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World War 1 at Sea


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USS San Diego, armoured cruiser, lost 19 July 1918 (US, click to enlarge) return to World War 1, 1914-1918

Links to United States Navy in World War 1

- Rise to Global Parity, 1900-1922
- Fleets and Stations, early 1917
- World War 1 and Major Ship Lists in outline

Those Who Served
- Navy, Coast Guard & Marine Corps Casualties
- Medal of Honor, 1915-1918
- Officer Ranks and Enlisted Man's Rates

- Flag Officers, 1914-1918

Contemporary Accounts
- Victory at Sea by R. Adm William Sims,
- On the Coast of France: US Naval Forces in French Waters
- US Marine Corps in the World War
- Chronology of U.S. Marine Corps in the World War

- Royal Navy Log Books of the World War 1-era, includes references to USN ships escorting North Atlantic convoys, river gunboat operations in China etc


1. Naval War in Outline
2. US Navy Ship Names
3. Warship numbers and losses, 1914-18
4. Losses by year
5. Key to main characteristics including US Torpedo and Gun Calibers
6. Main ship types - Dreadnoughts to Submarines

With thanks to the US Naval Historical Branch, the compilers of the On-line 'Dictionary of Naval Fighting Ships' and 'Conway's All the World's Fighting Ships, 1906-1921'.

The photographs, all of which are believed to be in the public domain, are courtesy of the US Naval Historical Branch, Navsource, Photo Ships and Wikipedia.




The US Navy inflicted few losses on the German Navy - one definite U-boat plus others possibly mined in the huge North Sea barrage laid in part by the US Navy between Scotland and Norway. Also few major ships were lost to enemy action - one armoured cruiser and two destroyers. However the large and still expanding US Navy came to play an important role in the Atlantic and Western European waters, as well as the Mediterranean after the declaration of war in April 1917.

Most of the battlefleet stayed in American waters because of the shortage of fuel oil in Britain, but five coal-burning dreadnoughts served with the British Grand Fleet as the 6th Battle Squadron (US Battleship Division 9) tipping the balance of power against the German High Seas Fleet even further in favour of the Allies. They were also present at the surrender of the German Fleet. Other dreadnoughts (Battleship Division 6) were based in Berehaven, Bantry Bay, SW Ireland to counter any break-out by German battlecruisers to attack US troop convoys. Some of the pre-dreadnoughts, armoured cruisers and protected cruisers were employed as convoy escorts, 1917-18 both along the coasts of the Americas and in the Atlantic.

All three scout cruisers of the Chester-class together with some old gunboats and destroyers spent part of 1917-18 based at Gibraltar on convoy escort duties in the Atlantic approaches. A large force of destroyers was based in European waters in 1917-18, many of them at Queenstown, Ireland, and Brest, France (see Link to Deployment of Destroyers, April 1917-November 1918). Their main duties were patrol and convoy escort, especially the protection of US troopship convoys.

Some of the K-class submarines were based in the Azores and L-class at Berehaven, Bantry Bay, Ireland on anti-U-boat patrols 1917-18.

In 1917 the programme of large ship construction was suspended to concentrate on destroyers (including the large flush decker classes, 50 of which ended up in the Royal Navy in 1940), submarine-chasers, submarines, and merchantmen to help replace the tremendous losses due to unrestricted U-boat attacks. Some of the destroyers and especially the sub-chasers ended up in the Mediterranean, patrolling the Otranto Barrage designed to keep German and Austrian U-boats locked up in the Adriatic Sea.


Capital ships - States of the U.S; Cruisers - US cities; Destroyers - Officers, enlisted men and other naval-related personalities; Submarines - fish and sea creatures.



August 1914 Strength

Wartime additions*

1914-18 losses**



4 + 2






Pre-dreadnought battleships




Coast defence ships




Armoured cruisers



1 + 1

Protected cruisers



1 + 0

Light/scout cruisers




Aircraft and seaplane carriers






18 + c 46

0 + 2



c 22 + c 30

1 + 1



c 44 + c 78

3 + 4


* First figure is for new ships added by April 1917. This is approximate only, as completion and commissioning dates are not always available

** First figure is for major warship losses before April 1917. Submarines sunk but salvaged and recommissioned are not included in the figures

4. LOSSES BY YEARS - (In date order within each year)

Year - Ships lost (all in or near American waters or off Western Europe)
1914 -
1915 - submarine Skate
1916 - armoured cruiser Memphis
1917 - protected cruiser Milwaukee; War declared - destroyers Chauncey, Jacob Jones, submarine Carp
1918 - armoured cruiser San Diego


Tonnage - standard displacement; Speed - designed speed at standard displacement, rarely attained in service; Main armament - sometimes changed as the war progressed; secondary armament usually changed; Complement - normal peace time. Exceeded in war with consequent reduction in living space and higher battle casualties; Year - year or years class completed and normally entered service. Only includes ships completed up to war's end; Loss Positions - estimated from location unless available from reliable sources; Casualties - totals of men lost, or survivors plus saved, will often exceed peacetime complements.

