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World War 1 at Sea - British Merchant and Fishing Vessels Lost and Damaged




SS Royal Edward, torpedoed and sunk 13 August 1915 (Pat Gariepy, click to enlarge)

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(1) Ships in BOLD capitals are those sunk or otherwise lost; in lower case bold, attacked and/or damaged. Variations in the published information are in brackets starting with an abbreviation for the source e.g. (wi - in 53.50N, 00.50E).

(2) Merchant ship and fishing vessel information is generally in the order - gross tonnage/build year, owner, registration port or place of ownership/management, crew if known, master or skipper, voyage and cargo, conditions if known. How sunk or damaged, lives lost (source abbreviations starting with + for original HMSO)

(3) Three items of information, the first two from the original HMSO lists, have been excluded to save space.  (i) All merchant ships and fishing vessels torpedoed, were ATTACKED WITHOUT WARNING;  (ii) if no casualties are shown, NO LIVES WERE LOST; (iii) all sinkings and attacks were by GERMAN SUBMARINES or U-boats unless otherwise stated.

(4) Click for Notes, Abbreviations and Sources.



JULY 1915

British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in July: 20 merchant ships totalling 52,847grt - 19 of 48,844grt to submarines, 1 of 4,003grt to mines, plus 39 fishing vessels totalling 4,427grt - 36 of 3,966grt to submarines, 3 of 461grt to mines (H)


Tuesday 1 July

Atlantic off SW England 

Three British steamships (an Admiralty oiler and an Admiralty collier) captured and sunk by U.39 (Walter Forstmann) off Cornwall:

GADSBY, 3,497/1899, Sir R Ropner & Co, West Hartlepool, sailing Sydney (CB) for London with wheat. Sunk by torpedo 33 miles SSW of Wolf Rock, off Lands End (L/un - 49.23N, 05.52W) (+L/te/un)

CRAIGARD, 3,286/1901, Craigmhor SS Co (Russell & Co), Leith-reg, Mr A McCullough, Galveston for Havre with cotton. Sunk by torpedo 50 miles SW by S of Wolf Rock (L/te/un - in 48.18N, 06.10W) (+L/Mn/te/un)

RICHMOND, 3,214/1904, Britain SS Co (Watts, Watts & Co), London, sailing Gulfport for Boulogne with sleepers. Sunk by gunfire about 54 miles SW by S of Wolf Rock (L/te/un - in 49.11N, 06.10W) (+L/te/un)

Atlantic off SW Ireland

Two British vessels sunk by U.24 (Rudolf Schneider):

L. C. TOWER, 4-masted schooner, 518/1915, Cochrane & Co, Parrsborough (NS)-reg, Mr L C Tower, sailing Parrsboro' for Newport with wood/deals, all sails set, making for Lundy Island. Overhauled by U.24 and ordered to abandon ship, difficult to set on fire but eventually ablaze from end-to-end and burnt down to water's edge, sank 30 miles S of Fastnet Rock, off Co Cork (L/un/wi - 25 miles SSW of; L/wi - in 51N, 10W; Mn - afloat and towed into Berehaven); crew reached Crookhaven in their motor boat (+L/Mn/un/wi)

WELBURY, 3,591/1907, Bury Shipping Co (Sydney Hogg & Co), West Hartlepool-reg, Mr Robert Newton, sailing Kingston (Ja)/Matanzas for Queenstown with sugar for orders, proceeding at 7kts. U.24 sighted in vicinity of attack on L. C. Tower, signalled abandon ship immediately, but Welbury turned away, U.24 steered to cut her off, fired a warning shot, then opened a steady fire until one shell went through the engine-room, ship stopped and abandoned, finished off by gunfire 40 miles W of Fastnet (wi - in 51.10N, 10.35W; L - 15 miles W of Bull Rock), ship’s papers burnt by master in the galley fire (+L/Mn/te/un/wi)


Friday 2 July

UC.2 believed rammed by SS Cottingham in North Sea off Yarmouth, otherwise own mines (un - own mined on 30 June, Cottingham probably hit the wreck)

English Channel

Two steamships attacked by U-boat(s):

City of Edinburgh, 6,255/1899, Ellerman Lines (G Smith & Sons), Liverpool. Torpedo/gun attack by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), torpedo missed but damaged by gunfire; 4 crew killed (+ms/un)

Zealandic, passenger & cargo steamship, 8,090 (ms – 10,898)/1911, White Star Line/Ismay, Imrie & Co, armed. Chased but escaped (+ms/tl)


Saturday 3 July

North Sea

Guido, 2,093/1913, Thomas Wilson & Co, Hull. U-boat gun attack, escaped. Sunk a few days later (+ms)

English Channel

Arabia, passenger & cargo ship, 7,933 (ms – 7,903)/1898 Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Co, Greenock, armed. Chased by U-boat, escaped. Sunk 6 November 1916 (+ms)

Atlantic off SW England

Two steamships sunk by gunfire of U.39 (Walter Forstmann):

LARCHMORE, 4,355/1912, Johnston Line, Liverpool, Mr Isaac Jones, sailing Cardiff for Bombay with coal. Captured and sunk 70 miles SW½S of Wolf Rock (L/te/un - in 48.54N, 06.28W); one life lost (+L/Mn/te/un)

RENFREW (1), 3,488/1898, Sutherland SS Co, Newcastle, Mr J Stevenson, sailing Marseilles for Barry Roads in ballast. Refused to stop, shelled then sunk 85 miles SW by S of Wolf Rock (L - 59 miles NW of Ushant); crew landed at Falmouth (+L/Mn/te/un)


Sunday 4 July

North Sea

SUNBEAM, 3-masted schooner, 132/1878, C A Reney (?),Chester-reg, 5 crew, Mr Moodie, Leith for Kirkwell with 190t coal, becalmed. U.25 (Otto Wünsche) sighted 2 miles distant, approached on surface to within 30yd, gave crew 3min to abandon ship, three shells sank her at 1500, 17 miles S by E of Wick, Caithness (L/un - 16 miles E of; wi - in 58.14N 02.40W); crew picked up by naval patrol boat, probably HMT Elm, landed at Wick (+L/Lr/D/un/wi)

Atlantic off S Ireland

Anglo-Californian, cargo ship, nitrate carrier converted to horse transport, 7,333/1912, Lawther Latta & Co/Nitrate Producers SS Co, London, not armed, sailing Montreal/Quebec for Avonmouth with 927 horses for Western Front, 150 crew, master, Lt Frederick Parslow RNR aged 60. U.39 (Walter Forstmann) (dx - U.38; ge – or U.20) surfaced about 0800 a mile or more away on port beam 90 miles SW of Queenstown (L/un - in 50.15N, 9W; dx - 50.10N, 09W), ship turned stern on and went to full speed, reached 14kts, submarine opened a steady fire about 0900 frequently hitting, Anglo-Californian continued to manoeuvre in an attempt to escape while transmitting SOS’s. Ordered at 1030 by the U-boat to stop and abandon ship, the master decided to do so, then in response to his signals, destroyers Mentor and Miranda requested him to delay as long as possible. He got under way again, but now U.39 opened a heavy fire wrecking the bridge, all the port-side lifeboats and hitting the superstructure. By the time the U-boat had closed to 50yds, the master was dead and the Germans fired on anything that moved. Throughout the action, the master's eldest son, Fred Parslow was at the wheel or what remained of it. When the destroyers arrived, U.39 dived away and Anglo-Californian was brought into Queenstown on the 5th; 21 lives lost including Lt Frederick Daniel Parslow RNR who was awarded the Victoria Cross. His son and the chief engineer received the DSC and others MID. Sunk 9 June 1918 (+L/Mn/dx/ge/ms/un/vc)


Tuesday 6 July

North Sea

Groningen, passenger & cargo steamship, 988/1902, General Steam Navigation Co, London. Aircraft attack 4 miles from Galloper, off Harwich, bombs missed, ship undamaged. Sunk 23 September 1915 (+Mn/ms)


Wednesday 7 July

North Sea

CHESHIRE, trawler, 148/1898, North Lincolnshire Steam Fishing, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Mined, sank 50 miles E by S of Spurn Head, Humber estuary; 8 lives lost (+L/Lr/gy)


Thursday 8 July

North Sea

GUIDO, 2,093/1913, Wilson Line/Thomas Wilson & Co, Hull, sailing London/Hull for Archangel with general cargo. Captured by U.25 (Otto Wünsche), sunk by torpedo 27 miles NE¼N of Rattray Head, N of Peterhead (L/te/un - in 58.03N, 01.28W; un – also in 58.17N, 01.22W) (+L/te/un)

Traquair, cargo steamship, 1,067/1915, G Gibson & Co, Leith. Chased by U-boat in Knock Deep, off Clacton, escaped. Sunk 12 January 1916 (+Mn/ms)


Friday 9 July

St George's Channel

Two, believed three steamships attacked by U.20 (Walther Schweiger):

MEADOWFIELD, 2,750/1904, Glasgow Navigation Co (Maclay & McIntyre), Glasgow-reg, Mr Thomas Dunbar, Huelva for Glasgow with copper ore, also 5 passengers including 2 women and 2 children. Shot heard and submarine sighted on port quarter, another shot wrecked the chart-room and wheelhouse killing the helmsman, ship stopped, boats lowered while firing continued, finally went down 50 miles SW of Tuskar Rock, off Rosslare (wi - in 51.28N, 06.55W); mate and 14 crew took to port boat, master, rest of crew and passengers in starboard, sighted at 2100 by Grimsby trawler Majestic, landed at Holyhead just after midnight (wi - one crew member lost while abandoning ship) (+L/Mn/te/un/wi)

ELLESMERE, passenger ship, 1,170/1906, Watson SS Co, Manchester-reg, Mr C Heslop, sailing Valencia for Liverpool/Manchester with citrus fruit. U.20 sighted 2 miles away on starboard bow, ship turned away and shelled, second shell carried away starboard boat's after davit, four more hit, others missed, then a shell went through the bridge deck killing one man and wounding a second, ship stopped and crew got away, sunk by torpedo 48 miles SW of The Smalls (L/wi - 55 miles W by S of, in 51.30N, 07.05W); one life lost, crew rescued by armed trawler Osprey II (+L/Mn/te/un/wi)

