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World War 1 at Sea

 

PRINCIPAL EVENTS, 1918

 


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JANUARY 1918

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

TUESDAY 1st JANUARY

DIPLOMACY

3rd - Ukraine delegation reaches Brest-Litovsk (see November 21st, 1917, and February 1st, 1918).

4th - British Government in message to the King of the Hejaz declare intentions with regard to future status of Palestine (see December 17th, 1917, and February 4th, 1918).

4th - Russian Bolshevik Government and French and Swedish Governments recognise the independence of Finland (see 10th, and December 6th, 1917).

5th - Negotiations again suspended on Russian front. Bolshevik demand made for meetings to be held at Stockholm (see 8th, and December 6th, 13th and 22nd, 1917).

BRITAIN

2nd - Air Ministry formed in Great Britain.

3rd - The Air Council takes over functions of Air Board (see May 17th, 1916, and November 29th and December 21st, 1917).

5th - British Premier (Mr. Lloyd George) in speech to Trade Union delegates outlines British War Aims (see 24th, and December 28th, 1917).

BELGIUM

1st - M. Hyams succeeds Baron de Broqueville as Belgian Minister for Foreign Affairs (see August 4th, 1917).

WESTERN FRONT

 

 

ARABIA

1st - Arab forces begin Actions for Et Tafile, (see 28th).

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

4th - Allied request for handing over of Dutch ships in Allied parts formulated (see March 7th).

U-BOAT WARFARE

4th - British hospital ship "Rewa" (below - Pat Gariepy)  sunk by submarine in Bristol Channel.

 

NORTH RUSSIA (plan - below)

(link to Admiralty despatch on operations in 1918)

 

 

MONDAY 7th JANUARY

DIPLOMACY

8th - Russian Bolshevik Government withdraw demand for transfer to Stockholm and resume negotiations at Brest-Litovsk (see 5th and 22nd).

10th - British Government assure Russian Bolshevik Government of their support in the creation of an independent Poland (see April 5th, 1917, and February 20th, 1918).

10th - Danish and Norwegian Governments recognise the independence of Finland (see 4th).

12th - Latvia declares independence (see November 11th).

13th - Estonian Government issue declaration of independence (see November 28th, 1917, and February 25th and November 11th, 1918).

UNITED STATES

8th - President Wilson delivers Message to Congress laying down the "Fourteen Points" (see February 11th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

 

 

PERSIA

8th - Qasr-i-Shirin (Western Persia) occupied by British forces (see July 8th, 1917).

 

 

MONDAY 14th JANUARY

RUSSIA

18th - Russian Constituent Assembly again meet in Petrograd (see 19th, and December 18th, 1917).

19th - Russian Constituent Assembly again forcibly dissolved by Bolsheviki (see 18th, and December 13th, 1917).

PERSIA

19th - Mustaufi ul Mamalek succeeds Ain ed Douleh as Persian Prime Minister (see November 24th, 1917, and May 3rd, 1918). Mushaver ul Mamalek succeeds Ala es Sultaneh as Persian Foreign Minister (see June 6th, 1917, and August 10th, 1918).

WESTERN FRONT

 

 

S.M.S. "Breslau" (Maritime Quest)

 

 

 

H.M.S. "Raglan" (Photo Ships)

 Operations in the Aegean (Corbett, Vol 3, Map Case No.5)

BRITISH COASTAL RAID

14th - German destroyers bombard Yarmouth (Norfolk).

AEGEAN (plan - left)

20th - Naval action outside the Dardanelles. German cruiser "Breslau" (far left) and British monitor "Raglan" (far left) sunk. "Goeben" strikes mine and is beached (see 27th).

 

 

MONDAY 21st JANUARY

DIPLOMACY

22nd - Russian Bolshevik Government accuse Central Powers of falsification of reports of proceedings (see 8th and 23rd).

23rd - Negotiations between Russian Bolshevik Government and Central Powers once more suspended (see 8th, 22nd and 30th).

24th - Count Hertling and Count Czernin (German Imperial Chancellor and Austrian Foreign Minister) make public replies to statements of President Wilson and Mr. Lloyd George on War Aims (see 5th and 8th).

WESTERN FRONT

24th - Lieut.-General The Hon. Sir H. A. Lawrence appointed Chief of the General Staff, British Expeditionary Force, France (Did not take up appointment till the 27th.) (see 27th).

27th - Lieut.-General Sir L. E. Kiggell, Chief of the General Staff, British Expeditionary Force, France, resigns (see 24th, and December 22nd, 1915).

 

 

PERSIA

27th - General Dunsterville's Mission leaves Baghdad for North-West Persia (see February 17th).

 

AEGEAN

27th - The "Goeben" refloated inside the Dardanelles (see 20th).

DEAD SEA, PALESTINE

27th - Turkish Dead Sea Flotilla seized by Arab camelry at El Mezraa'.

 

MONDAY 28th JANUARY

DIPLOMACY

28th - Russian Bolshevik Government sever diplomatic relations with Rumania.

30th - Negotiations between Russian Bolshevik Government and Central Powers again resumed (see 23rd, and February 10th).

 

 

ARABIA

28th - Actions for Et Tafile by the Arab forces end (see 1st).

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 151 ships of 307,299 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

FEBRUARY 1918.

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

FRIDAY 1st FEBRUARY

DIPLOMACY

1st - Central Powers recognise the Ukraine Republic (see 9th, and November 20th, 1917).

3rd - British Government announce enlargement of powers of Supreme War Council at Versailles (see November 7th, 1917, and December 1st, 1917).

WESTERN FRONT

 

 

PERSIA

1st - Extension of the British East Persia Cordon (see July 29th, 1915) into Khorasan begins. (In relief of Russian forces withdrawn by Bolshevik Government.)

 

 

MONDAY 4th FEBRUARY

DIPLOMACY

4th - British Government make declaration to King of the Hejaz reaffirming their pledges as to freeing the Arab peoples (see October 24th, 1915, December 15th, 1916, December 17th, 1917, and January 4th, 1918).

6th - German Government send ultimatum to Rumania demanding peace negotiations within four days (see 25th).

9th - Peace signed at Brest-Litovsk between Bulgaria, Central Powers and Turkey and the Ukraine Rada; also supplementary Treaty between Central Powers and The Ukraine; borders of new Ukrainian State defined (see 1st, and January 3rd).

10th - M. Trotski announces that state of war between Russia and Central Powers, Bulgaria and Turkey is ended, but that Russia will not sign formal peace treaty (see 18th, and January 30th).

RUMANIA

6th - M. Bratianu, Bumanian Premier, resigns (appointed January 14th, 1914) (see 9th).

9th - New Rumanian Cabinet formed, with General Averescu as Premier and Foreign Minister (see 6th, and March 12th).

WESTERN FRONT

 

RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR

4th - General Alexeiev with Don Cossacks moves towards Moscow against the Bolshevik forces (see 13th).

 

 

U-BOAT WARFARE

5th - British S.S. "Tuscania," (below - Photo Ships) carrying United States troops, sunk by submarine off Irish coast. The only loss sustained by U.S. transports when under British naval escort.

 

MONDAY 11th FEBRUARY

UNITED STATES

11th - President Wilson delivers Message to Congress laying down four additional Points (see January 8th and October 6th).

WESTERN FRONT

 

RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR

13th - General Alexeiev defeated by the Bolsheviki (see 4th); General Kaledin commits suicide.