United States Torpedo and Gun Calibres in Centimeters

Torpedoes: 21in - 53.3cm; 18in - 45.7cm

Guns: 16in - 40.6cm; 14in - 35.6cm; 13in - 33cm; 12in - 30.5cm; 8in - 20.3cm; 7in -17.8cm; 6in - 15.2cm; 5in - 12.7cm; 4.7in - 11.9cm; 4in - 10.2cm; 3in - 7.6cm


This is not a comprehensive account of major warship types and classes, 1914-1918, which would only duplicate the vast amount of information already on the internet. Instead the aim is to sketch out the development of main characteristics and ship appearances over this period, as well as significant involvement of US warships in the last two years of World War 1. No account has been taken of the changes in appearance between build date and World War 1.

Details of ship deployments can be found in "The United States Navy at War, April 1917-November 1918". There are also direct links to the deployment of battleships (Dreadnoughts and pre-Dreadnoughts), cruisers (armoured, protected and scout), destroyers, submarines and mine warfare cruisers.

There are links to casualty lists for ships sunk.


Link to Deployment of Capital Ships, April 1917-November 1918

August 1914
Strength 23

INDIANA class, 3 ships - 10,300t, 15 knots, 4-13in/8-8in/4-6in, c 600 crew, 1895-96

INDIANA (B-1) (right, all class received cage mainmast only. c1908)

IOWA - 11,400t, 16 knots, 4-12in/8-8in/6-4in, c 600 crew, 1897

IOWA (B-4) (received cage mainmast only, c1908)

KEARSAGE class, 2 ships - 11,500t, 16 knots, 4-13in/4-8in/14-5in, c 700 crew,1900

KEARSAGE (B-5) (right, both received two cage mainmasts)

ILLINOIS class, 3 ships - 11,600t, 16 knots, 4-13in/14-6in, c 700 crew,  1900-01

ILLINOIS (B-7) (right, all received two cage mainmasts)

MAINE class, 3 ships - 12,500t, 18 knots, 4-12in/16-6in/6-3in, c 800 crew, 1902-04

MAINE (B-10)
(right, all received two cage mainmasts)
OHIO (B-12)

VIRGINIA class, 5 ships - 14,900t, 19 knots, 4-12in/8-8in/12-6in, 810 crew, 1906-07

VIRGINIA (B-13) (right, with cage masts)
CONNECTICUT class, 2 ships - 16,000t, 18 knots, 4-12in/8-8in/12-7in, c 890 crew, 1906

CONNECTICUT (B-18) (right, with cage masts)

VERMONT class, 4 ships - 16,000t, 18 knots, 4-12in/8-8in/12-7in, 880 crew, 1907-08.

VERMONT (B-20) (upper right, all received two cage mainmasts))

All four served in engineering and gunnery training roles, 1917-18

Minnesota (right), damaged 29 September 1918, North Atlantic off Delaware, 20 miles from Fenwick Island Shoal Lightship (38-11’N, 74-41’W) - mine apparently laid by German U.117. Gunnery and engineering training ship cruising off the Atlantic coast. Serious damage to starboard side, but she reached port under her own power, with no loss of life. Repairs took 5 months

Mississippi (B-23), Idaho (B-24) were sold to Greece in July 1914


Link to Deployment of Capital Ships, April 1917-November 1918

August 1914
Strength 10

SOUTH CAROLINA class, 2 ships - 16,000t, 18 knots, 8-12in/22-3in, 870 crew, 1910

SOUTH CAROLINA (B-26) (right)

South Carolina, Michigan, mainly American waters on escort and training duties, 1917-18
DELAWARE class, 2 ships - 20,400, 21 knots, 10-12in/14-5in, 930 crew, 1910

DELAWARE (B-28) (right, note the mast, funnel, mast, funnel arrangement for this class)