Orduna, passenger & cargo steamship, 15,499/1914, Pacific Steam Navigation Co, Liverpool, Mr T Taylor. Torpedo/gun attack (ge - by U.20), 30 miles S of Queenstown (Cobh), gunfire ineffective, torpedo missed (+Mn/ge/ms)

Atlantic off S Ireland

Etonian, passenger & cargo steamship, 6,438 (also 6,515)/1898, Leyland Line/Fred Leyland & Co, Liverpool (ms - Wilsons & Furness, Hull, believed earlier owner). Chased by U-boat, escaped. Sunk 23 March 1918 (+Mn/ms)


Saturday 10 July

English Channel 

Panama, passenger & cargo steamship, 5,981/1902, Pacific Steam Navigation Co, Liverpool. Chased by U-boat 11 miles S of Lizard Point, escaped (+ms)

possibly Atlantic off S Ireland

Winlaton, cargo steamship, 3,263/1912, Gordon Steam Sailing Co, London, Mr J Murray. U-boat, possibly U.20 seen steaming hard for her late afternoon, ship too slow to escape so steered for the attacker which submerged about a mile off, came back up 20min later, then steered away. Mr Murray granted commission as Lt RNR and MID. Admiralty collier when sunk 23 August 1917 (Mn/ms)


Sunday 11 July

North Sea

Three Grimsby-reg. trawlers on fishing grounds attacked by U.25 (Otto Wünsche) off Hornsea:

HAINTON, 156/1899, Frank & Thomas Ellis. Captured, sunk by gunfire 45 miles NE by E (+L/Lr/Mn/gy/un)

SYRIAN, 176/1904, F W Robinson. Captured, sunk by gunfire 45 miles ENE of (+L/Lr/Mn/gy/un)

Fleetwood, 122grt, possibly Grimsby-reg GY166, 1896, but 163grt. Damaged 30 miles E½N of (L/D/un)


Monday 12 July

North Sea

Five sailing smacks on fishing grounds attacked by UB.6 (Erich Haecker) off Lowestoft, Suffolk. Four of them confirmed as Lowestoft-reg, sailed Lowestoft for fishing, captured before being sunk:

WOODBINE, ketch-rigged, c29/1906, W H Painter, LT481. (bm – 12 June) - Set on fire 18 miles SE of (wi - sunk by bomb in 52.17N, 02.09E) (+L/bm/un/wi)

SPEEDWELL (1), 38grt. Sunk by bomb 19 miles SE by E of (wi - in 52.25N, 02.16E) (+L/un/wi)

MERLIN, 47grt. Sunk by bomb 20 miles ESE of (wi - in 52.28N, 02.18E) (+L/un/wi)

PURPLE HEATHER, 42grt. Sunk by bomb 23 miles SE by S of (wi - in 52.25N, 02.23E) (+L/un/wi)

Emerald, 57grt. Damaged between Yarmouth and Southwold, (L/un/wi)


Wednesday 14 July

North Sea

Warri, cargo steamship, 2,493/1901, British & African Steam Navigation Co (Elder Dempster), Liverpool. U-boat attack 3 miles SW of Shipwash, torpedo missed (+ms/tl)


Thursday 15 July

English Channel

Corso, cargo ship, 1,178/1900 (ms – 1,778grt), G H Wills & Co, Cardiff, armed. Chased by U-boat, saved by own gunfire. Sold and renamed Frimaire, sunk 15 March 1917 (+ms/te).


Sunday 18 July

North Sea

Batoum, tanker, 4,054/1893, Associated Oil Carriers (J I Jacobs & Co), Swansea (ms – Batoum Ltd (A Stuart), London), sailing Killingholme for Harwich. Torpedoed by UB.17 (Ralph Wenninger) 2½m S by E of Southwold LH, damaged, beached on Outer Shoal, refloated sometime before the 24th; 6 lives lost. Admiralty chartered red-ensign oiler when sunk 19 June 1917 (+L/ms/un)


Tuesday 20 July

U.23 sunk by combination decoy trawler Princess Louise/submarine C.27 off Fair Isle

North Sea

Brussels, passenger ship, 1,380/1902, Great Eastern Railway Co, Harwich, Mr Charles Fryatt. U-boat attack 20 miles E½S of S Inner Gabbard Buoy, off Orford Ness, torpedo missed. Captured 23 June 1916, master shot as franc-tireur (+ge/ms)

Sheerness, passenger & cargo steamship, 1,274/1903, Clyde Shipping Co, Glasgow, armed. Chased by U-boat, saved by own gunfire (+ms)


Thursday 22 July

Atlantic off NW Scotland

Two trawlers on fishing grounds captured and sunk by U.36 (Ernst Graeff) off Hoy Head, SW Orkneys:

KING ATHELSTAN, 159/1899, Consolidated Steam Fishing & Ice Co, Grimsby-reg. Sunk by bomb 100 miles N by W of (L/un - in 60.20N, 05W) (+L/Lr/Rn/gy/un)

STAR OF PEACE, 180/1900, A Walker/Walker Steam Trawl Fishing Co, Aberdeen-reg. Sunk by gunfire 114 miles N½W of (+L/Lr/Rn/un)


Friday 23 July

Atlantic off NW Scotland

Three trawlers on fishing grounds captured by U.36 (Ernst Graeff) and sunk by gunfire off Cape Wrath:

HERMIONE, 210/1908, Hellyers Steam Fishing, Hull-reg H992. Sunk 135 miles NNW of (L - 60 miles N by W of Hoy, Orkneys) (+L/Lr/Rn/hw/sk/un)

SUTTON, 332/1911, City Steam Fishing Co, Hull-reg H363. Sunk 130 miles NNW of (L - 60 miles N by W of Hoy) (+L/Lr/Rn/hw/sk/un)

HONORIA (1), 207/1898, Rushworth Steam Fishing, Grimsby-reg. Sunk 35 miles NNW of (L/un - 60 miles N by W of Hoy Is) (+L/Lr/Rn/gy/sk/un)


Saturday 24 July

U.36 sunk by Q-ship Prince Charles in Atlantic off N Scotland, first success by submarine decoy ship working alone.

North Sea

PERSEUS, trawler, 155/1892, Grimsby & North Sea Steam Trawling, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Mined, probably surface-ship-laid (un – not included, so presumably not U-boat-laid), sank 60 miles E of Spurn Head, Humber estuary (L - 55 miles E by S of Hornsea); 10 lives lost including skipper (+L/Lr/gy)


Four sailing smacks from Lowestoft for fishing, captured by UB.12 (Hans Nieland) and sunk by bombs 30 miles ENE of Lowestoft (wi - in 52.41N, 02.29E):

ACTIVITY, 56grt. Sunk (L - 12 miles E of Smith’s Knoll Spar Buoy; un – 30 miles from Lowestoft) (+L/Mn/un/wi)

HENRY CHARLES, 41grt (+L/Mn/un/wi)

KATHLEEN (2), 46grt (un – 59grt) (+L/Mn/un/wi)

PROSPER, 45grt (un – 30 miles from Lowestoft) (+L/Mn/un/wi)

Atlantic off NW Scotland

Four trawlers on fishing grounds captured by U.36 (Ernst Graeff) before her own loss to HMS Prince Charles, and sunk by gunfire:

ANGLIA, 107/1898, R Irvin & Sons, North Shields-reg SN.251. Sunk 25 miles NW of Sulisker/Sula Sgeir rock, near Rona island, NW of Cape Wrath. Crew picked up by Q-ship Prince Charles, landed at Widewall Harbour, South Ronaldsay (+L/Lr/Rn/sk/un)

CASSIO, 172/1906, Hellyers Steam Fishing Co, Hull-reg H889. Sunk 123 miles NW by W of Hoy Head (L - 60 miles N by W of Hoy), SW Orkneys (+L/Lr/Rn/hw/un)

ROSLIN, 128/1899, John Lewis & Sons, Aberdeen-reg. Sunk 60 miles N by W of Butt of Lewis, N Hebrides (+L/Lr/Rn/sk/un)

STRATHMORE, 163/1899, Steam Herring Fleet (un – A Robertson), Aberdeen-reg. Sunk 60 miles N by W of Butt of Lewis (+L/Lr/Rn/sk/un)


Sunday 25 July

North Sea

FIRTH, 406/1908, C R Davidson, Aberdeen-reg, 10 crew, Mr W Wright, Treport for Methil in ballast. Torpedoed by UB.6 (Erich Haecker), sank 4 miles E by S of Aldborough/Aldeburgh Napes Buoy (L - 9 miles N of Shipwash; wi - in 52.06.45N, 01.50E, also 52.14.20N, 01.47.31E); 4 crew lost (+L/Lr/un/wi)

Atlantic off N Scotland

One steamship and five trawlers captured by U.41 (Claus Hansen); the trawlers, all on fishing grounds, were sunk by gunfire:

GRANGEWOOD, 3,422/1902, Gratitude SS Co (E W Morgan & Co), London-reg, 24 crew, Mr F Hatswell, Archangel for Havre with flax and wheat. (L/Rn/te/un - 24th) - Sunk by torpedo 20 miles ENE of Flugga/Muckle Flugga LH, off North Unst island, Shetlands (L - 25 miles E of Lamba Ness, Orkneys; wi - in 61.03N, 00.20W). Note: the distance between the Grangewood and fishing vessel sinkings may lend support to the 24th as the likely loss date (+L/Rn/te/un)

CELTIC, 264/1907, Grimsby Steam Fishing Co, Grimsby-reg. Sunk 70 miles N by W of Hoy Head, Orkneys (un – in 59.53N, 01.18W) (+L/Lr/Rn/gy/un)

CYDONIA (1), 259/1908, North Eastern Steam Fishing Co, Grimsby-reg. Sunk 70 miles N by W of Hoy Head (un – in 59.53N, 01.18W) (+L/Lr/Rn/gy/un)