 

PERSIA

17th - General Dunsterville's Mission reaches Enzeli (North-West Persia) (see May 21st, 1915, January 27th and April 1st, 1918).

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

15th - Representatives of Allied Governments arrange establishment of the "Allied Maritime Transport Council" (see December 3rd, 1917, and March 11th, 1918).

BRITISH COASTAL RAID

16th - Dover shelled by German submarine.

STRAITS OF DOVER

15th - Third German destroyer raid in Straits of Dover (night 15th/16th). (see April 20th, 1917).

MONDAY 18th FEBRUARY

DIPLOMACY

19th - Russian Bolshevik Government notify willingness to sign Peace Treaty with Germany (see 18th and 28th).

20th - British Foreign Minister (Mr. Balfour) informs Polish National Committee that Great Britain does not accept the treaty between The Ukraine, and Central Powers (see 9th, January 10th, and June 3rd).

BRITAIN

18th - General Sir W. Robertson, Chief of the British Imperial General Staff, resigns (see 19th, and December 23rd, l915).

19th - General Sir H. H. Wilson appointed Chief of the British Imperial General Staff (see 18th).

21st - Ministry of Information formed in Great Britain.

23rd - Inter-Allied Labour and Socialist Conference in London pass resolution as to War Aims.

WESTERN FRONT

 

EASTERN FRONT

18th - Armistice terminates on Russian front.

18th - Hostilities resumed by German armies (see 10th and 19th). Dvinsk taken by German forces.

24th - Dorpat, Estonia occupied by German forces (see December 26th).

CAUCASUS FRONT

24th - Trebizond retaken by Turkish forces (see April 17th, 1916).

PALESTINE FRONT

21st - Jericho taken by British forces (19th/21st).

 

CRUISER WARFARE

24th - German raider "Wolff " returns to Germany (see December 1st, 1916).

MONDAY 25th FEBRUARY

DIPLOMACY

25th - Peace negotiations begun at Bukharest (see 6th, and March 5th).

25th - Military Convention signed at Bobruisk between Germany and Poland.

25th - British Government inform M. Tonisson that they are prepared provisionally to recognise the independence of Estonia until the future status of Estonia is settled by the Peace Congress (see January 13th and November 11th).

28th - Negotiations again resumed between Russian Bolshevik Government and Central Powers: hostilities nominally cease (see 18th, 19th, and March 3rd).

WESTERN FRONT

 

EASTERN FRONT

25th - Pernau, Reval, and Pskov taken by German forces (see 18th).

 

PERSIA

25th - Kirmanshah, Western Persia occupied by British forces (see March 11th, 1917).

 

U-BOAT WARFARE

26th - British hospital ship "Glenart Castle" sunk by submarine in the Bristol Channel (see March 1st, 1917).


MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 142 ships of 321,000 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

MARCH 1918.

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

FRIDAY 1st MARCH

DIPLOMACY

1st - Treaty of Peace and Amity signed between the Finnish Social Republic of Workmen and the Russian Federal Soviet Republic.

3rd - Peace signed between Bolshevik Russia and Central Powers, Bulgaria and Turkey at Brest-Litovsk, together with supplementary treaties by the signatories (see 14th and 18th, February 28th and August 27th).

3rd - German Government notify Swedish Government of occupation of the Aaland Islands (see 2nd).

WESTERN FRONT

 

EASTERN FRONT

2nd - Kiev captured by German forces (see December 20th).

 

PERSIA

3rd – Meshed occupied by troops of British East Persia Cordon. (Approximate date.)

 

BALTIC SEA

2nd - German force landed in the Aaland Islands at request of Finnish Government (see 3rd).

 

MONDAY 4th MARCH

DIPLOMACY

5th - Preliminary treaty of peace between Rumania and the Central Powers, Bulgaria and Turkey signed at Buftea (see December 9th, 1917, and February 25th and May 7th, 1918).

7th - Peace signed at Berlin between Germany and Finland.

9th - Treaty of Peace signed between Rumania and Bolshevik Russia (see 5th).

RUSSIA

8th - M. Chicherin appointed Russian Foreign Minister and M. Trotski appointed Minister for War (see November 8th, 1917).

WESTERN FRONT

 

AVIATION

7th - First German aeroplane raid on England undertaken on moonless night (see July 20th).

 

EASTERN FRONT

4th - Narva, Estonia occupied by German forces (see November 28th).

 

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT (plan - below)

9th - Hit, on the Euphrates  occupied by British forces.

Lower Mesopotamia (Corbett, Vol 3, Map Case No.1)

 

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

7th - Final Allied Note presented to Netherlands Government re surrender of Dutch ships in Allied ports (see 18th, and January 4th).

U-BOAT WARFARE

10th - British hospital ship "Guildford Castle" attacked by German submarine in Bristol Channel, but reaches port.

 

MONDAY 11th MARCH

DIPLOMACY

14th - Congress of Soviets meet at Moscow to ratify treaty of peace with Central Powers (see 3rd).                      

15th - German Government proclaim protectorate over an independent Kurland.

RUMANIA

12th - General Averescu, Rumanian Premier and Foreign Minister, resigns (see 21st, and February 9th).

WESTERN FRONT

 

EASTERN FRONT

13th - Odessa occupied by German forces (see December 11th).

17th - Nicolaiev captured by German forces (see April 8th).

 

CAUCASUS FRONT

12th - Erzerum retaken by Turkish forces (see February 16th, 1916).

PERSIA

16th - Hamadan, West Persia evacuated by the Russian regular forces (see March 2nd, 1917).

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

11th - First meeting of the Allied Maritime Transport Council (see February 15th).

 

MONDAY 18th MARCH

DIPLOMACY

18th - Entente Governments issue Note refusing to recognise Russo-German peace treaty (see 3rd and 14th).

RUMANIA

21st - M. Marghiloman appointed Rumanian Premier (see 12th, and November 8th). M. Constantino Arian appointed Rumanian Foreign Minister (see 12th, and November 8th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

21st - First Battles of the Somme, 1918, begin with Battle of St. Quentin (21st/23rd) (see November 18th, 1916, and April 5th, 1918).

23rd - Paris first shelled by long-range gun (from Crepy-en-Valois, 75 miles distant) (see August 15th).

24th - First Battle of Bapaume (24th/25th): Bapaume and Peronne taken by German forces (see March. 17th and 18th; 1917, and August 20th and September 1st, 1918).

 

PALESTINE FRONT

21st - Passage of the Jordan by British forces (21st/23rd).

24th - First action of Es Salt, Palestine  (24th/25th).

 

CONTRABAND CONTROL

20th - Allied Blockade Committee formed.

MERCHANT SHIPPING

18th - Dutch Government accept with reservations the Allied terms for use of Dutch shipping in United States and Entente ports (see 7th and 21st).

21st - Dutch ships in British ports requisitioned by British Government, and Dutch ships in United States ports requisitioned by United States Government (see 18th).

NORTH SEA

21st - Destroyer action in North Sea between Allied and German flotillas (see October 17th, 1914).

MONDAY 25th MARCH

DIPLOMACY

26th - "Doullens Agreement" concluded. Decision taken to appoint General Foch to co-ordinate efforts of British and French Armies (see April 14th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

First Battles of the Somme, 1918, continue.

25th - Noyon taken by German forces (see March 18th, 1917, and August 29th, 1918).