Delaware, training and exercises, then 6th Battle Squadron, British Grand Fleet based in Scapa Flow, north of Scotland from December 1917 (relieved by Arkansas in August 1918)

North Dakota remained in American waters on gunnery and engineering training

FLORIDA class, 2 ships - 21,800t, 21 knots, 10-12in/16-5in, 1,000 crew, 1911

FLORIDA (B-30) (right)
UTAH (B-31)

Florida, fleet exercises, then 6th Battle Squadron, Grand Fleet from December 1917

Utah, engineering and gunnery training in American waters, then Bantry Bay, Ireland from September 1918 as US flagship

WYOMING class, 2 ships - 26,000t, 20 knots, 12-12in/21-5in, 1,060 crew, 1912

WYOMING (B-32) (right)

Wyoming, 6th Battle Squadron, Grand Fleet, from December 1918

Arkansas, patrol and gunnery training, then relieved Delaware in 6th Battle Squadron, Grand Fleet in August 1918

NEW YORK class, 2 ships - 27,000t, 21 knots, 10-14in/21-5in, 1,040 crew, 1914

NEW YORK (B-34) (right)
TEXAS (B-35)

New York (flag), Texas, both part of 6th Battle Squadron, New York from December 1917, Texas joining in February 1918

Texas is still in existence as a museum ship at San Jacinto Battlefield State Park, La Porte, Texas

Wartime Additions
4 by April 1917, 2 after

NEVADA class, 2 ships - 27,500t, 20 knots, 10-14in/21-5in, 860 crew, 1916

NEVADA (B-36) (right)

Nevada, Oklahoma, both oil burners, based at Bantry Bay, Ireland from August 1918

PENNSYLVANIA class, 2 ships - 31,400t, 21 knots, 12-14in/22-5in, 915 crew, 1916

PENNSYLVANIA (B-38) (right)

Pennsylvania, flagship, Atlantic Fleet, 1916-18

Arizona joined 6th Battle Squadron after the November 1918 Armistice

NEW MEXICO class, 3 ships - 32,000t, 21 knots, 12-14in/14-5in, 1,080 crew, 1918/1917

NEW MEXICO (B-40) (right)
IDAHO (B-42, completed 1919)


Link to Deployment of Cruisers, April 1917-November 1918

August 1914 Strength
12, reduced to 11 by April 1917

Apart from Brooklyn (ACR-3), all were renamed from 1911-16 and 1920 to release the State's names for new battleships
(from Rise to Global Parity, 1900-1922):

Original Ship Name Name Change and Date
Maine (ACR-1)
New York (ACR-2)
Brooklyn (ACR-3)
Pennsylvania (ACR-4)
West Virginia (ACR-5)
California (ACR-6)
Colorado (ACR-7)
Maryland (ACR-8)
South Dakota (ACR-9)
Tennessee (ACR-10)
Washington (ACR-11)
North Carolina (ACR-12)
Montana (ACR-13)
retained name, as battleship, blew up in Havana, 1898
Saratoga, 16.2.11, then 6.12.17-Rochester
retained name
Pittsburgh, 27.8.12
Huntington, 11.11.16
San Diego, 1.9.1
Pueblo, 9.11.16
Frederick, 9.11.16
Huron, 7.6.20
Memphis, 25.5.16, lost 29.8.16
Seattle, 9.11.16
Charlotte, 7.6.20
Missoula, 7.6.20

SARATOGA (ex-New York) - 8,200t, 20 knots, 6-8in/12-4in, 570 crew, 1893. Named Saratoga from 1911, renamed ROCHESTER from 1917


BROOKLYN - 9,200t, 20 knots, 8-8in/12-5in, c 570 crew, 1896


PENNSYLVANIA class, 6 ships, 1 lost - 13,700t, 22 knots, 4-8in/14-6in/18-3in, 830 crew, 1905-08

PITTSBURGH (ACR-4, ex-Pennsylvania) (both right, top as USS Pennsylvania in San Francisco Bay, with first aircraft landing on a warship by Eugene Ely, January 1911)
HUNTINGTON (ACR-5, ex-West Virginia)
ACR-6, ex-California)
ACR-7, ex-Colorado)
ACR-8, ex-Maryland)
ACR-9, renamed Huron in 1920)

SAN DIEGO, 19 July 1918, North Atlantic, 10 miles SE of Fire Island, Long Island, New York (c 40-30’N, 73-00’W) - torpedoed or mined by German U.15. Assigned to trans-Atlantic convoy escort on the western leg, she was on passage from Portsmouth, New Hampshire to New York at the time. Reliable sources differ on whether or not her loss was due to a torpedo or mines laid by U.156 off the American coast - mining seems the most likely. San Diego (Capt H H Christy) turned turtle and sank in around 20 minutes, the only major US warship loss of the war; 6 men lost out of the crew of 1,100. Casualty List. On her return to Germany, U.156 (Lt Cdr Feldt) was lost with all hands, probably in the Northern Barrage minefield, much of which was laid by American ships.