GADWALL, 192/1902, Harley & Miller (un – H A Holmes, Aberdeen), Liverpool-reg. Sunk 70 miles N by W of Hoy Head (un – in 59.53N, 01.18W) (+L/Lr/Rn/un)

EMBLEM (1), 157/1895, R W Sutherland (un – Great Northern SS Fishing Co (Charles Curzon)), Hull-reg H301. Sunk 60 miles N by W of Hoy Head (+L/Lr/Rn/hw/un)

HONORIA (2), 179/1896, Hellyers Steam Fishing Co, Hull-reg H325. Sunk 100 miles WNW of North Ronaldshay, NE Orkneys (+L/Lr/Rn/hw/un)


Monday 26 July

Barents Sea

Madura, cargo steamship, 4,484/1901, Glasgow Navigation Co (Maclay & McIntyre), Glasgow, sailing Archangel for Leith with flax, oilcake, wheat and wood. Mined, presumably laid by Meteor, 2½m E by N¾N of Danilov Is, reached Archangel. Sunk 18 October 1917 (+L/ms)


Tuesday 27 July

North Sea

Three sailing smacks, sailed Lowestoft for fishing, two captured by UB.13 (Walter Gustav Becker) and one by UB.16 (Hans Valentiner), sunk by scuttling charges off Yarmouth/Lowestoft:

ICENI, 44grt (un – 57grt). (L/wi - 28th) - Sunk by UB.13, 15 miles E of Lowestoft (L/wi -15-20 miles ESE of, in 52.25N, 02.10E; un – 15 miles E of Yarmouth) (+L/Mn/un/wi)

SALACIA, 48grt (un – 61grt). (L/wi - 28th) – Sunk by UB.13, 15 miles E of Lowestoft (L/wi - 15-20 miles ESE of, in 52.25N, 02.10E; un – 15 miles E of Yarmouth) (+L/Mn/un/wi)

WESTWARD HO! 47grt. Sunk by UB.16, 25 miles SE of Lowestoft (wi - in 52.10N, 02.13E) (+L/Mn/un/wi)


Wednesday 28 July

North Sea

Two more vessels sunk by UB.13 (Walter Gustav Becker) and UB.16 (Hans Valentiner)

YOUNG PERCY, ketch-rigged sailing smack, c45/1905, W Robbens, Lowestoft-reg LT455, sailed Lowestoft for fishing. Captured by UB.13, sunk by bomb 30 miles E by N of Lowestoft (un – 15 miles E of Yarmouth; wi - in 52.35N, 02.32E) (+L/Mn/bm/un/wi)

MANGARA, 1,821/1889, SS Mangara Co (MacLay & McIntyre), Glasgow-reg, 18 crew, Mr H Beattie, sailing Bilbao for West Hartlepool with 2,400t iron ore, steaming at 8kts with pilot in charge. Torpedoed by UB.16, sank ¼ miles E of Sizewell Bank Buoy, Aldeburgh (L - 50yd off; wi - in 52.12.30N, 01.41.30E); 11 crew lost (+L/te/un/wi)

Canto, cargo steamship, 1,202/1904, Pelton Steam Shipping Co (Gardner & Reay), Newcastle. U-boat torpedo missed (+ms)


Friday 30 July

North Sea

TORS, trawler, 158/1891, Hartlepool-reg, C Hall, fishing. Mined, probably surface-ship-laid (un – not included, so presumably not U-boat-laid), sank 43 miles E of Spurn Head, Humber; 8 lives lost (+L/Lr)


Eight sailing smacks, sailed Lowestoft for fishing, all captured by UB.10 (Otto Steinbrinck) and sunk by scuttling charges off Lowestoft:

PROSPECTOR, ketch-rigged, 59/1893, J Lang, Lowestoft-reg LT554. Sunk 28 miles ENE of (wi - in 52.38N, 02.28E) (+L/Mn/bm/un/wi)

VENTURE, 44grt. Sunk 27 miles ENE of (L/un - 30-35 miles ESE of; wi - c30 miles ESE of, in 52.41N, 02.29E) (+L/Mn/un/wi)

ACHIEVE, 43grt. Sunk 35 miles E by N of (L/wi - 30-35 miles ESE, in 52.41N, 02.29E; un – 30 miles ENE of) (+L/Mn/un/wi)

QUEST, 46grt. Sunk 35 miles E by N of (L/wi - 30 miles ENE from, in 52.41N, 02.29E) (+L/Mn/un/wi)

ATHENA, 45grt. Sunk 35 miles E by N of (L/wi - 30-35 miles ESE from, in 52.41N, 02.29E) (+L/Mn/un/wi)

STRIVE, 63grt. Sunk 35 miles E by N of (wi - in 52.31N, 02.30E) (+L/Mn/un/wi)

CORIANDER, 46grt. Sunk 20 miles ESE of (L/wi - 30-35 miles ESE from, in 52.41N, 02.29E) (+L/Mn/un/wi)

FITZGERALD, 51grt. Sunk 30 miles ESE of (L/wi - 30-35 miles ESE from, in 52.41N, 2-29E) (+L/Mn/un/wi)

Atlantic off SW Ireland

IBERIAN, 5,223/1900, Leyland Line/Fred Leyland & Co, Liverpool-reg, Mr Thomas Jago, Manchester/Liverpool for Boston with general cargo. Captured by U.28 (Georg-Günther Freiherr von Forstner), sunk by torpedo 9 miles S by W of Fastnet Rock (L/te/un - in 51.15N, 09.36W; wi - 9 miles SW of, in 51.18N, 09.40W); crew allowed to abandon ship, but 7 lost (+L/Mn/te/un/wi)


Saturday 31 July

Dover Straits

Galicia (1), passenger & cargo steamship, 5,922 (ms – 5,896)/1901, Pacific Steam Navigation Co, Liverpool, sailing London for Liverpool with general cargo. Mined, laid by UC.1 (Egon von Werner) 2 miles from N Goodwin LV, damaged, beached at Deal, refloated sometime before 10 August. Sunk 12 May 1917 (+L/ms/un)

Atlantic off Portugal

Chinkoa, cargo steamship, 5,222/1913, British India Steam Navigation Co. Chased by U-boat off Tagus estuary, escaped (+ms)




British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in August: 49 merchant ships totalling 148,464grt - 42 of 135,153grt to submarines, 7 of 13,311grt to mines, plus 38 fishing vessels totalling 2,890grt - 36 of 2,454grt to submarines, 2 of 436grt to mines (H)

U.26 probably sunk in August/September by Russian mine in Gulf of Finland


Sunday 1 August

North Sea

Two vessels sunk by UB.10 (Otto Steinbrinck) off Lowestoft:

FULGENS, 2,512/1912, Gas Light & Coke Co (Stephenson Clarke & Co), London-reg, 24 crew, Mr A Laird, Hartlepool for London with coal and 2 passengers, steaming at full speed. Torpedoed and sunk 1 mile off Palling/Sea Palling, between Cromer and Yarmouth (L/wi - 3 miles ESE of Haisbro’ LV, in 52.49.04N, 01.36.29E) (+L/te/un)

ALERT, sailing smack, 59grt, fishing. Captured by UB.10, set on fire and sank 18 miles NE of (L/un - 4 miles SE of Newarp LV; wi - in 52.42N, 02.05E) (+L/un/wi)


LARK, sail fishing boat, fishing. Sunk by unidentified U-boat off Lowestoft (wi - in 52.28N, 01.47E); crew believed escaped in their boat (+L/un/wi)

Atlantic off NW France

Three ships sunk by U.28 (Georg-Günther Freiherr von Forstner) off Ushant island, off NW Brittany:

CLINTONIA, 3,830/1907, Stag Line (J Robinson & Sons), North Shields-reg, Mr Geoffrey Donnelly, Marseilles for Tyne in ballast. Subjected to heavy gunfire, eventually stopped, sunk by torpedo 30 miles SW by W of; 10 lives lost - 5 Europeans and 5 Lascars drowned when a boat capsized, number of men were wounded during the chase (+L/Mn/te/un)

BENVORLICH, 3,381/1896, Ben Line/William Thomson & Co, Leith-reg, sailing Manila for London with general cargo (L/un - in ballast). Captured, sunk by torpedo 50 miles SW of (L - 30 miles W of) (+L/te/un)

RANZA, 2,320/1902, F H Barnett/David P Barnett, London, sailing Tyne for Gibraltar with coal. Overtaken by U.28 (Mn - U.68), ship abandoned, sunk by torpedo 50 miles SW of; 3 crew drowned. Note: U.68 not commissioned until 17/8/15 (+L/Mn/te/un)


Tuesday 3 August

Atlantic off SW England

COSTELLO, 1,591/1903, Atlantic & Eastern SS Co (J Glynn & Son), Liverpool-reg, Liverpool for Genoa with general cargo. Captured by U.28 (Georg-Günther Freiherr von Forstner), sunk by gunfire 95 miles W by S of Bishop Rock, Scillies (L/te/un - in 49.02N 08.30W); one life lost (+L/te/un)


Wednesday 4 August

North Sea

Como, cargo steamship, 1,246/1910, T Wilson Sons & Co, Hull. Chased by U-boat near North Ronaldshay, Orkneys, rescued (+ms)

GRIMBARIAN, trawler, 146/1894, T B Roberts, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Mined, probably surface-ship-laid (un – not included, so presumably not U-boat-laid), sank 56 miles E by N of Spurn Head, Humber; 6 lives lost (+L/Lr/gy)

Two sailing smacks on fishing grounds captured by UB.12 (Hans Nieland) and sunk by bombs 23 miles E by N of Lowestoft (L - 6 miles S of Smith’s Knoll Spar buoy; wi - in 52.36N, 02.20E) on 4th, crews possibly rescued by destroyer Firedrake on 5th:

CHALLENGER, 50grt (+L/bw/un/wi)

HELIOTROPE, 28grt (+L/bw/un/wi)

