N, 02.02W), presumably Meteor-laid mine; four men missing, probably blown overboard by the explosion, survivors rowed to shore, landed at village of Pennan next day about 0700 (H/L/ms/wi)

Two sailing smacks on fishing grounds captured by UB.5 (Wilhelm Smiths) and sunk by bombs:

E. M. W., 47grt. Sunk 29 miles NE by N of Cromer, Norfolk (L/un - 29 miles NE by N of Lowestoft; wi - 29 miles NE of Lowestoft, in 53.19N, 01.45E) (H/L/wi)

J. W. F. T., 60grt. Sunk 29 miles NE by N of Cromer (L/un - 29 miles NE by N of Lowestoft; wi - in 53.19N, 01.45E) (H/L/wi)

Two vessels sunk by UC.5 (Herbert Pustkuchen):

AMETHYST, trawler, 57grt, Lowestoft for fishing. Captured and sunk by bombs, 7 miles ESE of Lowestoft (wi - in 52.25.45N, 01.56E) (H/L/un/wi)

SUMMERFIELD, 687/1913, Zillah Shipping & Carrying Co (W A Savage), Liverpool-reg, 10 crew, Mr G Hardle, Yarmouth for Douglas (IOM) with wooden huts (te - Tyne for Dublin with coal), steaming at 10kts. Mined, laid by UC.5, sank 2 miles E of Lowestoft, Suffolk (wi - in 52.28.25N, 01.48.45E); mate, chief engineer and the mate’s wife, who was the stewardess, were lost (H/L/te/tr/un/wi)

St George's Channel

CAIRO (1), 1,671/1882, Glasgow Navigation Co (Maclay & McIntyre), Glasgow-reg, 18 crew, Mr M Halcrow, Glasgow for Huelva with general cargo and 3 passengers. Captured by U.24 (Rudolph Schnieder), sunk by gunfire 34 miles SSW of Tuskar Rock, off Rosslare (L - 28 miles S30ºW of; un – in 51.44N, 06.33W; wi - in 51.38N 06.35W) (H/L/te/un/wi)

Aegean Sea

ROYAL EDWARD, troopship/transport, passenger ship, 11,117/1908, Royal Line (un – Canadian Northern Steamships), Toronto-reg, 220 crew, Mr P Wotton, Avonmouth and Alexandria for Mudros with drafts for British 29th Division, RAMC and Labour Corps totalling 31 officers and 1,335 men plus government stores, total on board 1,586. Torpedoed aft by UB.14 (Heino von Heimburg), sank rapidly by the stern 6 miles W of Kandeliusa island, near Kos island (L/un/wd - in 36.31N, 26.51E; dx - 4 miles S of); 997 lives lost in total – 13 military officers, 852 other ranks and 132 crew including master (dk - included 4 naval stokers; ge/un - 866 lives lost; wd - 935 lost, 651 survivors rescued by hospital ship Soudan, two French destroyers and trawlers. HMSO figure is crew only) (H/L/Rn/dk/dx/ge/me/te/un/wd)


Saturday, 14 August 1915

North Sea

GLORIA, trawler, 130/1898, Wear Steam Fishing Co, Sunderland-reg, fishing. Captured by U.17 (Hans Walther), sunk by gunfire 55 miles E by N of Aberdeen (L - in 57.25N, 00.51W) (H/L/Lr/un)

WHITE CITY, sailing smack, c45grt. Captured by UB.5 (Wilhelm Smiths), sunk by bombs at Cromer Knoll, off Norfolk (L/wi - near Cromer, in 52.58N, 01.20E) (H/L/un/wi)

BONA FIDE, sailing smack, 59grt. Captured by UB.4 (Karl Gross), sunk by bombs 35 miles ENE of Lowestoft (wi - in 52.50N, 2.25E) (H/L/un/wi)

Highland Corrie, passenger & cargo steamship, 7,583/1910 (ms – 7,344grt), Nelson Steam Navigation Co (H & W Nelson), London, Liverpool-reg, sailing La Plata for London with bananas and meat. Mined, laid by UC.1 (Egon von Werner) 3 miles ENE of N Foreland (L/un - in 51.52N, 01.32E), damaged, reached Tilbury. Sunk 16 May 1917 (H/L/ms/un)

St George's Channel

Start Point, cargo steamship, 3,840/1912, Norfolk & North American SS Co (Furness Withy), West Hartlepool. Chased by U-boat 10 miles SE of Tuskar Rock, escaped. Believed sunk 28 December 1917 as SS Maxton (H/ms)


Sunday, 15 August 1915

UB.4 sunk by Q-ship fishing smack lnverlyon off Yarmouth.

Monday, 16 August 1915

Baltic Sea

SERBINO, 2,205/1913, Wilson Line/T Wilson, Sons & Co, Hull, sailing Riga for Petrograd with iron goods and machinery. Torpedoed by U.9 (Johannes Spiess), sank off Worm LH, now Vormsi Saxby Light, Vormsi island, NW Estonia (H/L/te/un)


Tuesday, 17 August 1915

North Sea

Eimstad, 689 (ms – 692)/1908, Grefstad & Herlofson, Arendal, Norway, presumably on British-charter, Mr F Holder. Hailed by submarine about 1 mile N of Cross Sand LV, off Norfolk, U-boat opened fire, fired 11 rounds all of which missed, torpedo also missed. Master doused lights and attempted to ram, submarine disappeared and Eimstad escaped in the darkness. Sunk 24 March 1917 as SS Ennistown (H/Mn/ms)

Cromer, cargo ship, 812/1902, Great Eastern Railway Co, Harwich. U-boat torpedo missed (H/ms)

St George's Channel/Atlantic off SW England

Six British vessels (three Admiralty colliers) and probably a tenth ship captured by U.38 (Max Valentiner) and all sunk, except ss Matje which escaped:

PAROS, 3,596/1898, Shipping Controller/Admiralty (Turner, Brightman & Co), London-reg,, requisitioned by Admiralty, sailing Karachi for Manchester with wheat. Torpedoed and sunk 30 miles W by N of Bardsey Is, off Caernarvonshire (wi - in 52.43N, 05.40W, also 52.45N, 05.35W) (H/L/te/un/wi)

MAGGIE, 269/1907, James Henry Monks Ltd, Preston, Liverpool-reg, 6 crew, Mr G Whittaker, Youghal for Fleetwood in ballast. Sunk by gunfire 8 miles E of South Arklow Banks, off Arklow (wi - in 52.42N, 05.46.30W) (H/L/Lr/unwi)

REPEAT, trawler, 107/1913, R J Tripp, Lowestoft-reg, Skipper O Durrant, Lowestoft for fishing. Sunk by gunfire 18 miles W by S of Bardsey Is (wi - in 52.40N, 05.15W) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

Matje, 278grt. U-boat gun attack (presumed U.38) 43 miles N by E of South Bishops, rescued

THORNFIELD, 488/1913, Zillah Shipping & Carrying Co (W A Savage), Liverpool-reg, Mr T Williamson, London for Peel (IOM) with wooden huts. Sunk by gunfire 25 miles NNE of The Smalls (wi - around 7 miles NW of Strumble Head, in 52.05N, 05.15W) (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

BONNY (H - Bonney), passenger ship, 2,702/1891, British & African Steam Navigation Co (Elder Dempster & Co), Liverpool-reg, 37 crew, Mr G Logsdail, Marseilles for Liverpool in ballast. Sunk by gunfire 16 miles S by E of Tuskar Rock, off Rosslare (L - in 52N, 6W; wi - 51.57.30N, 06.02W) (H/L/ms/te/un/wi)

GEORGE BAKER, fishing vessel (L/un - trawler), 91grt, fishing. Captured, sunk by gunfire 45 miles N of Bishop Rock, Scillies (H/L/un)

Wednesday, 18 August 1915

St George's Channel

City of Liverpool, 1,101 (ms – 1,106)/1872, Palgrave, Murphy & Co, Dublin. U-boat gun attack 40 miles SSW of The Smalls, rescued (H/ms)

Atlantic off SW England

Lady Wolseley, passenger & cargo steamship, 1,424/1894, British & Irish Steam Packet Co, Dublin, armed. U-boat gun attack 55 miles NE 1/2 E of Longships, saved by own gunfire. Foundered 25 October 1916 (H/ms)


Thursday, 19 August 1915

U-boat Warfare - In spite of German assurances that large passenger liners would not be attacked, British liner Arabic sunk without warning with the loss of 2 or 3 US citizens. Strong US protests led to German claim she was zig-zagging and as a single-funnelled vessel, not easily identified as a liner. Germany shortly extended assurances to small passenger ships. "The Baralong Incident" - U.27 sunk by Q-ship Baralong in Atlantic off SW England.