TENNESSEE class, 4 ships, 1 lost - 14,500t, 22 knots, 4-10in/16-6in/22-3in, c 860 crew, 1906-08

MEMPHIS (ACR-10, ex-Tennessee) (right)
ACR-11, ex-Washington)
ACR-12, renamed Charlotte in 1920)
ACR-13, renamed Missoula in 1920)

MEMPHIS, 29 August 1916, Caribbean Sea, in Santo Domingo harbour, Dominican Republic (c 18-50’N, 70-00’W) - driven ashore and totally wrecked by (100ft?) tsunami or tidal wave of seismic origin; hurricane in some sources. On peace-keeping duties in Dominican waters during a rebellion. At anchor at the time, with a boatload of Memphis sailors returning from shore-leave. As she was driven ashore, engine room personnel made every effort to give her manoeuvring power. The Medal of Honor was awarded to Engineering Lt Claud Jones, Chief Machinist's Mate George Rud (posthumous), and Machinist Charles Willey; some 36 men dead or missing, 200 badly injured. Casualty list



Link to Deployment of Cruisers, April 1917-November 1918

*and to Mine Warfare Cruisers

August 1914
Strength 24, reduced to 23 by April 1917 

BOSTON - 3,200t, 13 knots, 2-8in/6-6in, 285 crew, 1887.

BOSTON, training ship from 1911

Note: Atlanta sold 1912

CHICAGO - 4,500t, 14 knots, 4-8in/8-6in/2-5in, c450 crew, 1889.

CHICAGO, training ship from 1910

NEWARK - 4,050t, 18 knots, 12-6in, 385 crew, 1891.

NEWARK (C-1), stricken 1913, used as quarantine and hospital hulk during war

Note: Charleston (C-2) wrecked in 1899

BALTIMORE - 4,400t, 19 knots, 4-8in/6-6in, 385 crew, 1890.

BALTIMORE (C-3), converted to minelayer 1912. Baltimore played a major part in laying the North Sea Mine Barrage between Scotland and Norway from June 1918*

PHILADELPHIA - 4,300t, 19 knots, 12-6in, 385 crew, 1890


SAN FRANCISCO - 4,100t, 19 knots, 12-6in, 385 crew, 1890.

SAN FRANCISCO (C-5), converted to minelayer 1911. San Francisco (US flag) also played a major part in laying the North Sea Barrage from June 1918*

OLYMPIA - 5,850t, 20 knots, 4-8in/10-5in, c 440, 1895.

OLYMPIA (C-6), still in existence as a museum ship at Philadelphia, USA

CINCINNATI class, 2 ships - 3,200t, 19 knots, 1-6in/10-5in, c 320 crew, 1894

CINCINNATI (C-7) (right)

MONTGOMERY class, 3 ships - 2,100t, 17 knots, 9-5in, 275 crew, 1893-94

MONTGOMERY (C-9) (right)
sold 1910)

COLUMBIA class, 2 ships - 7,400t, 21 knots, 1-8in/2-6in/8-4in, 480 crew, 1894

COLUMBIA (C-12) (right)
NEW ORLEANS class, 2 ships - 3,750t, 20 knots, 6-6in/4-4.7in, 365 crew, 1898/1900, purchased from Brazil

NEW ORLEANS (right, CL-22 from 1921. Originally Milwaukee's number - below)
ALBANY (CL-23 from 1921)

DENVER class, 6 ships - 3,200t, 16 knots, 10-5in, 340 crew, 1903-05

DENVER (C-14) (right)

ST LOUIS class, 3 ships, 1 lost - 9,700t, 22 knots, 14-6in/18-3in, c 700 crew, 1905-06 

ST LOUIS (C-20) (upper right)
MILWAUKEE (C-21) (right)

MILWAUKEE, 13 January 1917, eastern Pacific Ocean, off Eureka, northern California on Samoa Beach - grounded. Submarine H.3 ran aground in nearby Humboldt Bay on the 14th December 1916. By the 13th January, Milwaukee was present to assist the salvage operations and while trying to refloat her, was stranded on Samoa Beach. Salvage attempts in her case failed, and in November 1918, she broke in two in a storm. No casualties.