Atlantic off SW Ireland

MIDLAND QUEEN, 1,993/1901, Canada Steamship Lines, Midland, Ontario-reg, 21 crew, Sydney (CB) for Newport (Mon) with 2,200t steel bar/sheet/rod, nails, wire and 2 passengers. Captured by U.28 (Georg-Günther Freiherr von Forstner), sunk by gunfire 70 miles SW by W of Fastnet Rock (wi - in 50.35N, 10.50W; L - 70 miles SW of) (+L/te/un/wi)


Thursday 5 August

North Sea

Cito, cargo steamship, 819/1899, Thomas Wilson Sons & Co/Wilson Line, Hull. Chased by U-boat 2½m E by S of Aldeburgh Napes, escaped. Sunk 17 May 1917 (+ms)


Friday 6 August

North Sea

Two trawlers captured by U.38 (Max Valentiner) and sunk by bombs off Muckle Flugga rocks, off North Unst island, Shetlands:

OCEAN QUEEN, 185/1900, Aberdeen Fish Supply Association, Aberdeen-reg A175, Skipper R Robinson, Iceland for Grimsby with fish. Sunk 23 miles N by W of (wi - 25 miles NW of, in 61.05N, 01.35W) (+L/Lr/un/wi)

WESTMINSTER, 252/1906, Premier Steam Fishing Co, Grimsby-reg, fishing. Sunk 20 miles ESE of Muckle Flugga of (L - 30 miles E by S of Balta Sound; un – in 60.38N, 00.12E) (+L/Lr/gy/un)


Four sailing smacks on fishing grounds captured by UB.17 (Ralph Wenninger), sunk by bombs off Lowestoft:

C. E. S., 47grt. Sunk 42 miles ENE of (L - 7.5 miles E by S of Jim Howe Bank) (+L/un)

IVAN, 44/1907, W H Podd. Lowestoft. Sunk 42 miles ENE of (wi - in 52.40N, 02.35E) (+L/un/wi)

FISHERMAN, 24grt. Sunk 37 miles ENE of (wi - in 52.52N, 02.28E) (+L/un/wi)

HESPERUS, 57grt (un – 47grt). Sunk 37 miles ENE of (wi - in 52.38N, 02.42E) (+L/un/wi)


XMAS ROSE, ketch-rigged sailing smack, 27/1909, E Painter, Lowestoft-registered LT294, Lowestoft for fishing. (un – 8th) – Captured by UB.10 (Otto Steinbrinck) and sunk by bombs off Lowestoft (wi - in 52.28N, 01.47E). Note: see also Arbor Vitae listed below, on 8th (+L/bm/un/wi)

Atlantic off SW England

Highland Harris, cargo & passenger steamship, 6,032/1904, Nelson Line (Liverpool) Ltd (H & W Nelson), London. Chased by U-boat north of Scillies, escaped. Sunk 6/7 August 1918 (+ms) 


Saturday 7 August

German Minefield - Moray Firth field of nearly 400 mines laid by German auxiliary minelayer Meteor (1,912grt, ex-British Vienna seized Hamburg 4/8/14), night of 7th/8th to foul the approach to Cromarty and the Grand Fleet base of Invergordon, discovered the morning of the 8th by a minesweeping trawler


Sunday 8 August

Barents Sea 

BENARTHUR, 2,029(ms – 1,965)/1889, R T Arthurs & Co, Glasgow-reg, sailing Archangel for Clyde with sawn goods. Mined 8 miles SE of Orloff LH, Kola Peninsula (L - about 8 miles S of), presumably Meteor-laid field, beached and wrecked (Lr - stranded, refloated 8/15) (+L/Lr/ms)

North Sea

One vessel sunk, a second possibly attacked by U.17 (Hans Walther):

GLENRAVEL, 1,092/1906, Antrim Iron Ore Co, Belfast-reg, 14 crew, Mr A Cameron, Belfast for Leith with 800t iron ore and general cargo. U.17 approached around 0650 from two miles distant, Glenravel headed for the nearest land at top speed, from 0700 for the next hour several shells fell close until the U-boat came up within a quarter mile, ship stopped, crew took to the boats and Germans went alongside. Explosive scuttling charges placed below decks and Glenravel slowly sank stern first at 1025, 25 miles N of Kinnairds Head, Fraserburgh (L/wi - 12 miles NNE of, in 57.54N, 01.53W); crew headed for shore, met and taken in tow by Fraserburgh lifeboat Lady Rothes, landed at Fraserburgh (+L/te/un/wi)

Edenside, cargo steamship, 322/1909, T Rose. Chased by U-boat off Rattray Head, N of Peterhead, escaped (+ms)


ARBOR VITAE, sailing smack, 26grt, fishing. Captured by UB.10 (Otto Steinbrinck), sunk by bomb 35 miles NE by N of Lowestoft (wi - in 52.50N, 02.20E). Note: see also Xmas Rose listed above, on 6th (+L/un/wi)


Monday 9 August

German auxiliary minelayer Meteor, 1,912grt, ex-British Vienna seized Hamburg 4/8/14. First laid mines off north Russia, now on second mission to lay mines in North Sea, sank HMS Ramsey the day before, now in danger of interception by British light cruisers and scuttled

Atlantic off W Ireland

THRUSH, trawler, 264/1906, Pioneer Steam Fishing Co (Moody & Kelly), Grimsby-reg, fishing. Captured by U.39 (Max Valentiner), sunk by bomb 50 miles W of Eagle Is, off Co Mayo (+L/Lr/gy/un)


Tuesday 10 August

North Sea

UTOPIA (1), (H - merchant ship; L/ms/wi - steam trawler; un – fishing trawler converted to cargo ship), 155/1891, W A Leith & R W Lewis, Aberdeen-reg, Skipper J Smith, St Abbs for fishing. Captured by U.17 (Hans Walther) 12 miles E of St Abb's Head (L/un - 15 miles E of), 13 shells fired into her, sank around 1800 in 55.55N, 01.47W; crew spent 5 hours in boat, picked up by Danish SS Rodfare, landed from own boat in Leith Roads next day at 1100 (+L/ms/un/wi)

One vessel torpedoed, another captured by UB.10 (Otto Steinbrinck) off Norfolk:

ROSALIE (1), 4,243/1914, New Ruperra SS Co (J Cory & Sons), Cardiff-reg, Mr J Couch, Tyne for San Francisco. Torpedoed by UB.10 some 3 miles off Blakeney Buoy (L - off Blankney; wi - beached near Sheringham Beach, Cley-next-the-Sea, in 52.57.02N, 01.08.15E) (+L/te/un/wi)

ESPERANCE, sailing smack, 46grt, fishing. (un – 11th) - Sunk by gunfire 17 miles NE by E of Cromer (L/wi - 9 miles SSW of N Haisborough LV, off Happisburgh, in 52.54N, 01.30E) (+L/un/wi)

Bristol Channel

Moto, cargo steamship, 1,941/1913, Pelton Steam Shipping Co, Newcastle. U-boat torpedo missed. Lost in collision 10 December 1918 (+ms)


Wednesday 11 August

North Sea

Nine sailing smacks on fishing grounds captured by UB.10 (Otto Steinbrinck) and sunk by bombs mainly off Cromer, Norfolk, crews allowed to abandon ship according to normal practice. Note: lists a tenth sailing smack sinking (Esperence), but this is entered under the 10th. Such differences between and other sources may be due to the former using German sources, where times can differ from Allied ones by an hour. This is significant if actions take place around midnight:

GEORGE BORROW, 62grt. Sunk 15 miles ENE of (L - 6 miles off Haisborough LV; wi - in 53.01N, 1-41E) (+L/un/wi)

ILLUSTRIOUS, 59grt. Sunk 17 miles E by N of (L - 6-8 miles ENE of Haisborough LV, off Happisburgh; wi - in 52.57N, 01.32E) (+L/un/wi)

PALM, 47grt. Sunk 17 miles E by N of (L/wi - 6-8 miles ENE of Haisborough LV, in 52.57N, 01.32E) (+L/un/wi)

TREVEAR, 47grt. Sunk 17 miles E by N of (L - about 20 miles NE of; wi - in 52.57N, 01.32E) (+L/un/wi)

WELCOME, 56grt. Sunk 17 miles E by N of (L - 6-8 miles ENE of Haisborough LV; wi - in 52.57N, 01.32E) (+L/un/wi)

GEORGE CRABBE, 42grt. Sunk 16 miles E by N of (L/wi - 6-8 miles ENE of Haisborough LV, in 53.03N, 01.43E) (+L/un/wi)

YOUNG ADMIRAL, 60grt, possibly Lowestoft-reg LT349. (L/wi - 10th) - Sunk 17 miles E by N of (L/wi - 6-8 miles ENE of Haisborough LV, in 52.52N, 01.43E) (+L/lt/un/wi)

OCEAN'S GIFT, 60grt. Sunk 36 miles E of (L - 15-37 miles NE of; wi - in 52.58N, 02.18E) (+L/un/wi)

HUMPHREY, 41/1908, W H Podd, Lowestoft. Sunk 48 miles E ¾S of (+L/un)


LEADER (un – Leander), sailing smack, 57grt. UB.6 (Erich Haecker) surfaced to the SE about 3 miles off, closed and ordered crew to launch their boat which was used to carry over scuttling charges, sank 20 miles E by N of Lowestoft (L/un - 5 miles S of Smith’s Knoll Spar Buoy; wi - in 52.35N, 02.17E); crew allowed to return to the boat, U-boat then headed for naval-manned smack G. and E. which opened fire with her single 3pdr, claiming to sink the German (+L/Mn/un/wi)

Atlantic off S Ireland

OAKWOOD, 4,279/1903, Oakwood SS Co (J I Jacobs & Co), London, Swansea-reg, 35 crew, Mr G Nicholson, Liverpool for Cienfuegos in ballast. Captured by U.38 (Max Valentiner), sunk by gunfire 45 miles SSE of Old Head of Kinsale, Co Cork (L/wi - in 51.04N, 07.40W) (+L/te/un/wi)


Thursday 12 August

Norwegian Sea

GRODNO, 1,955/1912, Wilson Line/T Wilson, Sons & Co, Hull, sailing Hull for Archangel with general cargo. Captured by U.22 (Bruno Hoppe), sunk by torpedo 98 miles NW of Lofoten Is (L/te/un - in 68.55N, 09.08E; un – also in 69.11N, 09.08E) (+L/te/un)