Atlantic off S & SW Ireland

Four, possibly five vessels attacked by U.24 (Rudolf Schneider):

DUNSLEY, 4,930/1913, London & Northern SS Co (Pyman Bros), London-reg, Mr P Arkley, Liverpool for Boston (Mass) with general cargo. Captured by U.24, sunk by gunfire 48 miles S by W of Old Head of Kinsale, Co Cork (L/te/wi - in 50.50N, 08.30W; un – in 50.55N, 08.18W); crew allowed to abandon ship but 2 lives lost (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

ARABIC, passenger ship, 15,801/1903, Oceanic Steam Navigation Co (Ismay, Imrie & Co), Liverpool-reg, 261 crew, Mr S Finch, Liverpool for New York with 86 passengers and general cargo including mails, zig-zagging at 16kts. Torpedoed starboard side by U.24, sank within 15min, 50 miles S by W 1/2 W of Old Head of Kinsale (L/te/un/wd/wi - in 50.50N, 08.32W; wi - also 48 miles SSW of); 26 crew, 18 passengers lost including some Americans (un – 40 in total) (H/L/Mn/ge/te/un/wd/wi)

NEW YORK CITY, 2,970/1907, Bristol City Line (un – Chas Hill & Sons), Bristol-reg, 30 crew, Mr H Barclay, Bristol/Swansea for New York with general cargo. Captured by U.24, sunk by gunfire 44 miles SSE of Fastnet Rock (L/te/un - in 51N, 08.50W; un – also in 50.57N, 08.38W; wi - 35 miles S of Old Head of Kinsale, in 50.52N, 08.50W) (H/L/te/un/wi)

ST. OLAF, 3-masted wooden schooner, 277/1903, Pugsley's Shipping Co, Parrsborough (NS)-reg, 8 crew, Mr B Tower, Llanelly for Parrsboro' (NS) in ballast. Captured by U.24, sunk by gunfire 58 miles off Galley Head, Co Cork (un – in 50.33N, 08.29W; wi - in 50.35N, 09.00W); crew picked up by SS Rollans (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

Bovic, passenger & cargo steamship, 6,583/1893, Ismay, Imrie & Co, Liverpool. Chased by U-boat off S Ireland, escaped (H/ms)

Atlantic off SW England

British steamship (and an Admiralty collier) sunk by U.27 (Bernd Wegener). An attack on a third vessel led to U.27 being sunk by HMS Baralong and the resulting "Baralong Incident":

GLADIATOR, 3,359/1904, Charente SS Co (T & J Harrison), Liverpool/Cardiff for Pernambuco with general cargo. (te/un - 18th; un – or 19th) - Captured by U.27, sunk by gunfire 68 miles N by W of Bishop Rock (L - 50 miles N by W of Scilly) (H/L/te/un)

Nicosian, cargo steamship, 6,369/1912, Leyland Line, Liverpool, sailing New Orleans for Liverpool, carrying mules. (L - 20th) - stopped at 1500 by U.27, 73 miles S by W of Old Head of Kinsale (L - in 50.22N, 08.12W; dx - 50.43N, 07.22W; ge - c100 miles S of Queenstown), Q-ship Baralong was nearby, sighted Nicosian and received signals she had been captured by one or two U-boats. Baralong, still with real identity intact headed as if to pick up Nicosian's crew from their boats, the U-boat passed behind the stopped ship to intercept the new arrival and when she appeared again, Baralong had the White Ensign hoisted and opened a heavy fire from 600yds which soon sank U.27. As Baralong picked up Nicosian's crew, Germans were seen swimming for the stopped ship and fearing they would board and scuttle her, opened fire on them in the water. Four Germans managed to reach her and disappeared below. With guns and ammunition onboard, Baralong sent her small Royal Marine contingent across to hunt them down, no doubt on a "shoot-on-sight" basis, before they could do any damage. All four were killed. Nicosian's crew returned and brought her into Bristol holed by U-boat shells (un – not listed in as damaged). On the bases of reports by some of the American muleteers carried by Nicosian, the Germans described the incident as an atrocity and demanded the crew of Baralong be tried for murder and punished. Britain agreed to an impartial tribunal as long as the enquiry included the sinkings of liner Arabic, firing on the boats of collier Ruel and the attack on E.13 in neutral waters. The Germans dropped their demands although still threatened reprisals (H/L/Rn/Mn/dx/ge/ms)

Friday, 20 August 1915

Atlantic off NW France

Two British steamships and a schooner captured by U.38 (Max Valentiner) and sunk by gunfire off Ushant:

BITTERN, 1,797/1912, Cork SS Co, Cork-reg, sailing Clyde for Leghorn with coal, general cargo. Sunk 50 miles NW of (L/te/un - in 48.53N, 06.18W) (H/L/te/un)

CARTERSWELL, 4,308/1914, Northern SS Co (G N Patterson & Co), Newcastle-reg, sailing Galveston/Newport News for Havre with wheat. Sunk 65 miles NW of (L - 70 miles W of) (H/L/te/un)

MARTHA EDMONDS, 3-mast schooner, 182/1873, E Rillston, Fowey-reg, sailing Rouen for Seville with silversand. Sunk 62 miles WNW of (L - in 48.39N, 06.40W) (H/L/Lr/un)

Saturday, 21 August 1915

U-boat warfare - UC.5 was the first minelayer to penetrate the English Channel

Dover Straits

WILLIAM DAWSON, 284/1872, J M Lennard, Middlesbrough-reg, sailing Boston (Lincs) for Dunkirk with coal. Mined, laid that morning by UC.5 (Herbert Pustkuchen), sank off Boulogne (L/un - 1 mile from); 5 lives lost (H/L/Lr/ge/un)

Atlantic off SW England

Five steamships believed attacked by U.38 (Max Valentiner), one a tanker, the others all believed colliers:

RUEL, 4,029/1913, Turnbull Bros Shipping Co, Cardiff-reg, Mr Henry Story, Malta for Barry Roads in ballast. Captured by U.38, sunk by gunfire 45 miles SW of Bishop Rock, Scillies (un/wi - in 49.25N, 07.10W; wi - also 45 miles SW of Scillies,); one life lost reportedly when the lifeboats were fired on (H/L/Mn/dx/ge/os/te/un/wi)

COBER, 3,060/1904, London & Northern SS Co (Pyman Bros), London-reg, Mr John Peterfield, Cardiff for Buenos Aires with coal. Captured by U.38, sunk by torpedo 45 miles SSW of Scillies (L/te/un/wi - in 49.10N, 06.30W) (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

WINDSOR, 6,055/1911 (un – 1912), Windsor SS Co & Manchester SS Co (Evan Thomas, Radcliffe & Co), London, sailing Barry for Leghorn/Livorno with coal. Captured by U.38, sunk by gunfire 70 miles SW 1/2 S of Wolf Rock, near Lands End (H/L/te/un)

Westbury, cargo steamship, 3,097/1904, Alexander Shipping Co (Capper, Alexander & Co), Glasgow. Gun attack 50 miles S of Wolf Rock, rescued. Admiralty collier when sunk 31 August 1917 (H/ms/un)

San Melito, tanker, 10,160/1914, Eagle Oil Transport Co, London, Mr James Jackson, sailing London for Mexico. U.38 sighted at 1450, 70 miles SW of Lizard Point, ship turned away, hit starboard side and master concussed, chief officer took over command, chase and shelling continued until c1500, patrol craft came up and the submarine dived, tanker damaged (H/L/Mn/ms/un)

Sunday, 22 August 1915

Atlantic off S Ireland

Avocet (1), passenger steamship 1,219/1885, Avocet SS Co (Yeoward Bros) (tl – purchased in 1907 from Cork SS Co), Liverpool-reg. Chased by U-boat(s) twice that day, escaped. Sunk 19 April 1917 (H/ms)

Atlantic off SW England

Two steamships captured by U.38 (Max Valentiner) and sunk by gunfire off the Scillies:

DIOMED (1), 4,672/1895, Ocean SS Co (A Holt & Co), Liverpool-reg, 55 crew, Mr J Myles, Liverpool for Shanghai with general cargo. Chased for 45min then sunk 57 miles WNW of (L - 30 miles W of; un/wi - in 50.21N, 06.40W); 10 crew lost including master, survivors picked up by RN destroyer (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)

PALMGROVE, 3,100/1896, Alexander & Mair, Glasgow-reg, Mr J Small, Clyde for Porto-Vecchio with coal. Sunk 46 miles W by N 1/2 N of Bishop Rock (L/te/wi - in 49.52N, 07.40W; un/wi - also 40 miles W by N 1/2 N of Scillies) (H/L/te/un/wi)

Monday, 23 August 1915

North Sea

COMMANDER BOYLE, trawler, 290/1915, Hellyers Steam Fishing, Hull-reg H353, fishing. Mined, believed laid by Meteor, sank 40 miles N by W of Rattray Head, N of Peterhead; 3 lives lost (H/L/Lr/hw)

Three sailing smacks on fishing grounds, captured by UB.12 (Hans Nieland) and sunk by bombs:

INTEGRITY, ketch-rigged, 52/1902, G T Hume, Lowestoft-reg LT930. Sunk 24 miles ESE of Cromer, Norfolk (L/wi - 18 miles E of Haisborough LV, in 53.01N, 02.02E; un – Hoofden area) (H/L/bm/un/wi)

BOY BERT, 57/1902, W H Podd, Lowestoft. Sunk 50 miles E of Lowestoft (L - 56 miles E of) (H/L/un)

YOUNG FRANK, 49/1902, W H Podd, Lowestoft. (L/un - 25th) - Sunk 38 miles NE by E 1/2 E of Lowestoft, Suffolk (L - 38 miles NE by E of; un – 38 miles N by E of; wi - in 52.40N, 02.40E) (H/L/un/wi)

Atlantic off SW Ireland

British steamship (and an Admiralty chartered red-ensign oiler) stopped by U.38 (Max Valentiner) and sunk with bombs off Fastnet Rock, off Co Cork:

TRAFALGAR, 4,572/1911, Glasgow Shipowners Co (Glen & Co), Glasgow-reg, 31 crew, Mr W Peter (wi - on Admiralty charter), Mejillones for Clyde with nitrates. Sunk 54 miles SW by W of (L - 54 miles SW of; wi - in 50.39N, 10.27W) (H/L/te/un/)

Sunday, 29 August 1915

North Sea

SIR WILLIAM STEPHENSON, 1,540/1906, Tyne-Tees SS Co, Newcastle-reg, 22 crew, Mr T Storm, Newcastle for London with 700t general cargo, steaming at 12kts. Mined, laid by UC.6 (Matthias Graf von Schmettow), exploded beneath engine & boiler rooms at 0530,  1/2 m off Great Yarmouth beach, Norfolk, about 30yd from Cockle LV (wi - in 52.35.34N, 01.45.01E), taken in tow for Yarmouth Roads where she sank; 2 firemen killed by explosion, survivors landed at Yarmouth (H/L/te/un/wi)


Monday, 30 August 1915

North Sea

One steamship lost and a second damaged in minefield laid by UC.5 (Herber Pustkuchen) off Longsand LV, off Clacton:

HONITON, 4,914/1916, Tatem Steam Navigation Co, Cardiff, sailing Buenos Aires for Hull with linseed, maize. Mined 2 1/2 m E of (L -  1/2 m S by E of), beached at Shoeburyness, declared total loss (H/L/te/un)