Link to Deployment of Cruisers, April 1917-November 1918

August 1914
Strength 3

CHESTER class, 3 ships - 3,750t, 24 knots, 2-5in/6-3in, 360 crew, 1908

BIRMINGHAM (CS.2) (right)

All three cruisers spent part of 1917-18 based at Gibraltar on convoy escort duties in the Atlantic approaches


Link to Deployment of Destroyers, April 1917-November 1918

Note: first US destroyers, Farragut, Stringham, Goldsborough, Bailey, 235-340t were given TB numbers

August 1914
Strength 50

BAINBRIDGE class, 5 ships, 1 lost - 420t, 29 knots, 2-3in/5-6pdr/2-18in tt, 73 crew, 1902

BAINBRIDGE (D-1) (upper right, sailing Gibraltar for Charleston, July 1918)
DALE (D-4)

CHAUNCEY (right), 19 November 1917, Atlantic Ocean, 110 miles west of the Straits of Gibraltar (c 36-00’N, 8-00’W) - collision with British steamship Rose. Based at St Nazaire on eastern Atlantic escort duties, Chauncey (Lt Cdr Walter Reno) was with a convoy on the night of the 19th/20th, when she was cut in half by the Rose and sank at 03.17hrs; commanding officer and 20 crew lost, 70 survivors picked up by Rose. Casualty List.

HOPKINS class, 2 ships - 410t, 29 knots, 2-3in/5-6pdr/2-18in tt, 73 crew, 1903

HOPKINS (D-6) (right)
HULL (D-7)

LAWRENCE class, 2 ships - 430t, 30 knots, 2-3in/5-6pdr/2-18in tt, 73 crew, 1903

LAWRENCE (D-8) (right)

PAUL JONES class, 3 ships - 480t, 29 knots, 2-3in/5-6pdr/2-18in tt, 73 crew, 1902-03

PAUL JONES (D-10) (right)
PERRY (D-11)

STEWART - 420t, 29 knots, 2-3in/5-6pdr/2-18in tt, 71 crew, 1902


TRUXTUN class, 3 ships - 30 knots, 2-3in/6-6pdr/2-18in tt, 73 crew, 1902

TRUXTUN (D-14) (right)

SMITH class, 5 ships - 700t, 28 knots, 5-3in/3-18in tt, 85 crew, launched 1908-09

SMITH (D-17) (right)
REID (D-21)

PAULDING class, 10 ships - 740t, 29 knots, 5-3in, 6-18in tt, 85 crew, launched 1909-10

PAULDING (D-22) (right, in dazzle painting, in Queenstown, Ireland)
ROE (D-24)
TERRY (D-25)

MONAGHAN class, 11 ships - 790t, 29 knots, 5-3in/6-18in tt, 90 crew, launched 1910-12

MONAGHAN (D-32) (upper right)
WALKE (D-34)
AMMEN (D-35)
BEALE (D-40)

Fanning took part with Nicholson (D-52) in the  sinking of U.58 on 17th November 1917 (right - above, some of her crew with the star on her stack showing her success, and below, her stern and depth charges. USS Sigourney (D-81) alongside)

CASSIN class, 8 ships - 1,000t, 29 knots, 4-4in/8-18in, 100 crew, launched 1912-13

CASSIN (D-43) (right, also at Queenstown, c1918. Destroyer alongside not known)
BALCH (D-50)

Wartime Additions
18 by April 1917, c 46 after

O’BRIEN class, 6 ships - 1,050t, 29 knots, 4-4in/8-21in tt, 100 crew, launched 1914-15

O'BRIEN (D-51)
NICHOLSON (D-52) (right)

Nicholson with Fanning (D-37) also took part in sinking of U.58 on 17th November 1917

TUCKER class, 6 ships, 1 lost - 1,100t, 29 knots, 4-4in/8-21in tt, 100 crew, launched 1915

TUCKER (D-57) (upper right)
JACOB JONES (D-61) (right)