26th - Albert, Chaulnes, and Roye taken by German forces (see March 17th, 1917, and August 22nd and 27th, 1918).

27th - Battle of Rosieres (Somme) (26th/27th).

27th - Montdidier taken by German forces (see August 10th).

28th - First Battle of Arras, 1918 (see August 26th).

EASTERN FRONT

29th – Poltava captured by German forces.

AVIATION

25th - German airship raid on Naples from the Dalmatian coast.

 

PALESTINE FRONT

27th - First British attack on Amman, Palestine (27th/30th).

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

26th -Action of Khan Baghdadi (26th/27th).

28th - Ana occupied by British forces.

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 186 ships of 366,000 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

APRIL 1918

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

MONDAY 1st APRIL

BRITAIN

1st - Royal Flying Corps and Royal Naval Air Services of Great Britain amalgamated and established a separate service as the Royal Air Force.

 

WESTERN FRONT

First Battle of Arras, 1918 continues.GGG

4th - Battle of the Avre (France).

5th - Battle of the Ancre, 1918, brings to an end the First Battles of the Somme, 1918 (see March 21st).

 

EASTERN FRONT

3rd – Ekaterinoslav (South Russia) taken by German forces.

CAUCASUS FRONT

4th - Sarikamish, Russian Caucasus occupied by Turkish forces (see January 2nd, 1915).

5th – Van, Armenia retaken by Turkish forces (see May 19th, 1915).

PERSIA

1st - Enzeli evacuated by the Russian regular forces (see February 17th). 

BALTIC SEA

1st - German Expeditionary Force for Finland leaves Danzig (see 3rd).

3rd - German Expeditionary Force lands in South Finland at Hango (see 1st, 13th, and December 16th).

4th - British submarines at Helsingfors destroyed to avoid capture (3rd/4th) (see 3rd).

SIBERIA

5th - Japanese and British marines land at Vladivostok (see August 2nd and 3rd).

MONDAY 8th APRIL

DIPLOMACY

9th - Count Mirbach appointed German Ambassador at Moscow (see July 6th).

9th - National Council of the Moldavian Republic (Bessarabia) pass Act of Union with Rumania, with stipulation for local autonomy (see 16th, December 23rd, 1917, and December 10th, 1918).

10th - Settlement Treaty between Germany and Turkey ratified at Berlin (see January 11th, 1917].

10th - Agreement reached between Italy and the Yugo-Slavs ("Pact of Rome").

11th - French Government publish text of Emperor of Austria's letter to Prince Sixte of Bourbon proposing peace negotiations (see 15th, and March 31st, 1917).

13th - United Diets of Baltic Provinces adopt resolution to form themselves into a separate State within the German Empire.

BRITAIN

10th - Third Military Service Act passed in British Parliament. Military age limit raised to 50, and Conscription extended to Ireland (see 18th, and June 8th, 1916).

WESTERN FRONT

9th - Battles of the Lys begin (see 29th): Battle of Estaires (9th/11th): Neuve Chapelle taken by German forces.

10th - Battle of Messines, 1918 (10th/11th): Messines taken by German forces (see June 14th, 1917, and September 28th, 1918).

11th - Armentieres and Merville taken by German forces (see October 11th and 17th, 1914, August 19th and October 3rd, 1918).

12th - Battle of Hazebrouck (Lys) begins (see 15th).

12th - Field-Marshal Sir Douglas Haig issues Order of the Day to the British Army in France on the serious situation ("Backs to the Wall" order).

13th - Battle of Bailleul (Lys) begins (see 15th).

14th - General Foch appointed Commander-in-Chief of Allied Armies in France. The Belgian forces were not placed under the command of General Foch. (see March 26th, August 6th, and November 5th).

AVIATION

12th - Last airship raid over England in which casualties were inflicted (27) (see January 19th, 1915, and August 5th, 1918).

 

EASTERN FRONT

8th - Kharkov captured by German forces.

FINLAND

13th – Helsingfors captured by German forces (12th/14th) (see 3rd and 4th).

13th - Finnish Government announce that all German troops landed in Finland had been despatched at their request.

 

 

U-BOAT WARFARE

10th - Monrovia, Liberia bombarded by a German submarine (see August 4th, 1917).

 

MONDAY 15th APRIL

DIPLOMACY

16th - The Ukraine Government issue protest against union of Bessarabia and Rumania (see 9th and 23rd).

BRITAIN

18th - Third Military Service Act comes into operation in Great Britain (see 10th).

20th - Lord Derby, Secretary of State for War, Great Britain, resigns (see December 11th, 1916). Viscount Milner appointed Secretary of State for War, Great Britain.

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

15th - Count Czernin, Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister, resigns (see 17th, and December 22nd, 1916).

17th - Baron Burian succeeds Count Czernin as Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister (see 15th and October 25th).

17th - Dr. Wekerle, Hungarian Premier, resigns (see 27th, and August 21st, 1917).

JAPAN

21st - Viscount Motono, Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs, resigns (see 22nd, and November 21st, 1916).

WESTERN FRONT

Battles of the Lys continues.

15th - Battle of Hazebrouck ends (see 12th).                                 

15th - Battle of Bailleul ends (see 13th): Bailleul taken by the German forces (see October 14th, 1914, and August 30th, 1918).

16th - Passchendaele reoccupied by German forces (see November 6th, 1917, and September 29th, 1918).

17th - First Battle of Kemmel Ridge (Lys) begins (see 19th).

18th - Battle of Bethune (Lys).

19th - First Battle of Kemmel Ridge ends (see 17th and 20th).

 

EASTERN FRONT

19th - German forces enter the Crimea.

 

CAUCASUS FRONT

15th – Batum, Georgia occupied by Turkish forces (see December 27th).

 

NORTH SEA

15th - Raid by British naval light forces on the Kattegat (see November 2nd, 1917).

 

MONDAY 22nd APRIL

DIPLOMACY

22nd - The Trans-Caucasian Council decide to declare independence (night 22nd/23rd) (see September 20th, 1917, and May 6th and 26th, 1918).

23rd - Russian Bolshevik Government issue protest against union of Bessarabia and Rumania (see 9th and 10th, and December 10th).

23rd - Guatemala declares war on Germany (see April 27th, 1917).

HUNGARY

27th - Dr. Wekerle again appointed Hungarian Prime Minister (see 17th, and October 24th).

WESTERN FRONT

Battles of the Lys continues.

24th - Actions of Villers-Bretonneux (Somme) (24th/25th).

26th - Second Battle of Kemmel Ridge (25th/26th): Mount Kemmel stormed by German forces (see 19th, and August 31st).

27th - First contingent of Italian troops arrive on the French front. (Approximate date.)

 

 

CAUCASUS FRONT

27th – Kars, Georgia occupied by Turkish forces.

 

 

 

 

 Zeebrugge (Newbolt, Vol 5,  pp247)

 

BELGIAN COAST

23rd – Zeebrugge Raid: Blocking raid by British naval light forces on Ostend and Zeebrugge (see May 9th).  (plan - left)

 Blockships expended at Zeebrugge: - cruisers "Thetis" (below - Photo Ships), "Intrepid", "Iphigenia"

Blockships lost off  Ostend - cruisers "Sirius", "Brilliant"

(link to British despatches, RN awards and casualties)

MONDAY 29th APRIL

DIPLOMACY

29th - German Government establish a military dictatorship in The Ukraine. General Skoropadski proclaimed Hetman (see May 9th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

29th - The Battle of the Scherpenberg brings to an end the Battles of the Lys (see 9th).