Bretwalda, cargo steamship, 4,037/1911, Hall Bros SS Co, Newcastle, sailing Newcastle for Marseilles with coal. Mined 3 miles E of (L - 3 miles E by N of), damaged, towed in, beached on Mucking Flat, Canvey Is area, refloated. Sunk 13 December 1916 (H/L/ms/un)
Atlantic off SW England

Baron Polwarth, cargo steamship, 4,913/1911, H Hogarth & Sons, Ardrossan. Chased by U-boat west of Scillies, escaped (H/ms)



British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in September: 30 merchant ships totalling 101,690grt - 22 of 89,693grt to submarines, 8 of 11,997grt to mines, plus 8 fishing vessels totalling 445grt - 6 of 292grt to submarines, 2 of 153grt to mines (H)

Wednesday, 1 September 1915

North Sea

One steamship (and two Admiralty trawlers), mined and sunk in field laid by UC.7 (Franz Wäger) the day before off the Shipwash, off Orford Ness:

SAVONA, 1,180/1881, Leith, Hull & Hamburg Steam Packet Co (J Currie & Co), Leith-reg, Mr W Dickson, Oran for Leith with esparto grass and lead ingots/pigs. Sank  1/2 m off Shipwash LV (L/wi - 0.5 miles N of, in 52.01.37N, 01.38.16E); 3 lives lost. Wreck dispersed by Admiralty using explosives in 1922, 623t of lead salvaged in 1950 (H/L/te/un/wi)

Atlantic off NW Scotland

WHITEFIELD, 2,422/1891, Whitefield SS Co (ms – MacLean, Doughty & Co; un – E James; both West Hartlepool), Mr Henry John, Archangel for Clyde/Nice (te - Tyne) with wheat. Came under fire from U.33 (Konrad Gansser), attempted to escape but stopped, sunk by gunfire 95 miles N by W of Cape Wrath (L/te - in 60N, 06.40W) (H/L/Mn/ms/te/un)


Thursday, 2 September 1915

Atlantic W of Scotland

ROUMANIE, 2,599/1892, New Line SS Co (R Mackie & Co), Leith, sailing Archangel for Clyde with wood. Captured by U.20 (Walther Schweiger), sunk by bombs 40 miles NNW of St Kilda island, W of Outer Hebrides (L - 35 miles NNW of) (H/L/te/un)

Atlantic off SW Ireland

W. T. Lewis (L/Mn/un - William T Lewis), 4-masted barque, 2,166/1891, A P Rolph, Greenock, sailing Everett for Sheerness with timber. (L - 3rd) - Captured by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), 95 miles W by N of Fastnet (L/un - in 50.55N, 11.47W), fired at and damaged, escaped (un – under tow, damaged by U.20 two days later, but again did not sink) towed into Castletown (Berehaven). The U-boat was on passage for the Dardanelles (H/L/Mn/un)

Aegean Sea

Southland, troopship/transport, passenger ship, 11,899/1900, International Navigation Co, Liverpool, armed, sailing Alexandria for Mudros carrying 61 officers and 1,373 other ranks, mainly 2nd Australian Division. Torpedoed by UB.14 (Heino von Heimburg) south of Strati island, 30 miles short of Mudros, seriously damaged, but still afloat after two hours due to efforts of engineering staff, naval and military volunteers. Patrol destroyer Racoon arrived and got her into Mudros that evening, seaplane carrier Ben-my-Chree may have done the towing; no crew listed as casualties, 24 military personnel lost their lives (ge – 40 lives lost), survivors taken off by ship’s boats, transport Neuralia picked them up (Cn – Ben-my-Chree took off 300 survivors). Sunk 4 June 1917 (H/L/Rn/Cn/ge/me/ms/un)


Saturday, 4 September 1915

Natal Transport was the first recorded British merchant ship lost in the Mediterranean to a U-boat

Atlantic off SW Ireland

HESPERIAN, passenger ship, 10,920/1908, Allan Line SS Co (Allan Bros & Co), Glasgow, Montreal-reg, armed, Mr Maine, Liverpool for Quebec/Montreal with general cargo, total of 653 passengers and crew. Torpedoed by U.20 (Walther Schweiger), 85 miles SW by S of Fastnet Rock, off Co Cork (L/wd - in 50.03N, 10.10W), warships responded to her SOS, taken in tow for Queenstown (Cobh) with captain and skeleton crew on board, but sank (L - 130 miles W of Queenstown; L/un - on 6th); 32 lives lost, including a MN matron and stewardess in the attack (H/L/Mn/ge/te/tr/un/wd)

British steamship (and an Admiralty chartered red-ensign oiler) captured and sunk by U.33 (Konrad Gansser), then on passage for the Dardanelles, off Fastnet Rock:

MIMOSA, 3,466/1905, Anglo-American Oil Co, Liverpool, Mr T Hugo, sailing New York for Belfast with oil. Sunk by gunfire 137 miles SW by W of (L/te - in 49.40N, 12W; un – in 49.26N, 12.00W). U-boat commander told the crew he would inform the first trawler he saw to pick them up (H/L/Mn/te/un)

Atlantic off SW England

Crossby, cargo steamship, 3,893/1907, R Harrowing & Co, Whitby. Chased by U-boat 200 miles W of Bishop Rock, escaped (H/ms)

Central Mediterranean

NATAL TRANSPORT, 4,107/1910, Empire Transport Co (Houlder Bros & Co), West Hartlepool, 34 crew, Mr W Davison, Bombay for Liverpool with general cargo, departed Port Said early afternoon on 2nd, sharp lookout kept for submarines. Gun heard and fall of shot seen, U.34 (Claus Rücker) sighted 3 or 4 miles astern, two more shots arrived, one ahead and one astern, forecastle head then hit, after 15min under fire the ship stopped and crew got away, firing continued and she sank 40 miles W of Gavdo Is, off SW Crete (L - 30 miles W of); crew rowed to Crete in the dark and got ashore with help of British Consul at Canea (H/L/Mn/te/un)


Sunday, 5 September 1915

Atlantic off SW Ireland & SW England

Two steamships heading for Liverpool with general cargo captured by U.20 (Walther Schweiger) and sunk by gunfire:

DICTATOR (1), 4,116/1891, Charente SS Co (T & J Harrison), Liverpool, sailing from Pernambuco. Sank 135 miles S by W of Fastnet Rock (L/te/un - in 49.09N, 08.58W) (H/L/te/un)

DOURO, 1,604/1881, Papayanni Line/Ellerman Lines (F Swift/Graham Smith, managers), London, sailing from Oporto. Sank 79 miles SW by W of Bishop Rock, Scillies (L/te/un - in 48.55N, 07.48W) (H/L/te/un)

Monday, 6 September 1915

North Sea

Fulmar (2), cargo steamship, 1,270/1902, Cork Steam Shipping Co, Cork. Aircraft attack 9 miles W of North Hinder, bombs missed. Sunk 24 March 1916 (H/ms)

Atlantic off NW Spain

JOHN HARDIE, 4,372/1906, Clutha Shipping Co (J Hardie & Co), Glasgow, sailing Java for Clyde with sugar. Captured by U.33 (Konrad Gansser), sunk by gunfire 98 miles W by S of Cape Finisterre (L/te/un - in 42.10N, 11.15W); one life lost (H/L/Mn/te/un)


Tuesday, 7 September 1915

North Sea

Four sailing smacks on fishing grounds captured by U-boats and sunk by bombs 44 miles ESE of Lowestoft, Suffolk.

By UB.2 (Werner Fürbringer):

CONSTANCE (2), 57grt, (un – 44 miles SE of) (H/L/un)

EMMANUEL, ketch-rigged, 44/1905, William F White, Lowestoft-reg LT169 (L - 40 miles off; un – 44 miles SE of) (H/L/bm/un)

By UB.16 (Hans Valentiner) (un – 8th in Yarmouth area, but date uncertain)

EMBLEM (2), ketch-rigged, 1899, 50grt, William F White, Lowestoft-reg LT97 (H/L/bm/un)

VICTORIOUS (1), 43grt (H/L/un)

John Evelyn, sailing vessel, 57grt. Bombed and damaged by Zeppelin rigid airship in London's Millwall Dock (L only)

Bay of Biscay

CARONI, 2,652/1904, Royal Mail Steam Packet Co, Newcastle-reg, sailing London for Bordeaux with stores. Shelled and captured by U.20 (Walther Schweiger) in the evening, sunk by torpedo 15 miles W of Chassiron Point, Ile d'Oleron, off La Rochelle (H/L/Mn/te/un)

Leicestershire, passenger & cargos steamship, 8,059 (ms – 8,040)/1909, Bibby Bros & Co, Liverpool. Chased by U-boat, escaped (H/ms)


Wednesday, 8 September 1915

Dover Straits

MONARCH, cable ship, 1,122/1883, HM Postmaster General (Telegraph Department), London-reg, 73 crew, Mr R Draper, Santandar for Newport. Mined, one of six laid by UC.5 (Herbert Pustkuchen) on the 7th, sank 2 1/2 m S of Folkestone “Gate” (wi - in 51.02.11N, 01.13.44E); 3 crew lost, survivors rescued by patrol boats. Wreck positively identified in 1986 when a plate with her crest and the ship’s bell were recovered (H/L/ge/te/un/wi)

Bay of Biscay

MORA, 3,047/1899, English & American Shipping Co (C T Bowring & Co), sailing Santander for Newport (Mon) with ore. Captured by U.20 (Walther Schweiger), sunk by gunfire 68 miles W by S of Belle Ile, W of St Nazaire (L/te/un - in 46.50N, 04.40W) (H/L/te/un)


Thursday, 9 September 1915

North Sea

DEVONIAN, trawler, 128/1896, Allen Steam Fishing, Skipper H Kew, Grimsby-reg, fishing. (gy - 8th) - Foundered, probably mined, perhaps surface-ship-laid (un – not included, so presumably not U-boat-laid), 30 miles NE 1/2 N of Spurn Head or LV, Humber (wi - in 54N, 00.45E); 9 lives lost including skipper (H/L/Lr/gy/wi)