Wadsworth, first USN destroyer flagship in British waters; with five others she arrived at Queenstown in early May 1917, the first US warships to reach the European battle zone

JACOB JONES, 6 December 1917, Atlantic Ocean, South Western Approaches to Britain, 25 miles SW of Bishop Rock, Isles of Scilly (49-20’N, 06-18’W). - torpedoed once by German U.53. Based at Queenstown, southern Ireland on anti-submarine duties, Jacob Jones (Lt Cdr David Bagley) was one of six destroyers returning from Brest after escorting a convoy to France. She was hit at 16.20hrs, going down in 8 minutes. Of the 38 survivors, two were taken prisoner by the U-boat, others rescued by two British ships that responded to a radio signal sent out by U.53’s CO, Lt Cdr Hans Rose, and reportedly, Cdr Bagley and five others managed to row ashore; 64 men were lost. Casualty List.

SAMPSON class, 6 ships - 1,100t, 29 knots, 4-4in/12-21in tt, 100 crew, launched 1916

SAMPSON (D-63) (upper right)
ROWAN (D-64)
DAVIS (D-65)
ALLEN (D-66) (right,  a reminder of North Atlantic conditions)
SHAW (D-68)

CALDWELL, WICKES, CLEMSON "flush decker" classes, D-69 to 347 - c1,100t, 30-35 knots, 4-4in/12-21in tt, 100-115 crew, launched 1917-1921.

Only ships from D-69 to D-199 are listed below. Those included in the Deployment of Destroyers, April 1917-November 1918 are in CAPITAL letters:



Gwin (D-71)



WICKES (D-75), PHILIP (D-76), WOOLSEY (D-77), EVANS (D-78), LITTLE (D-79), KIMBERLY (D-80), SIGOURNEY (D-81), GREGORY (D-82), STRINGHAM (D-83), DYER (D-84), COLHOUN (D-85), STEVENS (D-86), MCKEE (D-87), ROBINSON (D-88), RINGGOLD (D-89)

Mckean (D-90), Harding (D-91), Gridley (D-92)

FAIRFAX (D-93), TAYLOR (D-94), BELL (D-95), STRIBLING (D-96), MURRAY (D-97), ISRAEL (D-98), LUCE (D-99), MAURY (D-100)

Lansdale (D-101), Mahan (D-102)

SCHLEY (D-103), CHAMPLIN (D-104), MUGFORD (D-105), CHEW (D-106)

Hazelwood (D-107), Williams (D-108), Crane (D-109), Hart (D-110), Ingraham (D-111)

LUDLOW (D-112), RATHBURNE (D-113), TALBOT (D-114)

Waters (D-115)

DENT (D-116), DORSEY (D-117), LEA (D-118), LAMBERTON (D-119), RADFORD (D-120), MONTGOMERY (D-121), BREESE (D-122), GAMBLE (D-123)

Ramsay (D-124), Tattnall (D-125), Badger (D-126), Twiggs (D-127), Babbitt (D-128), Delong (D-129), Jacob Jones (D-130) , Buchanan (D-131), Aaron Ward (D-132) , Hale (D-133), Crowninshield (D-134), Tillman (D-135)

BOGGS (D-136), KILTY (D-137)

Kennison (D-138), Ward (D-139), Claxton (D-140), Hamilton (D-141), Tarbell (D-142)

YARNALL (D-143), UPSHUR (D-144), GREER (D-145)

Elliot (D-146), Roper (D-147), Breckinridge (D-148), Barney (D-149), Blakeley (D-150), Biddle (D-151), Du Pont (D-152) , Bernadou (D-153), Ellis (D-154), Cole (D-155), J. Fred Talbott (D-156) , Dickerson (D-157), Leary (D-158), Schenck (D-159), Herbert (D-160), Palmer (D-161), Thatcher (D-162), Walker (D-163), Crosby (D-164), Meredith (D-165), Bush (D-166), Cowell (D-167), Maddox (D-168), Foote (D-169), Kalk (D-170), Burns (D-171), Anthony (D-172), Sproston (D-173), Rizal (D-174), Mackenzie (D-175), Renshaw (D-176), O'Bannon (D-177), Hogan (D-178), Howard (D-179), Stansbury (D-180), Hopewell (D-181), Thomas (D-182), Haraden (D-183), Abbot (D-184), Bagley (D-185)