 

FINLAND

30th - Viborg captured by German forces and Finnish White Guards (see 13th).

 

PALESTINE FRONT

30th - Second action of Es Salt , Palestine, begins (see May 4th).

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 129 ships of 280,000 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

MAY 1918

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

WEDNESDAY 1st MAY

DIPLOMACY

4th - Armistice signed at Korenevo between Russia and The Ukraine (German-Ukrainian Command) (see June 12th).

IRELAND

5th - Field-Marshal Lord French appointed Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland (see December 15th, 1915).

PERSIA

3rd - Samsam es Sultaneh succeeds. Mustaufi ul Mamalek as Persian Prime Minister [see 31st, and January 19th).

WESTERN FRONT

 

EASTERN FRONT

1st - Sevastopol taken by German forces (April 30th/May 1st).

 

PALESTINE FRONT

4th - Second action of Es Salt ends (see April 30th).

 

CONTRABAND CONTROL

2nd - Agreement concluded regarding export of sand and gravel from The Netherlands for German use (see July 15th).

RUSSIAN NAVY

1st - Part of Russian Black Sea Fleet seized by the Germans (see June 21st, 1917, and June 18th and November 26th, 1918).

 

MONDAY 6th MAY

DIPLOMACY

6th - Turko-German delegates arrive at Batum to negotiate peace with the Georgians and Armenians (see April 22nd, May 26th, and June 8th).

7th - Final Treaty of Peace signed between Rumania and Bulgaria, Central Powers and Turkey (see March 5th), together with various supplementary treaties between the separate contracting parties (see November 10th).

8th - Nicaragua declares war on Germany and on Austria-Hungary (see May 18th, 1917).

11th - Peace signed in Berlin between Finland and Turkey.

12th - Military Treaty ("Waffenbund") signed between Germany and Austria-Hungary.

WESTERN FRONT

 

EASTERN FRONT

8th - Rostov (South Russia) captured by German forces.

FINLAND

7th - Frederickshamn, South Finland captured by Finnish White Guards: End of the Finnish Civil War. The civil war may be said to have begun about March 1st, 1918.

 

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

7th - Kirkuk taken by British forces (see 24th).

CONTRABAND CONTROL

9th - Joint Trade Committee of Entente Powers formed in Holland.

BELGIAN COAST

9th – Ostend Raid. Blocking attack on Ostend. H.M.S. "Vindictive" (below, after Zeebrugge Raid - Jon Richards) sunk to block the harbour (see April 23rd). (link to British despatches, RN awards and casulties)

 

MONDAY 13th MAY

DIPLOMACY

15th - Agreement between Entente Powers, Japan, and China against German penetration in Far East announced

16th - Agreement signed at Peking between China and Japan for military co-operation against German and Bolshevik aggression (see 19th).

IRELAND

17th - Sinn Fein leaders arrested in Ireland and interned (see 25th).

PORTUGAL

15th - Dr. S. B. O. da Paes, Portuguese Premier, resigns (see 16th, and December 10th, 1917).

16th - Senhor J. T. de Souza Barboza, appointed Portuguese Secretary of the Interior. (The appointment, of Premier lapsed between May 15th and December 23rd. During this period the functions of the office were performed by the Secretary of the Interior.) (see 15th, and December 22nd).

 

WESTERN FRONT

 

AVIATION

18th - First British retaliatory air raid on German towns. Cologne bombed by day.

19th - Last German night aeroplane raid on London in which casualties were inflicted; 49 killed and 177 wounded. (There were altogether nineteen aeroplane raids on London during which bombs were dropped, and one air reconnaissance during which no bombs were dropped.) (see May 7th, July 7th, and October 19th, 1917, and August 5th, 1918).

19th - German air raid on British camps and hospitals at Etaples; heavy casualties.

 

 

CAUCASUS FRONT

18th - Alexandropol, Georgia occupied by Turkish forces.

 

NAVAL AGREEMENT

19th - Agreement signed between China and Japan for naval co-operation (see 16th).

SPECIAL NAVAL FORCES

14th - Italian naval raid (using "climbing boats") on Pola Harbour.

BRITISH COASTAL RAID

15th - German submarine bombards St. Kilda (Hebrides).

 

MONDAY 20th MAY

DIPLOMACY

23rd - Costa Rica declares war on Germany (see September 21st, 1917).

25th - British Government publish account of Irish-German plots (see 17th).

26th - Trans-Caucasian Federal Government (see September 20th, 1917, and April 22nd, 1918), dissolved. Georgia declares Independence and forms a National Government. Armenian National Council assume charge of Armenian affairs (see June 8th). Tatar National Council proclaim establishment of a "Republic of Azerbaijan."

WESTERN FRONT

 

 

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

24th - Kirkuk evacuated by the British forces (see 7th, and October 25th).

 

NORTH RUSSIA

24th - General F. C. Poole lands at Murmansk to organise the North Russia Expeditionary Force (see June 4th, 8th and 23rd).

 

MONDAY 27th MAY

DIPLOMACY

29th - Peace Treaty signed at Vienna between Austria-Hungary and Finland.

BELGIUM

31st - M. G. Cooreman succeeds Baron de Broqueville as Belgian Prime Minister (Baron de Broqueville was appointed in 1911) (Baron de Broqueville and M. Cooreman presided over the Cabinet without the title of Prime Minister (see November 21st).) (see November 21st).

 

WESTERN FRONT

27th - Battle of the Aisne, 1918 ("Third Battle of the Aisne"), begins (see June 6th).

27th - Craonne again taken by German forces (see May 4th, 1917, and October 12th, 1918).

29th - Soissons again taken by German forces (see 27th, and August 2nd).

30th - Fère-en-Tardenois taken by German forces (see 27th, and July 28th).

31st - German forces reach the Marne. Château-Thierry and Dormans captured (see July 21st).

BALKAN FRONT

31st - Battle of the Skra di Legen, Macedonia.

 

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 147 ships of 306,000 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

JUNE 1918

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

SATURDAY 1st JUNE

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of the Aisne, 1918 continues.

EASTERN FRONT

 

 

 

MONDAY 3rd JUNE

DIPLOMACY

3rd - British, French, and Italian Governments make declarations supporting national aspirations of Poles, Czecho-Slovaks, and Yugo-Slavs (see February 20th, June 29th, August 13th, September 25th, and November 16th).

4th - The Don Cossacks declare independence.

8th - Russian Bolshevik Government order Entente forces in North Russia to leave the country (see 30th, and May 24th).

8th - Georgian Government and Armenian National Council sign peace treaties with Turkey (see May 6th and 20th). Georgian Government sign peace treaty with Germany (see May 6th and 26th).

9th - First sitting of Anglo-German Conference at The Hague on prisoners of war.     

WESTERN FRONT

6th - Battle of the Aisne, 1918, ends (see May 27th).

9th - Battle of the Matz begins (see 14th).

AVIATION

5th - British Independent Air Force in France constituted under tactical command of Major-General Sir H. M. Trenchard.

 

BALKAN FRONT

6th - General Guillaumat, Allied Commander-in-Chief, Salonika, Greece, recalled to Paris (see 15th and 18th, and December 22nd, 1917).