Western Mediterranean

CORNUBIA, 1,736/1889, Cornubia SS Co (R B Chellew), Falmouth-reg, Alexandria/Cartagena for Clyde with beans. Captured by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), sunk by gunfire 75 miles SE by S of Cartagena, Spain (L/te/un - in 36.46N, 00.15E) (H/L/Mn/te)

Friday, 10 September 1915

North Sea

Two sailing smacks on fishing grounds captured by U-boats and sunk by bombs:

BOY ERNIE, ketch-rigged, 47/1905, Ernest J Crews (un – S J Chadd & Edith Waller), Lowestoft-reg LT383. Sunk by UB.2 (Werner Fürbringer), 58 miles E of Cromer, Norfolk (H/L/bm/un)

NIMROD, 51/1892, W H Podd, Lowestoft-reg LT489. Sunk by UB.16 (Hans Valentiner), 45 miles E by S of Lowestoft, Suffolk (H/L/un)

Antilochus, cargo ship, 9,039/1906, A Holt & Co, Liverpool, armed. U-boat gun attack, saved by own gunfire (H/ms)

Sunday, 12 September 1915

North Sea

ASHMORE, 2,519/1899, Adam SS Co (Adam & Co), Aberdeen-reg, chartered by Belgian Relief Commission, sailing Rosario for Rotterdam with maize. Mined, laid by UC.3 (Erwin Weisbach), sank 5 miles E 1/2 N of Kentish Knock LV (wi - in 51.40.39N, 01.47.47E); 4 crew lost. At the time believed torpedoed, only confirmed as mine later (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)


Wednesday, 15 September 1915

U.6 sunk by British submarine E.16 off Stavanger, Norway

Black Sea

PATAGONIA, 6,011/1913, Patagonia SS Co (E Thomas, Radcliffe & Co), London, Mr D Davies, in service as Russian naval transport, sailing Odessa for Nicolaieff in ballast. Torpedoed aft by UB.7 (Wilhelm Werner), sank 10 1/2 m NE of Odessa, Ukraine (L - 10 1/2 m E by N of) (H/L/Mn/ge/rf/te/un)


Thursday, 16 September 1915

Dover Straits

AFRICA, 1,038/1903, Bennett SS Co, Goole-reg, sailing London for Boulogne with general cargo. Mined, laid by UC.6 (Matthias Graf von Schmettow), sank 1 1/2 m off Kingsdown, near Deal (un – beached at Deal but total loss); 2 lives lost (H/L/te/un)

Saturday, 18 September 1915

U-boat Warfare - following US protests over the sinking of Arabic (19 August) and Hesperian (4 September) and because of limited success with the unrestricted submarine campaign, it was decided that by the end of September U-boats should: (1) stop attacks off the west coast of the British Isles and in the English Channel. (2) carry out attacks in the North Sea strictly according to prize rules. (3) transfer their main area of operations to the Mediterranean where there was less chance of meeting US ships or killing their citizens. There were no shipping losses to U-boat attack in the restricted areas in October and November, although they restarted in December

Dover Straits

Two British vessels (and an Admiralty trawler) mined, all believed laid by UC.6 (Matthias Graf von Schmettow) three days before:

San Zeferino, tanker, 6,430/1914, Eagle Oil Transport Co, London, sailing Puerto Mexico for Sheerness with oil fuel. Damaged 2 miles NNW of S Goodwin LV, beached, refloated some time before 15 October; 2 lives lost (H/L/ms/un)

Nigretia, cargo ship, 3,187/1910, Beaver Shipping Co (Palin Evans & Co), Bristol, sailing Hull for Rouen with coal. (L/un - 27th) - Damaged off S Foreland (L/un - near S Goodwin LV), beached on Shingles Bank, refloated (H/L/ms/un)

Sunday, 19 September 1915

Central Mediterranean

RAMAZAN, Indian troopship/transport, cargo steamship, 3,477/1905, Liverpool Shipping Co (H Fernie & Sons), 29 crew, sailing for Salonica with government war stores and carrying 7 military officers and 382 other ranks. (me – 9th) - Captured by U.35 (Waldermar Kophamel) (other sources - U.34 ) out of Cattaro, sunk by gunfire 55 miles SW of Cerigotto Is/Antikythira, off NW Crete; 312 lives lost – 3 military officers, 308 other ranks and one crew lost (Mn – 315 lives, including 314 Indians) (H/L/Mn/ge/me/te/un)


Monday, 20 September 1915

North Sea

HORDEN, 1,434/1906, Burnett SS Co, Newcastle, sailing London for Hartlepool in ballast. Mined, laid by UC.6 (Matthias Graf von Schmettow), sank  1/2 m E of Aldeburgh Napes Buoy, N of Orford Ness (L - 4.5 miles ESE of Aldeburgh) (H/L/te/un)


Thursday, 23 September 1915

North Sea

GRONINGEN, passenger & cargo ship, 988/1902, General Steam Navigation Co, London-reg, sailing Harlingen for London with general cargo. Mined, laid by UC.6 (Matthias Graf von Schmettow), sank 1 1/2 m N by E of Sunk Head Buoy, off Harwich (wi - in 51.48.10N, 01.29.45E); one life lost (H/L/ms/te/un/wi)

Atlantic off SW Ireland

Three steamships captured by U.41 (Claus Hansen) and sunk by gunfire off Fastnet Rock:

CHANCELLOR, 4,586/1895, Charente SS Co (T & J Harrison), Liverpool-reg, 43 crew, Mr R Donald, Liverpool for New Orleans with 2,500t general cargo, steaming at 9 1/2 kts. Sank 86 miles S by E of (L/te/un - in 50.08N, 08.17W; ge - 80 miles SW of; wi - in 50.10N, 08.35W) (H/L/Mn/ge/te/un/wi)

HESIONE, 3,363/1889, British & South American Steam Navigation Co (R P Houston), Liverpool-reg, 40 crew, Mr A Thomason, Clyde/Liverpool for Buenos Aires with general cargo. Sank 86 miles S by E of (L/te/un/wi - in 50.15N, 08.30W; wi - also 70 miles S of Galley Head, Co Cork) (H/L/Mn/ge/te/un/wi)

ANGLO-COLOMBIAN, 4,792/1907, Nitrate Producers' SS Co (Lawther, Latta & Co), London-reg, 145 crew, Mr A Westacott, Montreal/Quebec for Avonmouth with 831 horses. Sank 79 miles SE of (ge - about 80 miles SW of; wi - 79 miles S by E of, in 51N, 08.43W) (H/L/ge/te/un/wi)

Friday, 24 September 1915

U.41 sunk by Q-ship steamer Baralong in Atlantic, 90 miles W of Ushant.

Atlantic off SW England

URBINO, 6,651/1915, Wilson Line/T Wilson, Sons & Co, Hull, sailing New York for Hull with general cargo. Captured by U.41 (Claus Hansen), sunk by gunfire 67 miles SW by W of Bishop Rock, Scillies. U.41 was then sunk by HMS Baralong which came up disguised as a neutral-flagged steamer (H/L/Mn/te/un)


Sunday, 26 September 1915

North Sea

Reverto, trawler, 177/1904, fishing. Mined, probably surface-ship-laid, damaged 90 miles E by S of Spurn LV, Humber. Went missing 18 September 1916 (L/ms)

VIGILANT, Harwich pilot sailing cutter, 69grt, out of Harwich. Mined, laid by UC.7 (Franz Wäger), 3 cables SE of S Shipwash Buoy, in 51.53.16N, 01.34.50E; 14 lives lost including master (H/L/un/wi)

Wednesday, 29 September 1915

Central Mediterranean

HAYDN, 3,923/1906, Orpheus Shipping Co (Jenneson Taylor & Co), Sunderland, sailing Karachi for Glasgow with barley and general cargo. Captured by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), sunk by bombs 80 miles S by E 1/2 E of Gavdo Is, off SW Crete (L - 70 miles S of Crete; un – in 33.24N, 24.40E) (H/L/Mn/te/un)


Thursday, 30 September 1915

English Channel

ALBION (1), sailing smack (wi - sloop), 25/1893, Brixham-reg BM160, Brixham for fishing. Mined, sank 8 miles S by W of Berry Head, Devon (wi - in 50.16N, 03.29W); 3 lives lost including skipper (bm - apparently strayed into British minefield; un – not included, so presumably not U-boat-laid) (H/L/bm/wi)


British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in October: 17 merchant ships totalling 54,156grt - 10 of 39,061grt to submarines, 7 of 15,095grt to mines (H)

U-boat Warfare - German U-boats transferred their main area of operations to the Mediterranean

Friday, 1 October 1915

Central Mediterranean

Olympic, troopship/transport, passenger ship, 46,359/1911, Oceanic Steam Navigation Co (Ismay, Imrie & Co), Liverpool, armed, carrying 5,500 troops of the British Army Yeomanry. Chased by U-boat, possibly U.33 or U.39, 40 miles W of Cape Matapan, escaped (H/Rn/ge/ms)


Saturday, 2 October 1915

Central Mediterranean

ARABIAN, ammunition ship, 2,744/1892, Ellerman & Bucknall SS Co/Ellerman Lines, London-reg, sailing London/Malta for Piraeus/Salonica with general stores and "full of much needed ammunition". Captured by U.33 (Konrad Gansser), sunk by gunfire 15 miles W 1/2 S of Cerigo Is/Kythira, off S Greece (un – in 36.04N, 22.53E) (H/L/Rn/ge/te/un)

Eastern Mediterranean

SAILOR PRINCE, 3,144 (ms – 3,119)/1901, Prince Line (Knott), Newcastle, Mr J Chilvers, sailing Cyprus for Leith with locust beans. Captured by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), sunk by gunfire 56 miles SE by S of Cape Sidero, NE Crete (L/un - in 34.36N, 27.04E); 2 lives lost (H/L/Mn/ms/te/un)