Clemson (D-186), Dahlgren (D-187), Goldsborough (D-188), Semmes (D-189), Satterlee (D-190), Mason (D-191), Graham (D-192), Abel P. Upshur (D-193) , Hunt (D-194), Welborn C. Wood (D-195) , George E. Badger (D-196) , Branch (D-197), Herndon (D-198), Dallas (D-199)

USS Caldwell (D-69)

USS Wickes (D-75)

USS Woolsey (D-77) and smoke screen

USS Ringgold (D-890

USS Fairfax (D-93)

USS Dent (D-116)


Link to Deployment of Submarines, April 1917-November1918

Note: Holland (S-1) was stricken in 1910

August 1914
Strength 27 - including 9 old boats for local Philippines defence

A class, 7 boats - 110/125t, 8/7 knots, 1-18in tt, 7 crew, launched 1901-03

A.1 (PLUNGER, S-2)
A.2 (ADDER, S-3)
A.3 (GRAMPUS, S-4)
A.5 (PIKE, S-6)
A.7 (SHARK, S-8)

A.5 (ex-Pike), 15 April 1917, western Pacific Ocean, at Cavite Naval Base, SW Luzon, Philippines - ballast tank leakage. The official account is that she sank at her mooring because of a slow leak, raised four days later and returned to active service. No casualties.

B class, 3 boats - 145/175t, 9/8 knots, 2-18in tt, 10 crew, launched 1906-07

B.1 (VIPER, S-10)
B.3 (TARANTULA, S-12) (right)

C class, 5 boats - 240/275t, 10/9 knots, 2-18in tt, 15 crew, launched 1906/09

C.1 (OCTOPUS, S-9)
C.2 (STINGRAY, S-13)
C.3 (TARPON, S-14) (right)
C.4 (BONITA, S-15)
C.5 (SNAPPER, S-16)

D class, 3 boats - 290/340t, 12/9 knots, 4-18in tt, 15 crew, launched 1909-10

D.1 (NARWHAL, S-17) (right)
D.2 (GRAYLING, S-18)
D.3 (SALMON, S-19)

D.2 (ex-Grayling), 14 September 1917, United States, at New London Naval Base, Connecticut - sank at dockside. All crew survived

E class, 2 boats - 290/340t, 13/11 knots, 4-18in tt, 20 crew, launched 1911

E.1 (SKIPJACK, S-24)
E.2 (STURGEON, S-25)

E.2 (ex-Sturgeon), 15 January 1916, United States, at Brooklyn Navy Yard, New York - internal explosion. Raised and returned to service within a matter of months; 5 dead, c 15 survivors. Note about casualties.

F class, 4 boats, 2 lost - 330/400t, 13/11 knots, 4-18in tt, 22 crew, launched 1911-12

F.1 (CARP, S-20) (upper right, being hit by Pickerel)
F.3 (PICKEREL, S-22)
F.4 (SKATE, S-23) (right)

F.1 (ex-CARP), 17 December 1917, eastern Pacific Ocean in West Coast waters, United States - collision with submarine Pickerel (F.3). Carp had sunk once before, torn from her moorings and foundering in heavy seas off Port Watsonville, Monterey Bay, California in October 1912 with both men aboard lost. Her final loss took place during thick fog on manoeuvres off Point Loma, San Diego, California, hit by sister-boat Pickerel; 19 men lost, 5 survivors. Casualty List.

F.4 (ex-SKATE), 25 March 1915, central Pacific Ocean, 1 1/2 miles off Pearl Harbor, Oahu island, Hawaii (c 22-15’N, 158-00’W) - foundered. During diving exercises she lost depth control, later found to be due to flooding caused by corrosion of a battery tank, and sank in 300 feet of water. Skate sank with all 21 crew. Casualty List. Three week’s later during salvage operations at record depths, one of the divers became trapped and was rescued by Chief Gunner's Mate Frank Crilley USN. He received the Medal of Honor

G class, 4 boats - c400/500t, 14/10 knots, 6-18in tt, 24 crew, launched 1911-13, group of four designs, the last gasoline-engined boats. G.1 was a mainly private-venture construction, and the only US submarine to have a fractional hull number.