North Sea

JACONA, 2,969/1889, Cairn Line, Dundee-reg, sailing Tees for Montreal with general cargo. Mined, sank 25 miles NNW of Troupe Head, near Banff, possibly Meteor-laid mine; 29 lives lost (+L/Lr)

SUNFLOWER, sailing smack, 60grt, Lowestoft for fishing. Captured by UB.5 (Wilhelm Smiths), sunk by bomb 30 miles E by N of Lowestoft (wi - in 52.33N, 02.30E) (+L/un/wi)

Bristol Channel

Woodfield (1), cargo steamship, 3,584/1905, Woodfield SS Co (Woods, Tylor & Brown), London, armed. U-boat torpedo missed. Sunk 3 November 1915 (+ms)

Atlantic off W Ireland

OSPREY (1), 310/1905, Hugh Flinn, Liverpool-reg, 8 crew, Mr D Elliot, Baltimore (Ire) for Cleggan with 146t salt in 1,465 barrels. Captured by U.24 (Rudolf Schneider), sunk by gunfire 40 miles NE by N of Nush Terragh, Co Kerry (L/un/wi - 30 miles WSW of Slyne Head; L/wi - in 53.30N, 10.40W) (+L/Lr/un/wi)


Friday 13 August

U-boat Warfare - Troop transport Royal Edward was first British merchant ship sunk in Mediterranean – with heavy casualties; French ammunition ship Carthage was sunk earlier on 4 July.

North Sea

PRINCESS CAROLINE, passenger ship, 888/1910, M Langlands & Son, Glasgow-reg, Mr W Taylor, Liverpool for Aberdeen with 900t general cargo, steering course from Noss Head to Kinnaird Head, stopped at 1800 by naval patrol boat and instructed “to steam three miles to the east to avoid a newly laid German minefield” and did so. Detonated mine aft at 2120 under No.4 hatch blowing covers & deck area into the air, sank about 3min later 14 miles N by E½E of Kinnaird Head, Fraserburgh (wi - in 57.56.30N, 02.02W), presumably Meteor-laid mine; four men missing, probably blown overboard by the explosion, survivors rowed to shore, landed at village of Pennan next day about 0700 (+L/ms/wi)

Two sailing smacks on fishing grounds captured by UB.5 (Wilhelm Smiths) and sunk by bombs:

E. M. W., 47grt. Sunk 29 miles NE by N of Cromer, Norfolk (L/un - 29 miles NE by N of Lowestoft; wi - 29 miles NE of Lowestoft, in 53.19N, 01.45E) (+L/wi)

J. W. F. T., 60grt. Sunk 29 miles NE by N of Cromer (L/un - 29 miles NE by N of Lowestoft; wi - in 53.19N, 01.45E) (+L/wi)


Two vessels sunk by UC.5 (Herbert Pustkuchen):

AMETHYST, trawler, 57grt, Lowestoft for fishing. Captured and sunk by bombs, 7 miles ESE of Lowestoft (wi - in 52.25.45N, 01.56E) (+L/un/wi)

SUMMERFIELD, 687/1913, Zillah Shipping & Carrying Co (W A Savage), Liverpool-reg, 10 crew, Mr G Hardle, Yarmouth for Douglas (IOM) with wooden huts (te - Tyne for Dublin with coal), steaming at 10kts. Mined, laid by UC.5, sank 2 miles E of Lowestoft, Suffolk (wi - in 52.28.25N, 01.48.45E); mate, chief engineer and the mate’s wife, who was the stewardess, were lost (+L/te/tr/un/wi)

St George's Channel

CAIRO (1), 1,671/1882, Glasgow Navigation Co (Maclay & McIntyre), Glasgow-reg, 18 crew, Mr M Halcrow, Glasgow for Huelva with general cargo and 3 passengers. Captured by U.24 (Rudolph Schnieder), sunk by gunfire 34 miles SSW of Tuskar Rock, off Rosslare (L - 28 miles S30ºW of; un – in 51.44N, 06.33W; wi - in 51.38N 06.35W) (+L/te/un/wi)

Aegean Sea

ROYAL EDWARD, troopship/transport, passenger ship, 11,117/1908, Royal Line (un – Canadian Northern Steamships), Toronto-reg, 220 crew, Mr P Wotton, Avonmouth and Alexandria for Mudros with drafts for British 29th Division, RAMC and Labour Corps totalling 31 officers and 1,335 men plus government stores, total on board 1,586. Torpedoed aft by UB.14 (Heino von Heimburg), sank rapidly by the stern 6 miles W of Kandeliusa island, near Kos island (L/un/wd - in 36.31N, 26.51E; dx - 4 miles S of); 997 lives lost in total – 13 military officers, 852 other ranks and 132 crew including master (dk - included 4 naval stokers; ge/un - 866 lives lost; wd - 935 lost, 651 survivors rescued by hospital ship Soudan, two French destroyers and trawlers. HMSO figure is crew only) (+L/Rn/dk/dx/ge/me/te/un/wd)


Saturday 14 August

North Sea

GLORIA, trawler, 130/1898, Wear Steam Fishing Co, Sunderland-reg, fishing. Captured by U.17 (Hans Walther), sunk by gunfire 55 miles E by N of Aberdeen (L - in 57.25N, 00.51W) (+L/Lr/un)

WHITE CITY, sailing smack, c45grt. Captured by UB.5 (Wilhelm Smiths), sunk by bombs at Cromer Knoll, off Norfolk (L/wi - near Cromer, in 52.58N, 01.20E) (+L/un/wi)

BONA FIDE, sailing smack, 59grt. Captured by UB.4 (Karl Gross), sunk by bombs 35 miles ENE of Lowestoft (wi - in 52.50N, 2.25E) (+L/un/wi)

Highland Corrie, passenger & cargo steamship, 7,583/1910 (ms – 7,344grt), Nelson Steam Navigation Co (H & W Nelson), London, Liverpool-reg, sailing La Plata for London with bananas and meat. Mined, laid by UC.1 (Egon von Werner) 3 miles ENE of N Foreland (L/un - in 51.52N, 01.32E), damaged, reached Tilbury. Sunk 16 May 1917 (+L/ms/un)

St George's Channel

Start Point, cargo steamship, 3,840/1912, Norfolk & North American SS Co (Furness Withy), West Hartlepool. Chased by U-boat 10 miles SE of Tuskar Rock, escaped. Believed sunk 28 December 1917 as SS Maxton (+ms)


Sunday 15 August

UB.4 sunk by Q-ship fishing smack lnverlyon off Yarmouth.


Monday 16 August

Baltic Sea

SERBINO, 2,205/1913, Wilson Line/T Wilson, Sons & Co, Hull, sailing Riga for Petrograd with iron goods and machinery. Torpedoed by U.9 (Johannes Spiess), sank off Worm LH, now Vormsi Saxby Light, Vormsi island, NW Estonia (+L/te/un)


Tuesday 17 August

North Sea

Eimstad, 689 (ms – 692)/1908, Grefstad & Herlofson, Arendal, Norway, presumably on British-charter, Mr F Holder. Hailed by submarine about 1 mile N of Cross Sand LV, off Norfolk, U-boat opened fire, fired 11 rounds all of which missed, torpedo also missed. Master doused lights and attempted to ram, submarine disappeared and Eimstad escaped in the darkness. Sunk 24 March 1917 as SS Ennistown (+Mn/ms)

Cromer, cargo ship, 812/1902, Great Eastern Railway Co, Harwich. U-boat torpedo missed (+ms)

St George's Channel/Atlantic off SW England

Six British vessels (three Admiralty colliers) and probably a tenth ship captured by U.38 (Max Valentiner) and all sunk, except ss Matje which escaped:

PAROS, 3,596/1898, Shipping Controller/Admiralty (Turner, Brightman & Co), London-reg,, requisitioned by Admiralty, sailing Karachi for Manchester with wheat. Torpedoed and sunk 30 miles W by N of Bardsey Is, off Caernarvonshire (wi - in 52.43N, 05.40W, also 52.45N, 05.35W) (+L/te/un/wi)

MAGGIE, 269/1907, James Henry Monks Ltd, Preston, Liverpool-reg, 6 crew, Mr G Whittaker, Youghal for Fleetwood in ballast. Sunk by gunfire 8 miles E of South Arklow Banks, off Arklow (wi - in 52.42N, 05.46.30W) (+L/Lr/unwi)

REPEAT, trawler, 107/1913, R J Tripp, Lowestoft-reg, Skipper O Durrant, Lowestoft for fishing. Sunk by gunfire 18 miles W by S of Bardsey Is (wi - in 52.40N, 05.15W) (+L/Lr/un/wi)

Matje, 278grt. U-boat gun attack (presumed U.38) 43 miles N by E of South Bishops, rescued

THORNFIELD, 488/1913, Zillah Shipping & Carrying Co (W A Savage), Liverpool-reg, Mr T Williamson, London for Peel (IOM) with wooden huts. Sunk by gunfire 25 miles NNE of The Smalls (wi - around 7 miles NW of Strumble Head, in 52.05N, 05.15W) (+L/Lr/un/wi)

BONNY (H - Bonney), passenger ship, 2,702/1891, British & African Steam Navigation Co (Elder Dempster & Co), Liverpool-reg, 37 crew, Mr G Logsdail, Marseilles for Liverpool in ballast. Sunk by gunfire 16 miles S by E of Tuskar Rock, off Rosslare (L - in 52N, 6W; wi - 51.57.30N, 06.02W) (+L/ms/te/un/wi)

GEORGE BAKER, fishing vessel (L/un - trawler), 91grt, fishing. Captured, sunk by gunfire 45 miles N of Bishop Rock, Scillies (+L/un)


Wednesday 18 August

St George's Channel

City of Liverpool, 1,101 (ms – 1,106)/1872, Palgrave, Murphy & Co, Dublin. U-boat gun attack 40 miles SSW of The Smalls, rescued (+ms)

Atlantic off SW England

Lady Wolseley, passenger & cargo steamship, 1,424/1894, British & Irish Steam Packet Co, Dublin, armed. U-boat gun attack 55 miles NE¼E of Longships, saved by own gunfire. Foundered 25 October 1916 (+ms)


Thursday 19 August

U-boat Warfare - In spite of German assurances that large passenger liners would not be attacked, British liner Arabic sunk without warning with the loss of 2 or 3 US citizens. Strong US protests led to German claim she was zig-zagging and as a single-funnelled vessel, not easily identified as a liner. Germany shortly extended assurances to small passenger ships. "The Baralong Incident" - U.27 sunk by Q-ship Baralong in Atlantic off SW England.