Monday, 4 October 1915

Dover Straits

Enfield, cargo steamship, 2,124/1897, C W Ormston & Co (un – Enfield SS Co (Speeding, Marshall & Co)), Newcastle, sailing Newcastle for St Nazaire with coal. Mined, laid by UC.5 (Herbert Pustkuchen), 4 miles SSW of Folkestone Pier (L/un - 2 1/2 m W by S of), beached at Hythe, refloated (H/L/ms/un)

Tuesday, 5 October 1915

North Sea

NOVOCASTRIAN, 1,151/1915, Tyne-Tees SS Co, Newcastle-reg, 21 crew, Mr J Bruce, London for Newcastle with general cargo, steaming at 12kts. Mined at 1120, laid by UC.7 ( Franz Wäger), sank 3 1/2 m SE by E of Lowestoft, Suffolk (L - 1 mile E of Pakefield Gat Buoy; wi - in 52.25.54N, 01.50.31E) (H/L/te/un/wi)


Wednesday, 6 October 1915

Central Mediterranean

Two steamships sailing for Malta, stopped by U.33 (Konrad Gansser) off there:

SILVERASH, 3,753/1904, St Helen's SS Co (1912), (Stanley & John Thompson), London, Mr John Parry Jones, from Barry (L/te - in ballast, Lloyds queries this; un – Barry via Malta for Mudros). Sunk by gunfire 184 miles E of (Mn - 190 miles E of; L/te/un - in 35.30N, 18.20E; un – also in 35.46N, 18.17); crew picked up by SS Remembrance, possibly the Q-ship collier of this name. Note: unlikely to sail from Barry in ballast, more likely carrying coal (H/L/Mn/te/un)

SCAWBY, 3,658/1911, Sir R Ropner & Co, Stockton, from Mudros for Malta with coal. Stopped at 1430, sunk by bomb 220 miles E of (L/un - in 35.45N, 19.05E; un – also in 35.40N, 18.45E) (H/L/Mn/te/un)

Thursday, 7 October 1915

Central Mediterranean

HALIZONES, 5,093/1902, British & South American Steam Navigation Co (R P Houston), Liverpool, sailing Bombay for Liverpool with cotton, manganese ore and general cargo. Captured by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), sunk by gunfire 122 miles SSE 1/2 E of Cape Martello, S Crete (L/te/un - in 33.10N, 26.26E; un – also in 33.25N, 26.36E)) (H/L/Mn/te/un)


Sunday, 10 October 1915

Dover Straits

NEWCASTLE, 3,403/1899, Newcastle SS Co (J J & C M Forster), Newcastle-reg, 27 crew, Mr A Downie, sailing Port Louis, Mauritius for London with 4,987t general cargo mostly sugar and rum, and one stowaway. Mined at 0700, laid by UC.5 (Herbert Pustkuchen), sank 20min later 4 miles SW of Folkestone Pier, Kent (wi - in 51.01.13N, 01.09E) (H/L/te/un/wi)


Ajax (2), cargo ship, 7,040/1900, Alfred Holt & Co, Liverpool. U-boat gun attack, rescued (H/ms)


Monday, 11 October 1915

North Sea

Oslo, passenger & cargo steamship, 2,296/1906, T Wilson Sons & Co/Ellerman's Wilson Line, Hull. Chased by U-boat 5 miles E by N 1/2 N of Holy Is, escaped. Sunk 21 August 1917 (H/ms)


Thursday, 14 October 1915

North Sea

SALERNO, 2,017/1912, Wilson Line/T Wilson Sons & Co, Hull-reg, Mr O Odd, Hull for Marseilles/Naples/Genoa with general cargo. Mined, laid by UC.3 (Erwin Wassner), sank 2 1/2 m S of Longsand LV, off Clacton (L/te/un - in 51.45N, 01.42E; wi - in 52.45.30N, 01.40E) (H/L/te/un/wi)


Saturday, 16 October 1915

North Sea

Volscian, cargo steamship, 570 (ms – 616)/1898, Volana Shipping Co (Rogers & Bright) (un – Volscian SS Co (C D Moore)), Liverpool, sailing Dieppe for Grimsby in ballast. Mined, laid by UC.3 (Erwin Wassner) 2 1/2 m S by E 1/2 E of Longsand LV (L - 2 1/2 m S of), damaged, towed in by HMT Etoile Polaire, beached Harwich, refloated (H/L/dq/ms/un)


Monday, 18 October 1915

North Sea

Aleppo, cargo steamship, 3,870/1900, T Wilson Sons & Co, Hull, sailing Alexandria for Hull with grain and general cargo. Mined, laid by UC.6 (Matthias Graf von Schmettow) 1 1/2 m E of Sunk Head Buoy, beached, refloated (H/L/ms)


Thursday, 21 October 1915

UC.9 possibly mined in North Sea off Thames estuary


Friday, 22 October 1915

North Sea

GRAPPLER, tug, 102/1884, J P Eltringham & Co, South Shields. Mined, laid by UC.5 (Herbert Pustkuchen), off Nab LV (ms/un/www only)


Saturday, 23 October 1915

Dover Straits

ILARO, 2,799/1895, African SS Co (Elder, Dempster & Co), London, Liverpool-reg, sailing Forcados for Hull with maize and palm kernels. (L - 24th) - Mined, laid by UC.5 (Herbert Putkuchen), detonated under bow at 2030, 4 miles E of Dungeness (L - SW of; wi - in 50.54N, 01.03E), crew abandoned ship in two boats and picked up by patrol boat, cargo caught fire, master and crew reboarded next day, ship towed stern first by two Dover tugs to Deal Roads, beached near Sandown Castle in 51.14.53N, 01.24.39E. Ship abandoned on 25th, later burnt out, broke in two and dispersed with explosives; 29 saved, chief engineer fell overboard and drowned abandoning ship (H/L/te/un/wi)

Aegean Sea

MARQUETTE, troopship/transport, cargo steamship, 7,057/1898, Atlantic Transport Co, West Hartlepool (wd - Red Star Line, possibly chartered to), London-reg, sailing Alexandria for Salonica with 22 officers and 588 other ranks of the Royal Field Artillery, 36 NZ Stationary Hospital nurses, government stores, ammunition and 541 animals, including horses. (me – 28th) - Torpedoed and badly damaged by U.35 (Waldemar Kophamel), 30 miles short of anti-submarine nets, later sank 36 miles from Salonica Bay, Greece (L/un/wd - 36 miles S of); 169 lives lost – 2 military officers, 10 nurses, 128 other ranks and 29 crew (me – 20 crew; ge – 29 crew, 10 nurses, 128 troops = 167; un – total of 167; wd – 29 crew, 11 nurses, 88 troops = 128), survivors rescued by British and French patrol boats (H/L/Rn/dk/ge/me/ms/te/un/wd)


Friday, 29 October 1915

North Sea

Glenroy, cargo steamship, 2,755/1899, Livingston Conner (tl – Glen Line), West Hartlepool. Chased by U-boat 20 miles ENE of Peterhead, escaped. Wrecked 11 February 1916 (H/ms)


Saturday, 30 October 1915

North Sea

Avocet (2), cargo steamship, 1,408/1900, Cork Steam Shipping Co, Cork, Mr Fredrick Bernnell, Rotterdam for Liverpool. Aircraft attack with bombs and machine guns 8 miles W of North Hinder, bombs missed. From a contemporary account in the “Liverpool Journal Commerce” - “At about 1115 she was attacked by aeroplanes. One was a large Battle plane, which dropped 36 bombs, some of which fell within 7ft of the “Avocet.” They then took up a position off the port beam and opened fire on the bridge with machine guns, the ship’s side and decks being struck by bullets. The Battle Plane attacked with great skill, from a height of from 800 to 1,000ft, flew ahead of the steamer, suddenly turned, and came end on to meet her. When parallel, bombs were dropped so as to make sure of a hit. Capt Bernnell ordered the helm to be put hard to starboard and as she swung round to port, three bombs just missed the starboard bow and three the port quarter. Had the vessel continued her course the bombs would have rained on her, dropping on the forecastle and poop deck as the aeroplanes passed over her. Seeing the ship was unhurt they opened rifle fire. The action lasted 35min, and then they flew away. An examination of the ship was made, when it was found that the decks were littered with shrapnel, but otherwise she was uninjured. The man on the lookout actually remained at his post during the attack, and reported a floating mine right ahead while the bombs were bursting around him.” (H/ms/www)


Sunday, 31 October 1915

Dover Straits

British steamship (and an Admiralty yacht and Admiralty trawler) mined in field laid by UC.6 (Matthias Graf von Schmettow) that day:

TOWARD, 1,218/1899, Clyde Shipping Co, Glasgow-reg, 26 crew, Mr D McTavish, London for Belfast with general cargo, proceeding at 11kts. Detonated mine just ahead of the bridge at 0945, sank in The Downs, off South Foreland (L - 1 1/2 m SE of; wi - 1 1/2 m E by S 1/2 S of, in 51.07.38N, 01.24.39E) (H/L/te/wi)



British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in November: 32 merchant ships totalling 94,493grt - 23 of 84,816grt to submarines, 9 of 9,677grt to mines, plus 1 fishing vessel of 162grt to mines (H)

Wednesday, 3 November 1915

North Sea

FRIARGATE, 264/1910, A Chester, Middlesbrough-reg, 7 crew, Mr C Hannaford, London for Middlesbrough with 225t loam. Mined, laid by UC.6 (Matthias Graf von Schmetow) sank 4 miles E of Orford Ness, Suffolk (wi - in 52.05.06N, 01.43.37E); 2 crew lost. Insured for £4,700 as war risk by West of England Association (H/L/Lr/un/wi)


Japanese Prince, cargo steamship, 4,876/1911, Prince Line Ltd (Furness, Withy & Co) (ms - J L Knott), Newcastle, London-reg, unarmed, no wireless, Mr A Jenkins. Chased by U-boat for 4 hours, 45 shells fired but no hits although a lot of shrapnel was found on the decks, ship manouevred throughout and escaped. Master awarded commission as Lt RNR. Sunk 10 February 1917 (H/Mn/ms)