 

SIBERIA

7th - Omsk occupied by Czecho-Slovak forces (see November 18th).

 

U-BOAT or MINE WARFARE

6th - Dutch hospital ship "Koningen Regentes" sunk by mine or torpedo.

NORTH RUSSIA

4th - British Marines land at Pechenga (North Russia) (see May 24th).

7th - British force lands at Kem (North Russia) (see May 24th).

BLACK SEA

8th - German Expeditionary Force to the Caucasus lands at Poti, Georgia.

 

MONDAY 10th JUNE

DIPLOMACY

12th - Armistice concluded at Kiev between the whole State of The Ukraine and Russian Bolshevik Republic (see May 4th).

FRANCE

15th - General Guillaumat appointed Governor of Paris (see 6th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

14th - Battle of the Matz ends (see 9th).

 

EASTERN FRONT

12th – Tiflis, Georgia occupied by a German force (see 8th, and December 27th).

ITALIAN FRONT

15th - Battle of the Piave begins (see 24th).

 

CAUCASUS FRONT

12th - Kurdamir, East Caucasus occupied by Turkish forces.

PERSIA

14th - Tabriz, North Persia again occupied by Turkish forces (see January 30th, 1915).

COASTAL FORCES WARFARE

10th - Naval action off Premuda Island. Austrian battleship "Szent Istvan" (below - Photo Ships) sunk by Italian motor launch.

 

MONDAY 17th JUNE

AUSTRIA

21st - Dr. Ernst Ritter von Seidler, Austrian Premier, resigns (see June 23rd, 1917).

BULGARIA

18th - M. Radoslavov, Bulgarian Premier, resigns (date of appointment July 20th, 1913). M. Malinov appointed Premier and Foreign Minister.

PERSIA

20th - Samsam es Sultaneh reappointed Persian Prime Minister (see May 31st and August 3rd).

WESTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

18th - General Franchet d'Esperey appointed Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces, Salonika (see 6th).

 

RUSSIAN NAVY

18th - Russian battleship "Svobodnaya Rossiya" (left - Photo Ships) destroyed in Black Sea to avoid surrender to the Germans (see May 4th).

NORTH RUSSIA

23rd - British Expeditionary Forces "Syren" and "Elope" join the North Russian Expeditionary Force at Murmansk (see 4th, May 24th and July 20th).

 

MONDAY 24th JUNE

DIPLOMACY

29th - United States Government announce their view that all branches of the Slav races should be completely freed from German and Austrian rule (see 3rd).

30th - Treaty signed between the Czecho-Slovaks and Italy, by which Italy recognises Czecho-Slovak Council and their jurisdiction over nationals.

 

WESTERN FRONT

 

NORTH RUSSIAN INTERVENTION

30th - Murman Railway from Murmansk to Soroki seized by Allied forces (29th/30th) (see 23rd).

30th - Murman Soviet (Sovdep) decide to support the Entente against the Bolshevik Government (see 8th, and July 7th and November 20th).

ITALIAN FRONT

24th - Battle of the Piave ends (see 15th).

30th - First contingent of United States troops arrive in Italy (see November 3rd and 4th, 1917).

 

 

U-BOAT WARFARE

27th - British hospital ship "Llandovery Castle" sunk by submarine off Irish coast.


MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 119 ships of 263,000 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

 

JULY 1918

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

MONDAY 1st JULY

DIPLOMACY

4th - Siberian Council declare Independence (see 6th).

6th - Declaration of Siberian Independence cancelled (see 4th).

6th - German Ambassador at Moscow (Count Mirbach) murdered (see April 9th).

7th - Agreement signed between France, Great Britain, United States of America, and Murman Sovdep concerning Allied expedition to Murman Coast (see June 30th).

TURKEY

3rd - Sultan Mohammed V of Turkey dies. Mohammed VI succeeds to the throne (see November 14th, 1914).

WESTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

6th - French and Italian forces begin offensive in Albania (see 10th and 22nd).

 

EAST AFRICA

1st - Affair of Nyamakura. Near Quelimane, Portuguese East Africa. This was the most southerly point reached by Colonel von Lettow-Vorbeck's force. (1st/3rd). (link to part of British despatch)

 

 NORTH RUSSIA

Railway System in North Russia  (Newbolt, Vol 5,  pp320)

MONDAY 8th JULY

DIPLOMACY

12th - Haiti declares war on Germany (see June 16th, 1917).

GERMANY

9th - Admiral von Hintze succeds Herr von Kuhlmann as German Foreign Minister (see August 5th, 1917, and October 4th, 1918).

SIBERIA

10th - New Government formed at Vladivostok under General Horvat (see August 24th).

WESTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

10th - Berat, Albania taken by Italian forces (see 6th, and February 17th, 1916).

 

SIBERIA

13th - Irkutsk occupied by Czecho-Slovak forces (see October 14th).

14th - Kazan, East Russia captured by Czecho-Slovak forces.

 

JAPANESE NAVY

12th - Japanese battleship "Kawachi" destroyed by internal explosion.

U-BOAT WARFARE

 British Anti-Submarine Sweep  (Newbolt, Vol 5,  pp340)

MONDAY 15th JULY

DIPLOMACY

19th - Honduras declares war on Germany (see May 17th, 1917).

BRITAIN

18th - Sir L. Worthington-Evans succeeds Lord Robert Cecil as British Minister for Blockade (see February 23rd, 1916).

AUSTRIA

16th - Field-Marshal Conrad von Hotzendorff, Commander-in-Chief, Austro-Hungarian Armies, relieved of his command.

RUSSIA

16th - Ex-Tsar Nicholas II, ex-Tsaritsa, and family murdered at Ekaterinburg (see March 15th, 1917).

 

WESTERN FRONT

15th - Fourth Battle of Champagne begins (see 18th, and April 17th, 1917).

18th - Fourth Battle of Champagne ends (see 15th).

18th - Second Battle of the Marne begins (see August 7th).

20th - German forces retreat across the Marne (see 18th).

21st - Chateau-Thierry retaken by Allied forces (see 18th, 20th, and May 31st).

AVIATION

20th - Last attempt to attack the British Isles with aeroplanes (unsuccessful) (There were altogether 59 aeroplane raids against the British Isles during which bombs were dropped. There were also 11 reconnaissance flights over parts of Great Britain or in the vicinity of the coast when no bombs were dropped. See also footnotes against entries of May 19th and August 5th.) (see December 21st, 1914, and August 5th, 1918).

 

TRANS-CASPIA

19th - British operations in Trans-Caspia (Turkmenistan) begin (see August 26th).

PERSIA

20th - British defence of Resht, North-West Persia.

 

CONTRABAND CONTROL

15th - British Government protest against "Sand and Gravel Agreement" between Germany and The Netherlands (see May 2nd).

MINE WARFARE

19th - United States cruiser "San Diego" (below) sunk by mine off Fire Island, Atlantic coast.

 

MONDAY 22nd JULY

DIPLOMACY

26th - British Government declare to M. Petrov that they have no intention of infringing the territorial integrity of Russia (see August 6th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Second Battle of the Marne continues.

23rd - Battle of Soissonais and Ourcq begins (see August 2nd). (British dates.)

28th - Fere-en-Tardenois retaken by Allied forces (see May 30th).

 

BALKAN FRONT

22nd - Allied offensive in Albania, checked (see 6th, 10th, and August 22nd).

RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR

26th - Coup d'etat in Baku: Bolshevik Government replaced by Central Caspian Dictatorship.

NORTH RUSSIA

26th - Bulk of French Expeditionary Force troops join the North Russia Expeditionary Force at Murmansk (see June 23rd).

MONDAY 29th JULY

 

WESTERN FRONT

 Second Battle of the Marne continues.

EASTERN FRONT

30th - Field-Marshal von Eichhorn, commanding German Army in The Ukraine, assassinated in Kiev (see April 29th).

 

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 115 ships of 274,000 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

AUGUST 1918

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

THURSDAY 1st AUGUST

DIPLOMACY

2nd - Japanese Government decide to land troops at Vladivostok (see 11th, and April 5th).

PERSIA

3rd - Samsam es Sultaneh, Persian Prime Minister, resigns (see 7th, and June 20th).

WESTERN FRONT

Second Battle of the Marne continues.

2nd - Battle of Soissonais and Ourcq ends (see July 23rd).

2nd - Soissons retaken by Allied forces (see May 29th).

 

NORTH RUSSIAN INTERVENTION

1st - Allied Expeditionary Force attack and capture the defences of Archangel (see 2nd).

2nd - Pro-Entente reyolution in Archangel. Entente forces enter the town (see 1st).

 

CASPIAN INTERVENTION

4th - British force arrives at Baku (Caspian Sea) (see 26th, and July 19th).

4th - Bolshevik Committee at Enzeli, Persia arrested by British military authorities.

U-BOAT WARFARE

3rd - British ambulance transport "Warilda" sunk by submarine.

SIBERIA

3rd - British troops land at Vladivostok (see 2nd, and April 5th).

MONDAY 5th AUGUST

DIPLOMACY

6th - British Government issue Declaration to Russian peoples, stating that they have no intention of interfering in Russian politics (see July 26th).

8th - British Government inform Finnish Government that they are in no way hostile to Finnish aspirations on the Murman Coast and in Karelia.

FRANCE

6th - General Foch created Marshal of France.

PERSIA

7th - Vossuq ed Douleh appointed Persian Prime Minister (see 3rd, and May 29th, 1917).

 

WESTERN FRONT

7th - Second Battle of the Marne ends (see July 18th).

8th - Battle of Amiens begins (see 11th).

8th - Battle of Montdidier begins (see 15th).

AVIATION

5th - Last attempt to attack England with airships (unsuccessful— "L.-70" destroyed) (see January 19th, 1915, and April 12th and July 20th, 1918). (There were altogether 51 airship raids against the British Isles during which bombs were dropped. There were also 8 attempted raids which either did not reach the coast, or which, for some other reason, failed in action. There were also 59 aeroplane attacks in which bombs were dropped (see July 20th), and 11 aeroplane reconnaissances. Total number of air raids in which bombs were dropped was 110.)

 

 

U-BOAT WARFARE

7th - French cruiser "Dupetit Thouars" (below - Photo Ships) sunk by submarine in the Atlantic.

 

MONDAY 9th AUGUST

PERSIA

10th - Mushaver ul Mamalek, Persian Foreign Minister, resigns (see 11th, and January 19th).

11th - Mushaver ul Mamalek reappointed Persian Foreign Minister (see 10th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battle of Montdidier continues.

10th - Montdidier retaken by French forces (see 8th, and March 27th).

11th - Battle of Amiens ends (see 8th).

AVIATION

11th - German airship "L.-53" destroyed off Frisian coast. Last German airship to be destroyed.

 

SIBERIAN INTERVENTION

11th - First Japanese contingents arrive at Vladivostok (see 2nd and 24th, and September 5th).

 

 

MONDAY 12th AUGUST

DIPLOMACY

13th - The Czecho-Slovaks declare War on Germany.

13th - British Government recognise the Czecho-Slovaks as an Allied nation (see June 3rd and September 3rd).

CZECHO-SLOVAKIA

17th - Slovene National Council meet at Ljubljana (Laibach) (see November 2nd).

WESTERN FRONT

15th - Battle of Montdidier ends (see 8th).

15th - Last bombardment of Paris by German long-range gun (see March 23rd).

17th - Second Battle of Noyon begins (see 29th).

18th - British advance in Flanders begins: Action of Outtersteene Ridge.

 

 

TRANS-CASPIA

15th - Action of Bairam Ali: Trans-Caspian Government defeated by Bolshevik forces.

18th - Merv  taken by Bolshevik forces (see November 1st).

 

GERMAN NAVY

13th - Admiral von Capelle, German Minister of Marine, resigns (see 15th, and March 15th, 1916).

15th - Vice-Admiral von Behnke appointed German Minister of Marine (see 13th).

MONDAY 19th AUGUST

SIBERIA

24th - Coup d'etat by General Horvat at Vladivostok (see July 10th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Second Battle of Noyon continues.

19th - Morville retaken by British forces (see April 11th).

21st - Second Battles of the Somme, 1918, begin with the Battle of Albert, 1918 (21st/23rd) (see September 3rd).

22nd - Albert recaptured by British forces (see 21st, and March 26th).

BALKAN FRONT

22nd - Austrian forces begin counter-offensive in Albania (see July 6th and 22nd).

 

SIBERIAN INTERVENTION

24th - Battle of Dukhovskaya, Eastern Siberia (23rd/24th). Bolsheviki decisively defeated by Allied forces. (Japanese, with one British battalion.)

 

 

MONDAY 26th AUGUST

DIPLOMACY

27th - German and Russian Bolshevik Governments conclude complementary treaty of peace (see March 3rd).

BRITAIN

30th - Lieut.-General Sir G. E. N. Macready, Adjutant-General, Home Forces, Great Britain, resigns (see February 22nd, 1916, and September 11th, 1918).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Second Battles of the Somme, 1918, continue.

26th - Second Battles of Arras, 1918, begin with Battle of the Scarpe, 1918 (see 30th, March 28th and September 3rd).

27th - Roye recaptured by British forces (see March 26th).

29th - Bapaume retaken by British forces (see March 24th).

29th - Noyon retaken by French forces (see March 25th). Second Battle of Noyon ends (see 17th).

30th - Battle of the Scarpe, 1918, ends (see 26th)

30th - Bailleul retaken by British forces (see April 15th).

31st - Second Battle of Bapaume begins (see March 24th and September 3rd).

31st - German forces evacuate Mount Kemmel (see April 26th).

BALKAN FRONT

26th - Berat, Albania retaken by Austrian forces (see 22nd, and July 10th and October 1st).

 

CASPIAN INTERVENTION

26th - Defence of Baku , Caspian Sea against Turkish attack begins (see 4th, July 19th and September 15th).

27th - British force occupies Krasnovodsk on Caspian Sea.

TRANS-CASPIA

28th - Affair near Kaakhka.

 

ROYAL NAVY

31st - Captain Cromie, R.N., British Naval Attache, murdered by Bolsheviki in British Embassy, Petrograd.


MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 151 ships of 283,000 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

SEPTEMBER 1918

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

SUNDAY 1st SEPTEMBER

 

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Second Battles of the Somme, 1918.

Second Battles of Arras, 1918.

Second Battle of Bapaume.

1st - Péronne retaken by British forces (see. March 24th).