Atlantic off S & SW Ireland

Four, possibly five vessels attacked by U.24 (Rudolf Schneider):

DUNSLEY, 4,930/1913, London & Northern SS Co (Pyman Bros), London-reg, Mr P Arkley, Liverpool for Boston (Mass) with general cargo. Captured by U.24, sunk by gunfire 48 miles S by W of Old Head of Kinsale, Co Cork (L/te/wi - in 50.50N, 08.30W; un – in 50.55N, 08.18W); crew allowed to abandon ship but 2 lives lost (+L/Mn/te/un/wi)

ARABIC, passenger ship, 15,801/1903, Oceanic Steam Navigation Co (Ismay, Imrie & Co), Liverpool-reg, 261 crew, Mr S Finch, Liverpool for New York with 86 passengers and general cargo including mails, zig-zagging at 16kts. Torpedoed starboard side by U.24, sank within 15min, 50 miles S by W½W of Old Head of Kinsale (L/te/un/wd/wi - in 50.50N, 08.32W; wi - also 48 miles SSW of); 26 crew, 18 passengers lost including some Americans (un – 40 in total) (+L/Mn/ge/te/un/wd/wi)

NEW YORK CITY, 2,970/1907, Bristol City Line (un – Chas Hill & Sons), Bristol-reg, 30 crew, Mr H Barclay, Bristol/Swansea for New York with general cargo. Captured by U.24, sunk by gunfire 44 miles SSE of Fastnet Rock (L/te/un - in 51N, 08.50W; un – also in 50.57N, 08.38W; wi - 35 miles S of Old Head of Kinsale, in 50.52N, 08.50W) (+L/te/un/wi)

ST. OLAF, 3-masted wooden schooner, 277/1903, Pugsley's Shipping Co, Parrsborough (NS)-reg, 8 crew, Mr B Tower, Llanelly for Parrsboro' (NS) in ballast. Captured by U.24, sunk by gunfire 58 miles off Galley Head, Co Cork (un – in 50.33N, 08.29W; wi - in 50.35N, 09.00W); crew picked up by SS Rollans (+L/Lr/un/wi)

Bovic, passenger & cargo steamship, 6,583/1893, Ismay, Imrie & Co, Liverpool. Chased by U-boat off S Ireland, escaped (+ms)

Atlantic off SW England

British steamship (and an Admiralty collier) sunk by U.27 (Bernd Wegener). An attack on a third vessel led to U.27 being sunk by HMS Baralong and the resulting "Baralong Incident":

GLADIATOR, 3,359/1904, Charente SS Co (T & J Harrison), Liverpool/Cardiff for Pernambuco with general cargo. (te/un - 18th; un – or 19th) - Captured by U.27, sunk by gunfire 68 miles N by W of Bishop Rock (L - 50 miles N by W of Scilly) (+L/te/un)

Nicosian, cargo steamship, 6,369/1912, Leyland Line, Liverpool, sailing New Orleans for Liverpool, carrying mules. (L - 20th) - stopped at 1500 by U.27, 73 miles S by W of Old Head of Kinsale (L - in 50.22N, 08.12W; dx - 50.43N, 07.22W; ge - c100 miles S of Queenstown), Q-ship Baralong was nearby, sighted Nicosian and received signals she had been captured by one or two U-boats. Baralong, still with real identity intact headed as if to pick up Nicosian's crew from their boats, the U-boat passed behind the stopped ship to intercept the new arrival and when she appeared again, Baralong had the White Ensign hoisted and opened a heavy fire from 600yds which soon sank U.27. As Baralong picked up Nicosian's crew, Germans were seen swimming for the stopped ship and fearing they would board and scuttle her, opened fire on them in the water. Four Germans managed to reach her and disappeared below. With guns and ammunition onboard, Baralong sent her small Royal Marine contingent across to hunt them down, no doubt on a "shoot-on-sight" basis, before they could do any damage. All four were killed. Nicosian's crew returned and brought her into Bristol holed by U-boat shells (un – not listed in as damaged). On the bases of reports by some of the American muleteers carried by Nicosian, the Germans described the incident as an atrocity and demanded the crew of Baralong be tried for murder and punished. Britain agreed to an impartial tribunal as long as the enquiry included the sinkings of liner Arabic, firing on the boats of collier Ruel and the attack on E.13 in neutral waters. The Germans dropped their demands although still threatened reprisals (+L/Rn/Mn/dx/ge/ms)


Friday 20 August 

Atlantic off NW France

Two British steamships and a schooner captured by U.38 (Max Valentiner) and sunk by gunfire off Ushant:

BITTERN, 1,797/1912, Cork SS Co, Cork-reg, sailing Clyde for Leghorn with coal, general cargo. Sunk 50 miles NW of (L/te/un - in 48.53N, 06.18W) (+L/te/un)

CARTERSWELL, 4,308/1914, Northern SS Co (G N Patterson & Co), Newcastle-reg, sailing Galveston/Newport News for Havre with wheat. Sunk 65 miles NW of (L - 70 miles W of) (+L/te/un)

MARTHA EDMONDS, 3-mast schooner, 182/1873, E Rillston, Fowey-reg, sailing Rouen for Seville with silversand. Sunk 62 miles WNW of (L - in 48.39N, 06.40W) (+L/Lr/un)


Saturday 21 August

U-boat warfare - UC.5 was the first minelayer to penetrate the English Channel

Dover Straits

WILLIAM DAWSON, 284/1872, J M Lennard, Middlesbrough-reg, sailing Boston (Lincs) for Dunkirk with coal. Mined, laid that morning by UC.5 (Herbert Pustkuchen), sank off Boulogne (L/un - 1 mile from); 5 lives lost (+L/Lr/ge/un)

Atlantic off SW England

Five steamships believed attacked by U.38 (Max Valentiner), one a tanker, the others all believed colliers:

RUEL, 4,029/1913, Turnbull Bros Shipping Co, Cardiff-reg, Mr Henry Story, Malta for Barry Roads in ballast. Captured by U.38, sunk by gunfire 45 miles SW of Bishop Rock, Scillies (un/wi - in 49.25N, 07.10W; wi - also 45 miles SW of Scillies,); one life lost reportedly when the lifeboats were fired on (+L/Mn/dx/ge/os/te/un/wi)

COBER, 3,060/1904, London & Northern SS Co (Pyman Bros), London-reg, Mr John Peterfield, Cardiff for Buenos Aires with coal. Captured by U.38, sunk by torpedo 45 miles SSW of Scillies (L/te/un/wi - in 49.10N, 06.30W) (+L/Mn/te/un/wi)

WINDSOR, 6,055/1911 (un – 1912), Windsor SS Co & Manchester SS Co (Evan Thomas, Radcliffe & Co), London, sailing Barry for Leghorn/Livorno with coal. Captured by U.38, sunk by gunfire 70 miles SW½S of Wolf Rock, near Lands End (+L/te/un)

Westbury, cargo steamship, 3,097/1904, Alexander Shipping Co (Capper, Alexander & Co), Glasgow. Gun attack 50 miles S of Wolf Rock, rescued. Admiralty collier when sunk 31 August 1917 (+ms/un)

San Melito, tanker, 10,160/1914, Eagle Oil Transport Co, London, Mr James Jackson, sailing London for Mexico. U.38 sighted at 1450, 70 miles SW of Lizard Point, ship turned away, hit starboard side and master concussed, chief officer took over command, chase and shelling continued until c1500, patrol craft came up and the submarine dived, tanker damaged (+L/Mn/ms/un)


Sunday 22 August

Atlantic off S Ireland

Avocet (1), passenger steamship 1,219/1885, Avocet SS Co (Yeoward Bros) (tl – purchased in 1907 from Cork SS Co), Liverpool-reg. Chased by U-boat(s) twice that day, escaped. Sunk 19 April 1917 (+ms)

Atlantic off SW England

Two steamships captured by U.38 (Max Valentiner) and sunk by gunfire off the Scillies:

DIOMED (1), 4,672/1895, Ocean SS Co (A Holt & Co), Liverpool-reg, 55 crew, Mr J Myles, Liverpool for Shanghai with general cargo. Chased for 45min then sunk 57 miles WNW of (L - 30 miles W of; un/wi - in 50.21N, 06.40W); 10 crew lost including master, survivors picked up by RN destroyer (+L/Mn/te/un/wi)

PALMGROVE, 3,100/1896, Alexander & Mair, Glasgow-reg, Mr J Small, Clyde for Porto-Vecchio with coal. Sunk 46 miles W by N½N of Bishop Rock (L/te/wi - in 49.52N, 07.40W; un/wi - also 40 miles W by N½N of Scillies) (+L/te/un/wi)


Monday 23 August

North Sea

COMMANDER BOYLE, trawler, 290/1915, Hellyers Steam Fishing, Hull-reg H353, fishing. Mined, believed laid by Meteor, sank 40 miles N by W of Rattray Head, N of Peterhead; 3 lives lost (+L/Lr/hw)

Three sailing smacks on fishing grounds, captured by UB.12 (Hans Nieland) and sunk by bombs:

INTEGRITY, ketch-rigged, 52/1902, G T Hume, Lowestoft-reg LT930. Sunk 24 miles ESE of Cromer, Norfolk (L/wi - 18 miles E of Haisborough LV, in 53.01N, 02.02E; un – Hoofden area) (+L/bm/un/wi)