Western Mediterranean

WOODFIELD (1), 3,584/1905, Woodfield SS Co (Woods, Tylor & Brown), London, armed, sailing for Salonica, no cargo. Captured by U.38 (Max Valentiner), sunk by gunfire 40 miles ESE of Ceuta, N Morocco (L - 30 miles off Alhucemas Is or Lavender Rock, just off Moroccan mainland; un – in 35.42N, 04.28W); 8 lives lost (H/L/Mn/te/un)

Eastern Mediterranean

WOOLWICH, 2,936/1887, Britain SS Co (Watts, Watts & Co), London, sailing Safaga Is/Port Sudan for Plymouth/Ayr with phosphates and zinc. Captured by U.35 (Waldemar Kophamel), sunk by gunfire 104 miles S of Cape Sidero, NE Crete (L/te/un - in 33.35N, 26.30E) (H/L/te/un)


Thursday, 4 November 1915

North Sea

Dotterel, cargo steamship, 1,596/1904, Cork SS Co, Cork, sailing Liverpool for Rotterdam. Aircraft attack with bombs and machine guns 14 miles W 1/2 N of N Hinder LV, bombs missed, but ship damaged in the action. Sunk on 19th (H/L/ms)

Western Mediterranean

Mercian, troopship/transport, passenger & cargo steamship, 6,305/1908, Wilsons & Furness-Leyland Line, Liverpool, Capt Walker, sailing Southampton/Gibraltar for Malta with 17 officers and 300 other ranks of a British Army Yeomanry regiment (Mn – 500 troops). (me – 3rd) - Gun attack by U.38 (Max Valentiner) between Gibraltar and Alboran, Regiment’s machine guns brought up and returned fire, ship damaged in the action and a number of boats launched without orders from the captain, two of which capsized, Mercian put into Oran; 38 lives lost – 1 military officer, 37 other ranks, no crew (H – no crew lost; RN – 78 casualties, including 23 men killed – 55 wounded 1/2  plus one officer, 22 men and 8 crew missing from boats – officer, 13 men, and five crew later picked up, to total 35 lives lost; Mn - 23 troops killed and 55 wounded by gunfire; ge – 23 killed by gunfire, 31 lost in capsized boats totaling 54) (H/L/Mn/Rn/ge/me/ms)


Friday, 5 November 1915

North Sea

KING WILLIAM, trawler, 162/1900, Consolidated Steam Fishing & Ice, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Mined, believed surface-ship-laid (un – not included, so presumably not U-boat-laid), sank 125 miles E by N of Spurn LV, Humber; 2 lives lost including skipper (H/L/Lr/gy)


Two armed steamships chased by U-boat(s), saved by own gunfire:

City of York, passenger & cargo steamship, 7,834 (ms – 7,705)/1904, Ellerman Lines, Glasgow (H/ms)

Huntsman, cargo steamship, 7,460/1904, Charente SS Co (T & J Harrison), Liverpool. Sunk 25 February 1917 (H/ms)

Western Mediterranean

BURESK (2), 3,673/1914, Buresk SS Co (Burdick & Cook), London-reg, Malta for Barry in ballast. Captured by U.38 (Max Valentiner), sunk by gunfire (te - torpedoed) 30 miles N by W of Cape Bengut, near Algiers (L/te/un - in 37.23N, 03.40E; un – also in 37.23N, 03.36E) (H/L/te/un)

Lady Plymouth, cargo steamship, 3,521/1915, L Lougher & Co, Cardiff. Chased by U-boat off Algiers, escaped (H/ms)

Eastern Mediterranean

MOORINA, ex-German, troopship/transport, cargo steamship, 4,994/1906, Australian Government/Commonwealth Government Line of Steamers, London, sailing Bombay for Marseilles with 4 military officers, 62 other ranks, and government stores. (ms – 7th; te/un – and/or 7th) - Captured by U.35 (Waldemar Kophamel) after HMS Tara attack, sunk by gunfire 105 miles S of Cape Martello, S Crete (L/ms/te/un - in 33.10N, 25.10E); 2 military officers and 20 other ranks lost, but no crew lost according to HMSO (me – 2 ship's officers and 15 ratings) (H/L/ge/me/ms/te/un)


Saturday, 6 November 1915

North Sea

ALASTAIR, 366/1902, A Gray & Maitland (un – J & W Henderson), Aberdeen-reg, 10 crew, Mr T Auld, London for Tyne with burnt ore. Mined, laid by UC.3 (Erwin Wassner), sank 4 miles E of Southwold, S of Lowestoft (wi - in 52.13.58N, 01.43.45E); 7 crew lost including master (H/L/Lr/un/wi)

Western Mediterranean

Three vessels attacked by U-boat(s) off Algeria, at least one of them by U.38:

Lady Plymouth, cargo steamship, 3,521/1915, L Lougher & Co, Cardiff. Gun attack off Algiers, escaped (H/ms)

GLENMOOR, 3,075/1894, Moor Line (W Runciman & Co), Newcastle, sailing Bombay for Tees with manganese ore. Captured by U.38 (Max Valentiner), sunk by torpedo 5 miles NE of Cape de Fer LH, NE of Phillipeville, now Skikda (un – in 37.06N, 07.12E) (H/L/te/un)

Pola, cargo steamship, 3,061 (ms – 3,053)/1898, English & American Shipping Co (C T Bowring & Co), London-reg. Chased by U-boat off Tukush Is, escaped by "good seamanship". Admiralty collier when sunk 18 March 1917 (H/Mn/ms)

Central Mediterranean

Two British steamships (and an Admiralty oiler) captured by U.35 (Waldemar Kophamel) off Cape Martello, S Crete:

CLAN MACALISTER, 4,835/1903, Clan Line Steamers (Cayzer, Irvine & Co), Glasgow-reg, master, Lt-Cdr J Taylor RNR Rtd, Liverpool for Calcutta/Indian ports with 6,000t general cargo. Sunk by torpedo 120 miles S by E of (L/te - in 33.10N, 25.50E; un – 33.10N, 22.50E) (H/L/Mn/te/un)

CARIA, 3,032/1900, Cunard SS Co, Liverpool-reg, sailing Liverpool/Naples for Alexandria in ballast. Sunk by gunfire 120 miles S by E of (L/te/un - in 33.14N, 25.47E) (H/L/Mn/te/un)

Monday, 8 November 1915


City of Cambridge, 3,844 (tl - 3,788)/1882, Ellerman's City Line (was G Smith/City Line), Glasgow. Chased by U-boat, escaped. Sunk 3 July 1917 (H/ms/tl)

Central Mediterranean

Two British steamships captured by U.35 (Waldemar Kophamel) off Crete:

DEN OF CROMBIE, 4,949/1907, The Barrie Shipping Co (Charles Barrie & Sons), Dundee-reg, Mr H Hemming, Far East ports/Bangkok for Lisbon/Oporto with 7,100t general cargo. Sunk by gunfire 112 miles S by W of Cape Martello (L/te/un - in 33.10N, 24.50E) (H/L/Mn/te/un)

SIR RICHARD AWDRY, 2,234/1912, Pekin Syndicate, London, Mr Howard Tindle, Saigon for Marseilles with rice. Sunk by torpedo 72 miles S by E 1/2 E of Gavdo Is (L/te/un - in 31.25N, 25.38E); except for the cook, all crew saved (H/L/Mn/te/un)

Tuesday, 9 November 1915


Kashgar, passenger & cargo steamship, 8,840/1914, P&O, Greenock, armed. Chased by U-boat, saved by own gunfire (H/ms)

Central Mediterranean

CALIFORNIAN, passenger & cargo ship, 6,223/1902, Leyland Line/F Leyland & Co, Liverpool-reg, the ship that allegedly failed to go to the aid of the sinking Titanic in 1912, Salonica for Marseilles in ballast, steaming at 12kts, escorted by French torpedo boat. Torpedoed by U.35 (Waldemar Kophamel), sank 61 miles SSW of Cape Matapan, Greece (L/te/un - about 36.26N, 22.40E); one life lost, probably by the explosion (H/L/Mn/te/un/wd)


Thursday, 11 November 1915

North Sea

RHINELAND, 1501/1903, Liverpool & Hamburg SS Co (D Currie & Co), Liverpool-reg, 21 crew, Mr W Steel, Middlesbrough/Tees for Nantes with steel bar/sheet/rod. Mined port-side amidships at 0700, laid by UC.3 (Erwin Wassner), took immediate list to port, no time to launch boats and sank within 2min, 6 1/2 m SE 1/2 S of Southwold, S of Lowestoft (L/wi - 6 miles SE of, in 52.22.50N, 01.49.43E); 20 crew lost including master, one surviving seaman spent 5 hours in the sea, rescued by minesweeper and landed at Lowestoft (H/L/te/un/wi)


Friday, 12 November 1915

Dover Straits

Two steamships sunk by mines laid by UC.6 (Matthias Graf von Schmettow) off Boulogne:

NIGEL, 1,400/1903, George Gibson & Co, Leith, sailing Newhaven for Boulogne with government stores. Sank (L - entrance to Harbour); 5 lives lost (H/L/te/un)

MOORSIDE, 311/1908, Catcheside SS Co (T H Catcheside & Co), Newcastle-reg, sailing Leith for France with coal. Sank with Breakwater Buoy bearing S by W 1/2 W; 8 lives lost including master (H/L/Lr)

Sunday, 14 November 1915

Central Mediterranean

TRENEGLOS, 3,886/1906, Hain SS Co (E Hain & Son), St Ives, Mr S Beale, armed, sailing Port Louis, Mauritius for UK with sugar, steaming at full speed. "Terrific explosion in engine-room", torpedoed and mortally damaged by U.34 (Claus Rücker), port lifeboat smashed, other boats just ordered away when she sank 70 miles WSW of Gavdo Is, off SW Crete (L - 90 miles W of; un – in 34.30N, 22.42E); 3rd engineer and 2 firemen lost (H/L/Mn/te/un)