 

 

 

 

MONDAY 2nd SEPTEMBER

DIPLOMACY

3rd - United States Government recognises the Czecho-Slovaks as possessing a de facto Government (see August 13th and October 21st).

CHINA

4th - Hsu-Shih-Chang elected President of China (see October 11th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

2nd - Battle of the Drocourt-Queant Line (2nd/3rd).

3rd - Second Battles of the Somme, 1918, end (see August 21st).

3rd - Second Battles of Arras, 1918, end (see August 26th).

3rd - Lens occupied by British forces (see October 4th, 1914).

3rd - Second Battle of Bapaume ends (see August 31st).

 

NORTH RUSSIAN INTERVENTION

4th – Obozerskaya occupied by Allied forces (see August 2nd).

 

SIBERIAN INTERVENTION

5th - Khabarovsk, Eastern Siberia taken by Japanese forces (see 18th and August 11th).

 

NORTH RUSSIA

2nd - Italian contingent lands at Murmansk to join Allied Expeditionary Force (see July 26th).

4th - United States contingent lands at Murmansk to join Allied Expeditionary Force (see 2nd).

MONDAY 9th SEPTEMBER

DIPLOMACY

15th - Austrian Government send Note to President Wilson suggesting an "unofficial" peace conference (see 16th, and January 12th, 1917).

15th - German Government make definite peace offer to Belgium (see January 10th and 12th, 1917).

BRITAIN

11th - Lieut.-General Sir G. M. W. Macdonogh appointed Adjutant-General, Home Forces, Great Britain (see August 30th).

WESTERN FRONT

12th - Battle of St. Mihiel (12th/13th).

12th - Battles of the Hindenburg Line (see October 9th) begin with Battle of Havrincourt.

 

NORTH RUSSIAN INTERVENTION

11th - Ukhtinskaya, Murman front captured by Allied forces.

12th - Actions of Chamova (Archangel front) begin (see 14th).

14th - Actions of Chamova end (see 12th).

BALKAN FRONT

15th - Battle of the Dobropolje, Macedonia begins. Called by the Serbs "Battle of the Moglenitza." (see 16th).

CASPIAN INTERVENTION

14th - British evacuation of Baku begins (see 15th, and August 26th).

15th - Baku finally evacuated by the British forces (night 14th/15th) (see August 26th and November 17th).

 

 

MONDAY 16th SEPTEMBER

DIPLOMACY

16th - President Wilson replies to the Austrian Note rejecting suggestion for a peace conference (see 15th, and October 4th).

 

WESTERN FRONT

Battles of the Hindenburg Line continue.

18th - Battle of Epehy.

AVIATION

16th - Last German aeroplane raid on Paris (see August 30th, 1914).

 

BALKAN FRONT

16th - Battle of the Dobropolje ends (see 15th).

18th - Battle of Monastir-Doiran (see 24th), including Battle of Doiran, 1918), begins (see 19th).

19th - Battle of Doiran, 1918, ends (see 18th and 22nd).

22nd - Doiran occupied by British forces (see 19th, and December 11th, 1915).

PALESTINE FRONT

19th - Battles of Megiddo, Sharon and Nablus, begin (see 23rd and 25th).

20th - Nazareth and Beisan occupied by British cavalry (see 19th).

SIBERIAN INTERVENTION

18th - Blagovyeschensk occupied by Japanese forces (see 5th)

 

ROYAL NAVY

16th - H.M.S. "Glatton" (below - Photo Ships) sunk by explosion in Dover harbour.

 

MONDAY 23rd SEPTEMBER

DIPLOMACY

25th - Yugo-Slav State recognised as independent by Italy (see June 3rd and October 5th).

27th - Bulgarian Government ask Entente Powers for an armistice (see 30th).

JAPAN

28th - Baron Goto, Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs, resigns (see 29th, and April 22nd).

29th - Takashi Hara succeeds Count Terauchi as Japanese Prime Minister (see October 9th, 1916). Count Yasuya Uchida appointed Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs (see 28th). Lieut.-General Kenichi Oshima, Japanese Minister for War, resigns (see 30th, and March 30th, 1916).

WESTERN FRONT

Battles of the Hindenburg Line continue.

26th - Battle of Champagne and Argonne begins (see October 15th).

27th - Battle of the Canal du Nord begins (see October 1st).

28th - Battle of the Flanders Ridges begins (see October 10th).

28th - Battle of Ypres, 1918, begins (see November 10th, 1917, and October 2nd, 1918).

28th - Messines retaken by British forces (see April 10th).

29th - Battle of the St. Quentin Canal begins (see October 2nd).

29th - Passchendaele retaken by Allied forces (see 28th, and April 16th).

29th - Dixmude retaken by Belgian forces (see November 10th, 1914).

 

BALKAN FRONT (plan - below)

23rd - Prilep (South Serbia) taken by French forces (see November 16th, 1915).

24th - Battle of Monastir-Doiran ends (see 18th).

25th - Ishtip (see October 19th, 1915) and Veles (see October 21st, 1915) retaken by Serbian forces.

 

The Balkans (Newbolt, Vol 4, pp100)

PALESTINE FRONT

23rd - Ma'an, on Hejaz Railway evacuated by the Turkish garrison (see 29th).

23rd - Haifa, Acre, and Es Salt, Palestine occupied by British forces (see 19th).

25th - British cavalry cut Hejaz railway at Amman.

25th - Battles of Megiddo end (see 19th).

29th - Turkish garrison of Ma'an surrenders near Amman (Palestine) (see 23rd).

EAST AFRICA

29th - German force in East Africa recrosses the Rovuma and again enters German territory (see November 25th, 1917, and November 1st, 1918).

 

 

MONDAY 30th SEPTEMBER

 

DIPLOMACY

30th - Armistice between Bulgaria and Entente Powers signed (see 27th).

30th - Hostilities between Bulgaria and Entente Powers cease at 12 noon.

GERMANY

30th - Count Hertling, German Imperial Chancellor, resigns (see October 30th, 1917, and October 4th, 1918).

JAPAN

30th - Lieut.-General Giichi Tanaka appointed Japanese Minister for War (see 29th).

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battles of the Hindenburg Line.

Battle of Champagne and Argonne .

Battle of the Canal du Nord

Battle of the Flanders Ridges.

Battle of Ypres, 1918.

Battle of the St. Quentin Canal.

 

 

MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 96 ships of 191,000 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

NORTH RUSSIA

30th - Canadian contingent lands at Archangel to join Allied Expeditionary Force (see August 2nd).

 

OCTOBER 1918

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

TUESDAY 1st OCTOBER

DIPLOMACY

4th - German and Austro-Hungarian Governments send Notes to President Wilson proposing an armistice (see 8th and 18th). (The German note was received by President Wilson on October 6th and the Austrian on October 7th.)

4th - Austro-Hungarian Government send Note to President Wilson proposing an armistice (see 27th, and September 16th).

GERMANY

4th - Prince Max of Baden appointed German Imperial Chancellor, and succeeds Admiral von Hintze as Foreign Minister (see September 30th, July 9th, and November 9th).

YUGOSLAVIA

5th - Yugo-Slav delegates meet at Agram and decide on the formation of a United National Council (see 29th, and September 25th).

BULGARIA

4th - King Ferdinand of Bulgaria abdicates in favour of his son Prince Boris (see September 30th and November 1st).

WESTERN FRONT

Continuing:

Battles of the Hindenburg Line.

Battle of Champagne and Argonne .