BOY BERT, 57/1902, W H Podd, Lowestoft. Sunk 50 miles E of Lowestoft (L - 56 miles E of) (+L/un)

YOUNG FRANK, 49/1902, W H Podd, Lowestoft. (L/un - 25th) - Sunk 38 miles NE by E½E of Lowestoft, Suffolk (L - 38 miles NE by E of; un – 38 miles N by E of; wi - in 52.40N, 02.40E) (+L/un/wi)

Atlantic off SW Ireland

British steamship (and an Admiralty chartered red-ensign oiler) stopped by U.38 (Max Valentiner) and sunk with bombs off Fastnet Rock, off Co Cork:

TRAFALGAR, 4,572/1911, Glasgow Shipowners Co (Glen & Co), Glasgow-reg, 31 crew, Mr W Peter (wi - on Admiralty charter), Mejillones for Clyde with nitrates. Sunk 54 miles SW by W of (L - 54 miles SW of; wi - in 50.39N, 10.27W) (+L/te/un/)


Sunday 29 August

North Sea

SIR WILLIAM STEPHENSON, 1,540/1906, Tyne-Tees SS Co, Newcastle-reg, 22 crew, Mr T Storm, Newcastle for London with 700t general cargo, steaming at 12kts. Mined, laid by UC.6 (Matthias Graf von Schmettow), exploded beneath engine & boiler rooms at 0530, ½m off Great Yarmouth beach, Norfolk, about 30yd from Cockle LV (wi - in 52.35.34N, 01.45.01E), taken in tow for Yarmouth Roads where she sank; 2 firemen killed by explosion, survivors landed at Yarmouth (+L/te/un/wi)


Monday 30 August

North Sea

One steamship lost and a second damaged in minefield laid by UC.5 (Herber Pustkuchen) off Longsand LV, off Clacton:

HONITON, 4,914/1916, Tatem Steam Navigation Co, Cardiff, sailing Buenos Aires for Hull with linseed, maize. Mined 2½m E of (L - ½m S by E of), beached at Shoeburyness, declared total loss (+L/te/un)

Bretwalda, cargo steamship, 4,037/1911, Hall Bros SS Co, Newcastle, sailing Newcastle for Marseilles with coal. Mined 3 miles E of (L - 3 miles E by N of), damaged, towed in, beached on Mucking Flat, Canvey Is area, refloated. Sunk 13 December 1916 (+L/ms/un)

Atlantic off SW England

Baron Polwarth, cargo steamship, 4,913/1911, H Hogarth & Sons, Ardrossan. Chased by U-boat west of Scillies, escaped (+ms)




British Merchant Vessels Lost to Enemy Action in September: 30 merchant ships totalling 101,690grt - 22 of 89,693grt to submarines, 8 of 11,997grt to mines, plus 8 fishing vessels totalling 445grt - 6 of 292grt to submarines, 2 of 153grt to mines (H) 


Wednesday 1 September

North Sea

One steamship (and two Admiralty trawlers), mined and sunk in field laid by UC.7 (Franz Wäger) the day before off the Shipwash, off Orford Ness:

SAVONA, 1,180/1881, Leith, Hull & Hamburg Steam Packet Co (J Currie & Co), Leith-reg, Mr W Dickson, Oran for Leith with esparto grass and lead ingots/pigs. Sank ½m off Shipwash LV (L/wi - 0.5 miles N of, in 52.01.37N, 01.38.16E); 3 lives lost. Wreck dispersed by Admiralty using explosives in 1922, 623t of lead salvaged in 1950 (+L/te/un/wi)

Atlantic off NW Scotland

WHITEFIELD, 2,422/1891, Whitefield SS Co (ms – MacLean, Doughty & Co; un – E James; both West Hartlepool), Mr Henry John, Archangel for Clyde/Nice (te - Tyne) with wheat. Came under fire from U.33 (Konrad Gansser), attempted to escape but stopped, sunk by gunfire 95 miles N by W of Cape Wrath (L/te - in 60N, 06.40W) (+L/Mn/ms/te/un)


Thursday 2 September

Atlantic W of Scotland

ROUMANIE, 2,599/1892, New Line SS Co (R Mackie & Co), Leith, sailing Archangel for Clyde with wood. Captured by U.20 (Walther Schweiger), sunk by bombs 40 miles NNW of St Kilda island, W of Outer Hebrides (L - 35 miles NNW of) (+L/te/un)

Atlantic off SW Ireland

W. T. Lewis (L/Mn/un - William T Lewis), 4-masted barque, 2,166/1891, A P Rolph, Greenock, sailing Everett for Sheerness with timber. (L - 3rd) - Captured by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), 95 miles W by N of Fastnet (L/un - in 50.55N, 11.47W), fired at and damaged, escaped (un – under tow, damaged by U.20 two days later, but again did not sink) towed into Castletown (Berehaven). The U-boat was on passage for the Dardanelles (+L/Mn/un)

Aegean Sea

Southland, troopship/transport, passenger ship, 11,899/1900, International Navigation Co, Liverpool, armed, sailing Alexandria for Mudros carrying 61 officers and 1,373 other ranks, mainly 2nd Australian Division. Torpedoed by UB.14 (Heino von Heimburg) south of Strati island, 30 miles short of Mudros, seriously damaged, but still afloat after two hours due to efforts of engineering staff, naval and military volunteers. Patrol destroyer Racoon arrived and got her into Mudros that evening, seaplane carrier Ben-my-Chree may have done the towing; no crew listed as casualties, 24 military personnel lost their lives (ge – 40 lives lost), survivors taken off by ship’s boats, transport Neuralia picked them up (Cn – Ben-my-Chree took off 300 survivors). Sunk 4 June 1917 (+L/Rn/Cn/ge/me/ms/un)


Saturday 4 September

Natal Transport was the first recorded British merchant ship lost in the Mediterranean to a U-boat

Atlantic off SW Ireland

HESPERIAN, passenger ship, 10,920/1908, Allan Line SS Co (Allan Bros & Co), Glasgow, Montreal-reg, armed, Mr Maine, Liverpool for Quebec/Montreal with general cargo, total of 653 passengers and crew. Torpedoed by U.20 (Walther Schweiger), 85 miles SW by S of Fastnet Rock, off Co Cork (L/wd - in 50.03N, 10.10W), warships responded to her SOS, taken in tow for Queenstown (Cobh) with captain and skeleton crew on board, but sank (L - 130 miles W of Queenstown; L/un - on 6th); 32 lives lost, including a MN matron and stewardess in the attack (+L/Mn/ge/te/tr/un/wd)

British steamship (and an Admiralty chartered red-ensign oiler) captured and sunk by U.33 (Konrad Gansser), then on passage for the Dardanelles, off Fastnet Rock:

MIMOSA, 3,466/1905, Anglo-American Oil Co, Liverpool, Mr T Hugo, sailing New York for Belfast with oil. Sunk by gunfire 137 miles SW by W of (L/te - in 49.40N, 12W; un – in 49.26N, 12.00W). U-boat commander told the crew he would inform the first trawler he saw to pick them up (+L/Mn/te/un)

Atlantic off SW England

Crossby, cargo steamship, 3,893/1907, R Harrowing & Co, Whitby. Chased by U-boat 200 miles W of Bishop Rock, escaped (+ms)

Central Mediterranean

NATAL TRANSPORT, 4,107/1910, Empire Transport Co (Houlder Bros & Co), West Hartlepool, 34 crew, Mr W Davison, Bombay for Liverpool with general cargo, departed Port Said early afternoon on 2nd, sharp lookout kept for submarines. Gun heard and fall of shot seen, U.34 (Claus Rücker) sighted 3 or 4 miles astern, two more shots arrived, one ahead and one astern, forecastle head then hit, after 15min under fire the ship stopped and crew got away, firing continued and she sank 40 miles W of Gavdo Is, off SW Crete (L - 30 miles W of); crew rowed to Crete in the dark and got ashore with help of British Consul at Canea (+L/Mn/te/un)


Sunday 5 September

Atlantic off SW Ireland & SW England

Two steamships heading for Liverpool with general cargo captured by U.20 (Walther Schweiger) and sunk by gunfire:

DICTATOR (1), 4,116/1891, Charente SS Co (T & J Harrison), Liverpool, sailing from Pernambuco. Sank 135 miles S by W of Fastnet Rock (L/te/un - in 49.09N, 08.58W) (+L/te/un)

DOURO, 1,604/1881, Papayanni Line/Ellerman Lines (F Swift/Graham Smith, managers), London, sailing from Oporto. Sank 79 miles SW by W of Bishop Rock, Scillies (L/te/un - in 48.55N, 07.48W) (+L/te/un)


Monday 6 September

North Sea

Fulmar (2), cargo steamship, 1,270/1902, Cork Steam Shipping Co, Cork. Aircraft attack 9 miles W of North Hinder, bombs missed. Sunk 24 March 1916 (+ms)

Atlantic off NW Spain

JOHN HARDIE, 4,372/1906, Clutha Shipping Co (J Hardie & Co), Glasgow, sailing Java for Clyde with sugar. Captured by U.33 (Konrad Gansser), sunk by gunfire 98 miles W by S of Cape Finisterre (L/te/un - in 42.10N, 11.15W); one life lost (+L/Mn/te/un)


Tuesday 7 September

North Sea

Four sailing smacks on fishing grounds captured by U-boats and sunk by bombs 44 miles ESE of Lowestoft, Suffolk.