Monday, 15 November 1915

Central Mediterranean

ORANGE PRINCE, 3,583/1894, Prince Line (James Knott), Newcastle, Mr J Holloway, Avonmouth/Alexandria for Mudros with general cargo, steaming at full speed a few miles from where Treneglos went down. Torpedo fired by U.34 (Claus Rücker) exploded in stokehold, then a second torpedo hit, sank 85 miles SW by W of Gavdo Is (L/te - in 34N, 22.40E; un – 33.56N, 22.46E); 3 men killed by explosion, all crew less master and chief officer got away, they had barely escaped when the second torpedo exploded (H/L/Mn/te/un)


Wednesday, 17 November 1915

Dover Straits

Two steamships sunk by mines laid by UC.5 (Herbert Pustkuchen) off Folkestone Gate:

ANGLIA (1), cross-Channel auxiliary hospital ship, ex-passenger ship, 1,862/1900, London & North Western Railway Co, Dublin-reg, crew numbers not known, Mr L Manning, Calais for Dover carrying wounded from the Western Front and nursing staff totalling 416 - 14 officers and 368 other ranks as patients, and 3 officers, 4 nurses and 27 other ranks as staff (tr – 388 wounded; wi – 13 wounded officers and 372 other ranks, 4 officers, 1 nurse as staff, totaling 390). Sank 1 mile E of (te/un - in 51.02N, 01.19E; wi - in 51.03.21N, 01.19.14E); total of 164 lives believed lost - 5 wounded officers and 125 other ranks, 1 nurse and 8 other ranks as staff, plus 25 crew (H – 25 crew only; ge - 80 passengers; tr – 130 (also quotes 70) wounded plus 1 nursing sister and 9 RAMC personnel, totaling 140; wi – 130 lost). HMS Hazard rescued some of the survivors (H/L/Mn/ge/me/pt/te/tr/un/wi)

LUSITANIA (2), 1,834/1903, John Hall Jnr, London-reg, 13 crew, Mr J Rees, London for Cadiz with government stores and general cargo, believed assisting Anglia at the time. Sank 1 mile E of Folkestone Gate (wi - in 51.02.55N, 01.19.05E); no lives lost (wi - 7 crew lost) (H/L/te/un/wi)

Saturday, 20 November 1915

Central Mediterranean

MERGANSER, 1,905/1908, Cork SS Co, Cork, Mr J Sharp, Clyde for Alexandria with coal and general cargo, steaming at 10kts. Chased by U.33 (Konrad Gansser), got up to 13kts but unable to escape, sunk by gunfire 40 miles WNW from Gozo island, NW Malta (L - 50 miles WNW of Malta; un – in 36.30N, 13.00E); survivors saved by French TB (H/L/Mn/te/un )


Sunday, 21 November 1915

North Sea

Ballater, cargo steamship, 2,286/1894, Monroe Rutherford, sailing Valencia for London with fruit. Mined between Nos 3 & 5 Buoys, S Edinburgh Channel, towed in. Sunk as SS Greleen 22 September 1917 (H/L/ms)

Tuesday, 23 November 1915


City of Marseilles, passenger & cargo steamship, 8,250/1913, Ellerman Lines, Liverpool, 1-4.7in, Mr B Dowse, sailing Liverpool via Marseilles for Bombay, carrying passengers. U-boat gun attack, saved by own gunfire (H/Mn/ms)


Wednesday, 24 November 1915

Western Mediterranean

City of Lahore, passenger & cargo steamship, 6,948/1911, Ellerman Lines, Liverpool, armed. Chased by U-boat 10 miles E of Cape de Gata, near Almeria, saved by own gunfire (H/ms)


Saturday, 27 November 1915

North Sea

Balgownie, cargo steamship, 1,061/1880, J & A Davidson, Aberdeen, sailing London for Rotterdam with general cargo. Bomb and machine gun attack by aircraft near N Hinder LV (L -  1/2 m N of), bombs missed, damaged by machine gun fire. Sunk 6 February 1916, then owned by General Steam Navigation Co, London-reg (H/L/Mn/ms)

Central Mediterranean

Two British steamships captured by U.33 (Konrad Gansser) and sunk by gunfire off Tunisia:

KINGSWAY, 3,647/1907, Beaver Shipping Co (Palin Evans & Co), London, sailing Malta for Huelva in ballast. Sunk 20 miles ESE of Cape Bon (L - 20 miles E of; un – in 37.00N, 11.22E) (H/L/Mn/te/un)

TANIS, 3,655/1913, Moss SS Co (J Moss & Co), Liverpool, sailing Liverpool for Alexandria with general cargo. Sunk 3 miles N of Zembra Is, Gulf of Tunis (un – in 37.11N, 10.49E) (H/L/te/un)

Monday, 29 November 1915

UC.13 stranded and wrecked in Black Sea
Dover Straits

DOTTEREL, 1,596/1904, Cork SS Co, Cork, sailing Manchester/Liverpool for Dunkirk with general cargo. Mined, laid by UC.5 (Herbert Pustkuchen), sank 4 1/2 m N by E of Boulogne Pier; 5 lives lost (H/L/te/un)

Central Mediterranean

MALINCHE, 1,868/1906, John Gaff & Co, West Hartlepool, sailing Piraeus for New York with general cargo. Captured by U.33 (Konrad Gansser), sunk by torpedo 50 miles E of Malta (L - 48 miles ESE of; un – in 35.35N, 15.22E) (H/L/te/un)


Tuesday, 30 November 1915

Central Mediterranean

Two steamships carrying general cargo captured by U.33 (Konrad Gansser) and sunk by gunfire ESE of Malta

COLENSO, 3,861/1900, Wilson Line/T Wilson, Sons & Co, Hull-reg, sailing Tees/Hull for Bombay. Sunk 95 miles off (L - 90 miles off; un – in 35.34N, 16.33E); one life lost (H/L/te/un)

LANGTON HALL, 4,437/1905, Ellerman Line (Hall Line), Liverpool, sailing Calcutta for New York. Sunk 112 miles off (L/te/un - in 35.30N, 16.50E; un – also in 35.32N, 16.32E) (H/L/te/un)

MIDDLETON, 2,506/1895, Alexander Shipping Co (Capper, Alexander & Co), Hull, sailing Mudros for Alexandria with sandbags. Captured by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), sunk by gunfire 75 miles SW by W from Gavdo Is, off SW Crete (L/te/un - in 33.58N, 22.56E; un – also in 33.44N, 23.18E); 4 lives lost (H/L/Mn/te/un)



British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in December: 21 merchant ships totalling 74,490grt - 16 of 65,011grt to submarines, 5 of 9,479grt to mines (H)

U-boat warfare – attacks restarted around the British Isles during the month

Wednesday, 1 December 1915

Central Mediterranean

Two steamships captured by U.33 (Konrad Gansser) and sunk by gunfire off Malta:

CLAN MACLEOD, 4,796/1903, Clan Line Steamers (Cayzer, Irvine & Co), Glasgow-reg, Mr H Southward, Chittagong for London with general cargo. Sunk 100 miles ESE of (un – in 35.39N, 16.43E); 12 lives lost (te - 2). When the U-boat came up after the chase, the master was taken on board and questioned by an angry Konrad Gansser, the exchange went as follows: "(Gansser) 'I can shoot you as a franc-tireur.' I (the master) said, 'I don't think so.' He said, 'You are assisting the enemy.' I replied, 'I AM your enemy'". Gansser was on the British list of war criminals for this sinking; the case did not go to court (H/L/Mn/ge/os/te/un)

UMETA, troopship/transport, 5,312/1914, British India Steam Navigation Co, Glasgow, crew of 5 officers and 86 ratings, sailing Port Said for Marseilles with no troops on board and in ballast. Sunk 112 miles ESE of (L - 112 miles E of; un – in 35.28N, 16.56E); 2 lives lost (me – 1 officer and 2 ratings) (H/L/Mn/me/te/un)

Thursday, 2 December 1915

Central Mediterranean

COMMODORE, 5,858/1906, Charente SS Co (T & J Harrison), Liverpool-reg, Mr H Russell, Salonica for Marseilles in ballast. Under heavy fire for half an hour as she was overhauled by U.33 (Konrad Gansser), captured and sunk by bombs 160 miles ESE of Malta (L/te/un - in 35.10N, 17.39E; un – also in 35.15N, 17.28E); firing continued as the crew got away with one man killed, survivors adrift for 28 hours, picked up by Belgian steamer (H/L/Mn/te/un)


Friday, 3 December 1915


Andania, passenger & cargo steamship, 13,405/1913, Cunard Steam Shipping Co, Liverpool. Chased by U-boat, rescued. Sunk 27 January 1918 (H/ms)

Central Mediterranean

HELMSMUIR, 4,111/1913, Strath SS Co (Downing & Sutherland), Cardiff, sailing from Port Louis, Mauritius with sugar. Captured by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), sunk by torpedo 66 miles S by E of Gavdo Is, Crete (L - 110 miles S of) (H/L/te/un)

Two troop transports involved in attack by same U-boat, probably in Eastern Mediterranean, possibly U.39:

Torilla, passenger & cargo steamship, 5,205/1911, British India Steam Navigation Co, Glasgow, 1-3pdr, carrying 2,000 troops. Gun attack, outranged and sent out SOS, rescued by SS Benalla (H/Mn/ms)

Benalla, passenger & cargo steamship, 11,118/1913, P&O, Greenock, 1-4.7in, master, Cdr C Cockman RNR Rtd, Alexandria for Malta with troops, received wireless signal from Torilla. Came up and opened fire, after three rounds the U-boat submerged and made off; Master awarded DSC (H/Mn/ms)

Tuesday, 7 December 1915

Eastern Mediterranean

VERIA, 3,229/1899, Cunard SS Co, Liverpool, sailing Patras for Alexandria in ballast. Captured by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), sunk by bombs 24 miles NW by W of Alexandria (un – in 31.30N, 29.28E) (H/L/te/un)


Wednesday, 8 December 1915

North Sea

IGNIS, 2,042/1903, Gas Light & Coke Co (Stephenson Clarke & Co), London-reg, 20 crew, Tyne for London with gas coal. Mined, laid by UC.7 (Georg Haag), sank 5 1/2 m NE of Aldeburgh, N of Orford Ness (L/wi - 3 miles ENE of, in 52.09.52N, 01.40.32E) (H/L/te/un/wi)