G.1 (SEAL, S-19 1/2)
G.2 (TUNA, S-27) (right)
G.3 (TURBOT, S-31)
G.4 (THRESHER, S-26)

Wartime Additions
c 22 by April 1917, c 30 after

H class, 3 boats - 360/470t, 14/10 knots, 4-18in tt, 25 crew, launched 1913 (plus H.4-H.9 (S-147 to 152), completed after the war)

H.1 (SEAWOLF, S-28) (right)
H.2 (NAUTILUS, S-29)
H.3 (GARFISH, S-30)

K class, 8 boats - 390/520t, 14/10 knots, 4-18in tt, 28 crew, launched 1913-14

K.1 (HADDOCK, S-32)
K.2 (CACHALOT, S-33)
K.3 (ORCA, S-34)
K.4 (WALRUS, S-35)
K.5 (S-36) (right)
K.6 (S-37)
K.7 (S-38)
K.8 (S-39)

K.1, K.2, K.4 and K.6 were based in the Azores on anti-U-boat patrols

L class, 11 boats - 450/550t, 14/10 knots, 4-18in tt/1-3in, 28 crew, launched 1915-17. Mostly commissioned before April 1917

L.1 (S-40) (upper right)
L.2 (S-41)
L.3 (S-42) (right)
L.4 (S-43)
L.5 (S-44)
L.6 (S-45)
L.7 (S-46)
L.8 (S-48)
L.9 (S-49)
L.10 (S-50)
L.11 (S-51)

L.1-L.4, L.9-L.11, designated AL to distinguish them from the British L-class, were based at Berehaven, Bantry Bay, Ireland on anti-U-boat patrols 1917-18

L.2 was being attacked by German UB.65 off southern Ireland in July 1918 when the U-boat blew up, possibly due to a faulty torpedo magnetic pistol

None of the following classes appear to have been deployed by the Armistice in November 1918 - see Deployment of Submarines, April 1917-November1918
AA/T Class, 3 boats, 1100/1480t, 20/10.5 knots, 6-21in tt/2-3in, 38 crew, launched 1918-1919, first US fleet submarines

AA.1 (SCHLEY/T.1, S-52)* (right)
AA.2 (T.2, S-60)
AA.3 (T.3, S-61)

*laid down 1916 as Schley (S-52), name needed for destroyer so renamed AA.1 in 1917, commissioned 1920 as AA.1, renamed same year as T.1 (SF.1, for Fleet Submarine)

M class, 1 boat - 490/680t, 14/10 knots, 4-18in tt/1-3in, 28 crew, launched 1915

M.1 (S-47)

N class, 7 boats - 350/415t, 13/11 knots, 4-18in tt, 25 crew, launched 1916-17

N.1 (S-53)
N.2 (S-54)
N.3 (S-55)
N.4 (S-56) (right)
N.5 (S-57)
N.6 (S-58)
N.7 (S-59)
O class, 16 boats - 520/630t, 14/10 knots, 4-18in tt, 1-3in, 29 crew, launched 1917-18

O.1 (S-62)
O.2 (S-63)
O.3 (S-64)
O.4 (S-65)
O.5 (S-66) (upper right)
O.6 (S-67)
O.7 (S-68) (crewman right)
O.8 (S-69)
O.9 (S-70)
O.10 (S-71)
O.11 (S-72)
O.12 (S-73)
O.13 (S-74)
O.14 (S-75)
O.15 (S-76)
O.16 (S-77)

R class, 27 boats - 570/680t, 14/11 knots, 4-21in or 18in tt/1-3in, 29 crew, launched 1917-19. Approximately 6 commissioned before end of war

R.1 (S-78)
R.2 (S-79)
R.3 (S-80)
R.4 (S-81)
R.5 (S-82)
R.6 (S-83)
R.7 (S-84)
R.8 (S-85)
R.9 (S-86)
R.10 (S-87)
R.11 (S-88)
R.12 (S-89)
R.13 (S-90)
R.14 (S-91) (upper right)
R.15 (S-92)
R.16 (S-93)
R.17 (S-94)
R.18 (S-95)
R.19 (S-96)
R.20 (S-97) (right)
R.21 (S-98)
R.22 (S-99)
R.23 (S-100)
R.24 (S-101)
R.25 (S-102)
R.26 (S-103)
R.27 (S-104)

S class, Electric Boat Type, 25 boats - 850/1060t, 14/11 knots, 4-21in tt/1-4in, 38 crew, launched 1918-21.

S.1 (S-105) (right)
S.18-S.41 (S-123 to S-146)


Lake-type, S.2 (SS-106), launched 1919
Navy Yard Types, S.3-S.17 (S-106 to S-122), launched 1918-21
Second Group, S.42-S.47 (S-153 to S-158), launched 1923-24

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