By UB.2 (Werner Fürbringer):

CONSTANCE (2), 57grt, (un – 44 miles SE of) (+L/un)

EMMANUEL, ketch-rigged, 44/1905, William F White, Lowestoft-reg LT169 (L - 40 miles off; un – 44 miles SE of) (+L/bm/un)

By UB.16 (Hans Valentiner) (un – 8th in Yarmouth area, but date uncertain)

EMBLEM (2), ketch-rigged, 1899, 50grt, William F White, Lowestoft-reg LT97 (+L/bm/un)

VICTORIOUS (1), 43grt (+L/un)


John Evelyn, sailing vessel, 57grt. Bombed and damaged by Zeppelin rigid airship in London's Millwall Dock (L only)

Bay of Biscay

CARONI, 2,652/1904, Royal Mail Steam Packet Co, Newcastle-reg, sailing London for Bordeaux with stores. Shelled and captured by U.20 (Walther Schweiger) in the evening, sunk by torpedo 15 miles W of Chassiron Point, Ile d'Oleron, off La Rochelle (+L/Mn/te/un)

Leicestershire, passenger & cargos steamship, 8,059 (ms – 8,040)/1909, Bibby Bros & Co, Liverpool. Chased by U-boat, escaped (+ms)


Wednesday 8 September

Dover Straits

MONARCH, cable ship, 1,122/1883, HM Postmaster General (Telegraph Department), London-reg, 73 crew, Mr R Draper, Santandar for Newport. Mined, one of six laid by UC.5 (Herbert Pustkuchen) on the 7th, sank 2½m S of Folkestone “Gate” (wi - in 51.02.11N, 01.13.44E); 3 crew lost, survivors rescued by patrol boats. Wreck positively identified in 1986 when a plate with her crest and the ship’s bell were recovered (+L/ge/te/un/wi)

Bay of Biscay

MORA, 3,047/1899, English & American Shipping Co (C T Bowring & Co), sailing Santander for Newport (Mon) with ore. Captured by U.20 (Walther Schweiger), sunk by gunfire 68 miles W by S of Belle Ile, W of St Nazaire (L/te/un - in 46.50N, 04.40W) (+L/te/un)


Thursday 9 September

North Sea

DEVONIAN, trawler, 128/1896, Allen Steam Fishing, Skipper H Kew, Grimsby-reg, fishing. (gy - 8th) - Foundered, probably mined, perhaps surface-ship-laid (un – not included, so presumably not U-boat-laid), 30 miles NE½N of Spurn Head or LV, Humber (wi - in 54N, 00.45E); 9 lives lost including skipper (+L/Lr/gy/wi)

Western Mediterranean

CORNUBIA, 1,736/1889, Cornubia SS Co (R B Chellew), Falmouth-reg, Alexandria/Cartagena for Clyde with beans. Captured by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), sunk by gunfire 75 miles SE by S of Cartagena, Spain (L/te/un - in 36.46N, 00.15E) (+L/Mn/te)


Friday 10 September

North Sea

Two sailing smacks on fishing grounds captured by U-boats and sunk by bombs:

BOY ERNIE, ketch-rigged, 47/1905, Ernest J Crews (un – S J Chadd & Edith Waller), Lowestoft-reg LT383. Sunk by UB.2 (Werner Fürbringer), 58 miles E of Cromer, Norfolk (+L/bm/un)

NIMROD, 51/1892, W H Podd, Lowestoft-reg LT489. Sunk by UB.16 (Hans Valentiner), 45 miles E by S of Lowestoft, Suffolk (+L/un)


Antilochus, cargo ship, 9,039/1906, A Holt & Co, Liverpool, armed. U-boat gun attack, saved by own gunfire (+ms)


Sunday 12 September

North Sea

ASHMORE, 2,519/1899, Adam SS Co (Adam & Co), Aberdeen-reg, chartered by Belgian Relief Commission, sailing Rosario for Rotterdam with maize. Mined, laid by UC.3 (Erwin Weisbach), sank 5 miles E½N of Kentish Knock LV (wi - in 51.40.39N, 01.47.47E); 4 crew lost. At the time believed torpedoed, only confirmed as mine later (+L/Mn/te/un/wi)


Wednesday 15 September

U.6 sunk by British submarine E.16 off Stavanger, Norway

Black Sea

PATAGONIA, 6,011/1913, Patagonia SS Co (E Thomas, Radcliffe & Co), London, Mr D Davies, in service as Russian naval transport, sailing Odessa for Nicolaieff in ballast. Torpedoed aft by UB.7 (Wilhelm Werner), sank 10½m NE of Odessa, Ukraine (L - 10½m E by N of) (+L/Mn/ge/rf/te/un)


Thursday 16 September

Dover Straits

AFRICA, 1,038/1903, Bennett SS Co, Goole-reg, sailing London for Boulogne with general cargo. Mined, laid by UC.6 (Matthias Graf von Schmettow), sank 1½m off Kingsdown, near Deal (un – beached at Deal but total loss); 2 lives lost (+L/te/un)


Saturday 18 September

U-boat Warfare - following US protests over the sinking of Arabic (19 August) and Hesperian (4 September) and because of limited success with the unrestricted submarine campaign, it was decided that by the end of September U-boats should: (1) stop attacks off the west coast of the British Isles and in the English Channel. (2) carry out attacks in the North Sea strictly according to prize rules. (3) transfer their main area of operations to the Mediterranean where there was less chance of meeting US ships or killing their citizens. There were no shipping losses to U-boat attack in the restricted areas in October and November, although they restarted in December

Dover Straits

Two British vessels (and an Admiralty trawler) mined, all believed laid by UC.6 (Matthias Graf von Schmettow) three days before:

San Zeferino, tanker, 6,430/1914, Eagle Oil Transport Co, London, sailing Puerto Mexico for Sheerness with oil fuel. Damaged 2 miles NNW of S Goodwin LV, beached, refloated some time before 15 October; 2 lives lost (+L/ms/un)

Nigretia, cargo ship, 3,187/1910, Beaver Shipping Co (Palin Evans & Co), Bristol, sailing Hull for Rouen with coal. (L/un - 27th) - Damaged off S Foreland (L/un - near S Goodwin LV), beached on Shingles Bank, refloated (+L/ms/un)


Sunday 19 September

Central Mediterranean

RAMAZAN, Indian troopship/transport, cargo steamship, 3,477/1905, Liverpool Shipping Co (H Fernie & Sons), 29 crew, sailing for Salonica with government war stores and carrying 7 military officers and 382 other ranks. (me – 9th) - Captured by U.35 (Waldermar Kophamel) (other sources - U.34 ) out of Cattaro, sunk by gunfire 55 miles SW of Cerigotto Is/Antikythira, off NW Crete; 312 lives lost – 3 military officers, 308 other ranks and one crew lost (Mn – 315 lives, including 314 Indians) (+L/Mn/ge/me/te/un)


Monday 20 September

North Sea

HORDEN, 1,434/1906, Burnett SS Co, Newcastle, sailing London for Hartlepool in ballast. Mined, laid by UC.6 (Matthias Graf von Schmettow), sank ½m E of Aldeburgh Napes Buoy, N of Orford Ness (L - 4.5 miles ESE of Aldeburgh) (+L/te/un)


Thursday 23 September

North Sea

GRONINGEN, passenger & cargo ship, 988/1902, General Steam Navigation Co, London-reg, sailing Harlingen for London with general cargo. Mined, laid by UC.6 (Matthias Graf von Schmettow), sank 1½m N by E of Sunk Head Buoy, off Harwich (wi - in 51.48.10N, 01.29.45E); one life lost (+L/ms/te/un/wi)

Atlantic off SW Ireland

Three steamships captured by U.41 (Claus Hansen) and sunk by gunfire off Fastnet Rock:

CHANCELLOR, 4,586/1895, Charente SS Co (T & J Harrison), Liverpool-reg, 43 crew, Mr R Donald, Liverpool for New Orleans with 2,500t general cargo, steaming at 9½kts. Sank 86 miles S by E of (L/te/un - in 50.08N, 08.17W; ge - 80 miles SW of; wi - in 50.10N, 08.35W) (+L/Mn/ge/te/un/wi)

HESIONE, 3,363/1889, British & South American Steam Navigation Co (R P Houston), Liverpool-reg, 40 crew, Mr A Thomason, Clyde/Liverpool for Buenos Aires with general cargo. Sank 86 miles S by E of (L/te/un/wi - in 50.15N, 08.30W; wi - also 70 miles S of Galley Head, Co Cork) (+L/Mn/ge/te/un/wi)

ANGLO-COLOMBIAN, 4,792/1907, Nitrate Producers' SS Co (Lawther, Latta & Co), London-reg, 145 crew, Mr A Westacott, Montreal/Quebec for Avonmouth with 831 horses. Sank 79 miles SE of (ge - about 80 miles SW of; wi - 79 miles S by E of, in 51N, 08.43W) (+L/ge/te/un/wi)


Friday 24 September

U.41 sunk by Q-ship steamer Baralong in Atlantic, 90 miles W of Ushant.

Atlantic off SW England

URBINO, 6,651/1915, Wilson Line/T Wilson, Sons & Co, Hull, sailing New York for Hull with general cargo. Captured by U.41 (Claus Hansen), sunk by gunfire 67 miles SW by W of Bishop Rock, Scillies. U.41 was then sunk by HMS Baralong which came up disguised as a neutral-flagged steamer (+L/Mn/te/un)


Sunday 26 September 

North Sea

Reverto, trawler, 177/1904, fishing. Mined, probably surface-ship-laid, damaged 90 miles E by S of Spurn LV, Humber. Went missing 18 September 1916 (L/ms)

VIGILANT, Harwich pilot sailing cutter, 69grt, out of Harwich. Mined, laid by UC.7 (Franz Wäger), 3 cables SE of S Shipwash Buoy, in 51.53.16N, 01.34.50E; 14 lives lost including master (+L/un/wi)


Wednesday 29 September

Central Mediterranean

HAYDN, 3,923/1906, Orpheus Shipping Co (Jenneson Taylor & Co), Sunderland, sailing Karachi for Glasgow with barley and general cargo. Captured by U.39 (Walter Forstmann), sunk by bombs 80 miles S by E½E of Gavdo Is, off SW Crete (L - 70 miles S of Crete; un – in 33.24N, 24.40E) (+L/Mn/te/un)


Thursday 30 September

English Channel

ALBION (1), sailing smack (wi - sloop), 25/1893, Brixham-reg BM160, Brixham for fishing. Mined, sank 8 miles S by W of Berry Head, Devon (wi - in 50.16N, 03.29W); 3 lives lost including skipper (bm - apparently strayed into British minefield; un – not included, so presumably not U-boat-laid) (+L/bm/wi)


on to October 1915

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