Eastern Mediterranean

Tintoretto, cargo steamship, 4,181/1902, Lamport & Holt, armed. U-boat torpedo/gun attack 70 miles NW of Alexandria, torpedo missed, saved by own gunfire, claimed to have hit submarine at extreme range, possibly U.39 (H/Mn/ms)


Thursday, 9 December 1915

Eastern Mediterranean

Two steamships heavily shelled, tried to escape but stopped and sunk by U.39 (Walter Forstmann):

BUSIRIS, 2,705/1904, Moss SS Co, Liverpool-reg, sailing Alexandria for Liverpool with general cargo. Shelled and sunk 190 miles WNW of Alexandria (L - 32.05N, 26.20E; un – 32.50N, 26.20E) (H/L/Mn/te/un)

ORTERIC, 6,535/1911, Bank Line (A Weir & Co), Glasgow, Mr G McGill, Antofagasta for Alexandria with nitrate. Sent out SOS, encouraged by a nearby warship to hold course but hit eight times, abandoned, sunk by torpedo 140 miles S by E 1/2 E of Gavdo Is, off SW Crete (L/un - 32.03N, 25.03E); as boats were lowered, one was hit killing two men and seriously injuring four, survivors rescued after an hour and a half (H/L/Mn/te/un)

Saturday, 11 December 1915

Dover Straits

PINEGROVE, 2,847/1896, Alexander & Mair, Glasgow, sailing Dunkirk for London in ballast. Mined, laid by UC.3 (Erwin Wassner), sank 8 miles W 1/2 S of Cape Gris Nez, near Calais (L - 6 miles E of Colbert LV); 2 lives lost (H/L/te/un)


Sunday, 12 December 1915

North Sea

Southgarth, cargo steamship, 2,414 (ms – 2,434)/1891, William D C Balls & Son, North Shields, sailing London for Dunkirk with military stores. Aircraft attack off La Panne (L - in 51.08N, 02.33E), bombs missed, but ship damaged in the action, beached, later refloated. Sunk 29 May 1916 (H/L/ms)


Monday, 13 December 1915


Cawdor Castle, passenger & cargo steamship, 6,243 (ms – 6,235)/1902, Union-Castle Mail Steam Shipping Co, London, armed. U-boat gun attack, saved by own gunfire (H/ms)


Thursday, 16 December 1915

North Sea

Levenpool, cargo steamship, 4,844/1911, Pool Shipping Co (Sir R Ropner & Co), West Hartlepool, sailing New York for Rotterdam with general cargo. Mined, laid by unidentified U-boat, 1 1/2 m N by E 1/2 E of Kentish Knock LV, off Thames estuary, damaged, beached Mucking Flats, Canvey Is area on 17th, later refloated (H/L/ms/un)


Teucer, passenger & cargo steamship, 9,045 (ms – 9,017)/1906, Alfred Holt & Co, Liverpool. Chased by U-boat, escaped (H/ms)


Monday, 20 December 1915

Dover Straits

Two vessels torpedoed and sunk by UB.10 (Otto Steinbrinck) off Boulogne LV:

BELFORD (1), 516/1904, Ford Shipping Co (Mann, MacNeal & Co), Glasgow-reg, sailing Cardiff for Calais with patent coal fuel, at anchor off Boulogne. Sank 1 mile NE of (H/L/ge/te/un)

HUNTLY, 1,153/1912, The Admiralty, London, sailing Portishead for Boulogne with petrol. Sank  1/2 m off; 2 lives lost (H/L/ge/te/un)

Friday, 24 December 1915

North Sea

British steamship (and an Admiralty trawler) mined and sunk in field laid by UC.1 (Egon von Werner) off Kent the day before:

EMBLA, 1,172/1882, J T Salvesen & Co, Grangemouth, Leith-reg, Mr R Sutherland, sailing London for Dunkirk with jute, oil and plain/printed paper. Sank 3 miles ESE of the Tongue LV, off North Foreland (L - Tongue LV bearing WNW 2 1/2 -3m; wi - in 51.29.43N, 01.26.37E) (un – beached, but total loss) (H/L/te/un/wi)

Central Mediterranean

YEDDO, 4,563/1901, Bank Line (A Weir & Co), Glasgow, sailing Calcutta for New York with general cargo. Captured by U.34 (Claus Rücker), sunk by bombs 122 miles SW by S of Cape Matapan, Greece (L/te/un - in 34.36N, 21.21E; un – also in 34.41N, 21.24E) (H/L/te/un)


Saturday, 25 December 1915

St George's Channel

VAN STIRUM, 3,284/1915, The Admiralty, London-reg, Mr Clarke, Rouen for Liverpool, cargo unknown. Captured by U.24 (Rudolf Schneider), sunk by torpedo 8 miles SSW of The Smalls, E of Milford Haven (L/te/un - in 51.55N, 06.16W; un - also in 51.59N, 06.20W; wi - in 51.38N, 05.50W); 2 crew lost (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)


Sunday, 26 December 1915

Atlantic off SW England

COTTINGHAM, 513/1907, James W Little, Glasgow-reg, 13 crew, Mr C Mitchell, Rouen for Swansea in ballast. Captured by U.24 (Rudolf Schneider), sunk by gunfire about 16 miles SW 1/2 W of Lundy Is, off Devon (wi - in 50.59N, 04.54W); 7 crew lost - two boats got away, master's picked up that evening by patrol boat, chief officer's with 6 other men never found even though close to Lundy. Note: SS Cottingham was the first British merchant ship to be credited with sinking a U-boat, UC.2 off Yarmouth on 2 July 1915 (H/L/Mn/te/un/wi)


Monday, 27 December 1915

North Sea

HADLEY, 1,777/1901, Cory Colliers/W Cory & Son, London, sailing Newcastle/Tyne for London with coal. Mined, laid by UC.3 (Erwin Wassner), sank 3 miles SE 1/2 E of Shipwash LV, off Orford Ness (L - 3 miles SE of) (H/L/te/un)


Tuesday, 28 December 1915

Atlantic off S Ireland

British steamship (and an Admiralty chartered red-ensign oiler) attacked by U.24 (Rudolf Schneider):

Huronian, cargo steamship, 8,766/1915, F Leyland & Co, Liverpool, sailing Galveston for Liverpool with general cargo including cotton and grain. Torpedoed and damaged 8 miles S by E of Fastnet (un – in 51.14N, 09.26W), reached Castletown (Berehaven) on 30th (H/L/Mn/ms/un)

Wednesday, 29 December 1915

German commerce raider Möwe, 4,788grt, 4-5.9in/1-4.1in headed from Germany for the Atlantic; returned 4 March 1916 after sinking 15 British & Allied ships of 57,520grt

Thursday, 30 December 1915

North Sea

Anglia (2), sailing vessel, 288grt, Hull for Stockton with wheat. Mined and damaged 3 miles off Demleton Highland (possibly “high land at Dimlington, 4 1/2 m SE of Withernsea”, N of Spurn Head) (L only)

Central Mediterranean

ABELIA, 3,650/1914, Flower Motor Ship Co (Sir M Samuel & Co), London-reg, sailing Bombay for Hull with manganese ore and cottonseed. Captured by U.34 (Claus Rücker), sunk by gunfire 152 miles W of Gavdo island, Crete (L/te - in 34.30N, 21.00E; un – in 34.24N, 20.51E) (H/L/te/un)

Two steamships carrying general cargo, torpedoed and sunk by U.38 (Max Valentiner) off Cape Martello, Crete:

CLAN MACFARLANE, 4,823/1898, Clan Line Steamers (Cayzer, Irvine & Co), Glasgow-reg, Mr James White Swanstown, armed, Glasgow/Liverpool for Bombay. Sank 66 miles SE by S of (L/un - in 34.05N, 25.55E; un – also 34.06N, 26.08E); 52 lives lost including master (os - 55). The mainly Indian crew left in six boats shortly after 1700 and rowed clear of the sinking ship. All boats were made fast astern of the master's, masts stepped and sails set, every man had a lifebelt. They set course for Crete, about 60 miles away, sailed through the night and next day, and in the afternoon sighted land. Early next day the wind dropped, by early morning on 2nd, glimpsed NE corner of Crete but wind and sea was rising, could not land so tried to hug coast. The boats became separated and damaged, men started dying, one boat after 7 days adrift picked up by SS Crown of Aragon, landed at Malta. Finally just 6 European and 18 Indian crew survived. Valentiner was on the British list of war criminals for this attack, progressed post-war as Naval Case No.10 but did not go to court. It was claimed he had not made due provision for the safety of passengers and crew after the sinking, but … “the lifeboats were all made fast astern of Capt Swanston's boat. …. It was a fine clear night, the sea was calm, the lifeboats were well provisioned, they all had serviceable sails and oars and they were just seventy miles from the coast of Crete not far off a well-used shipping lane...... It was only some hours after he (Valentiner) had departed that the weather became inclement and the ordeal began in earnest.” (H/L/Mn/ge/os/te/un;)

PERSIA, passenger ship, 7,974/1900, Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Co, London-reg, armed, London/Marseilles for Bombay, 501 passengers and crew on board. Torpedoed port side forward, boiler exploded, foundered very quickly 71 mile SE by S of (L - 34.01N, 26E; un – in 34.08N, 26.19E); 334 lives lost including master and 2 MN stewardess', some drowned as ship’s boats were sucked down by the sinking ship, 167 survivors in four boats picked up a trawler and SS Ningchow next day, landed at Alexandria. Valentiner was on the list of war criminals for sinking Persia without warning, also progressed post-war as Naval Case No.10, but Persia was probably a legitimate target as she was carrying some 24 military officers and a few other ranks to India (H/L/Mn/ge/os/te/tr/un/wd)


Friday, 31 December 1915


Ionic, passenger & cargo steamship, 12,332/1902, Ismay Imrie & Co, Liverpool, armed. U-boat torpedo missed (H/ms)

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