Battle of the Flanders Ridges.

1st - Battle of the Canal du Nord ends (see September 27th).

1st - St. Quentin retaken by French forces (see September 27th).

2nd - Battle of Ypres, 1918, ends (see September 28th).

2nd - Battle of the St. Quentin Canal ends (see September 29th).

3rd - Battle of the Beaurevoir Line begins (see 5th).

3rd - Armentieres retaken by British forces (see April 11th).

5th - Battle of the Beaurevoir Line ends (see 3rd).

 

NORTH RUSSIAN INTERVENTION

3rd - Action near Pyavozero Lake (Murman front).

4th - General Ironside takes over command of Allied forces at Archangel

BALKAN FRONT

1st - Berat (Albania) retaken by Italian forces (see August 26th).

5th - Vranje retaken by Serbian forces (see October 15th, 1915).

 

PALESTINE FRONT

1st - Damascus taken by British and Arab forces.

6th - Sidon, Syria occupied by British forces.

U-BOAT WARFARE

1st - Allies establish net and mine barrage across Straits of Otranto.

ADRIATIC

2nd - Durazzo bombarded by Italian and British warships (see 14th, and February 27th, 1916).

 

MONDAY 7th OCTOBER

DIPLOMACY

8th - President Wilson replies to Note of German Government, and demands evacuation of occupied territories as first condition of armistice (see 4th and 12th).

12th - German Government reply to President Wilson's Note and accept conditions (see 8th and 14th).

12th - British Government recognise the Polish National Army as autonomous, allied and co-belligerent.

GERMANY

9th - Major-General Scheuch succeeds Major-General von Stein as German Minister for War (see October 30th, 1916, and December 17th, 1918).

TURKEY

13th - Izzet Pasha succeeds Talaat Pasha as Turkish Grand Vizier (see February 4th, 1917).

CHINA

11th - Feng-Kuo-Chang, President of China, retires (see July 6th, 1917, and September 4th, 1918).

WESTERN FRONT

8th - Battle of Cambrai, 1918, begins (see 9th).

9th - Cambrai City captured by British forces (see August 26th, 1914).

9th - End of Battle of Cambrai (see 8th) brings Battles of the Hindenburg Line to a close (see September 12th).

10th - Battle of the Flanders Ridges ends (see September 28th).

12th - Craonne again captured by French forces (see May 27th).

13th - Laon and La Fere retaken by French forces (see August 30th, 1914).

 

BALKAN FRONT

7th - Elbasan (Albania) taken by Italian forces (see February 2nd, 1916).

10th - Pristina (Serbia) retaken by French forces 1915). (see November 23rd).

11th - Prizren (Serbia) retaken by French forces (see December 1st, 1915).

11th - Nish (Serbia) reoccupied by Allied forces (see November 5th, 1915).

 

PALESTINE FRONT

7th - Beirut, Syria occupied by French forces.

13th - Tripoli, Syria occupied by Allied forces.

TRANS-CASPIA

12th - Action of Dushak.

 

U-BOAT WARFARE

10th - Irish mail boat "Leinster" (below - Dave Martin) sunk by submarine.

 

MONDAY 14th OCTOBER

DIPLOMACY

14th - President Wilson replies to German Government, attaching further military conditions to the terms of armistice, and warning against further breaches of laws of war, and insists on dealing only with a democratic Government (see 12th and 20th).

14th - Turkish Government Note to President Wilson proposing an armistice delivered at Washington.

16th - Austrian Emperor issues manifesto proclaiming a Federal State on the principle of Nationality (excluding Hungary) (see 5th and 29th).

18th - President Wilson replies to Austro-Hungarian Note of October 4th (see 27th).

20th - German Government reply to President Wilson's Note accepting proposals contained therein (see 14th and 23rd).

 

WESTERN FRONT

14th - Battle of Courtrai begins (see 19th).

14th - Roulers recaptured by Allied forces (see October 18th, 1914).

15th - Battle of Champagne and Argonne ends (see September 26th).

15th - Menin captured by Allied forces (see October 9th, 1914).

17th - Ostend (see October 15th, 1914), Lille (see October 12th, 1914), and Douai (see August 26th, 1914) retaken by Allied forces.

17th - Battle of the Selle begins (see 25th).

19th - Battle of Courtrai ends (see 14th).

19th - Zeebrugge and Bruges reocoupied by Belgian forces (see October 12th and 14th, 1914).

20th - Belgian coast completely reocoupied by Allied forces (see October 15th, 1914).

 

BALKAN FRONT

14th - Durazzo (see 2nd), Novi Bazar (see November 20th, 1915), and Ipek (see December 6th, 1915) retaken by Italian forces.

 

PALESTINE FRONT

15th – Homs, Syria occupied by British cavalry.

SIBERIAN INTERVENTION

14th - British troops from Vladivostok reach Irkutsk, Siberia (see 18th, and July 13th and August 3rd).

18th - British troops from Vladivostok reach Omsk (see 14th).

 

 

MONDAY 21st OCTOBER

DIPLOMACY

21st - The Ban of Croatia refuses offer of Military Governor of Agram to suppress the Yugo-Slav National Council (see 5th and 29th).

21st - The Czecho-Slovaks declare Independence (see August 13th, September 3rd, and November 14th).

23rd - President Wilson replies to German Note of the 20th, and agrees to submit the matter to the Allied and Associated Governments (see 27th, and November 3rd).

27th - Austrian Government ask Italy for an armistice (see 4th, and November 3rd).

27th - German Government acknowledges President Wilson's Note of October 23rd.

27th - Austro-Hungarian Government submit further Note to President Wilson asking for immediate armistice "without awaiting the result of other negotiations" (see 4th and 18th).

GERMANY

27th - General von Ludendorff resigns (see August 29th, 1916).

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

24th - Dr. Wekerle, Hungarian Premier, resigns (see April 27th and November 1st).

25th - Count Andrassy succeeds Baron Burian as Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister (see April 17th und November 1st).

YUGOSLAVIA

26th - King of Montenegro issues manifesto in favour of a confederated Yugo-Slavia with autonomous States (see 29th, and November 7th and 23rd).

WESTERN FRONT

25th - Battle of the Selle ends (see 17th).

 

ITALIAN FRONT

24th - Battle of Vittorio Veneto begins (see November 4th).

 

PALESTINE FRONT

26th - Aleppo, Syria taken by British forces.

ARABIA

22nd - Affair of Imad (Aden).

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

23rd - British advance on Mosul (Mesopotamia) begins (see November 4th).

25th - Kirkuk (Mesopotamia) again taken by British forces (see May 24th).

 

 

MONDAY 28th OCTOBER

DIPLOMACY

30th - Armistice between Turkey and Entente Powers signed at Mudros (see 31st).

30th - Fiume surrendered to the Croats by the Hungarian authorities. "National Council of Fiume " proclaim the independence of the city and announce desire for union with Italy (see November 5th).

31st - Hostilities between Entente and Turkey cease at 12 noon (see 30th).

AUSTRO-HUNGARY

31st - Revolutions in Vienna and Budapest (see November 1st, 12th and 16th).

31st - Count Tisza assassinated in Vienna (see May 23rd, 1917).

YUGOSLAVIA

29th - Yugo-Slav National Council at Agram repudiate Imperial policy and declare the independence of the Yugo-Slavs (see 5th, 21st, 26th, and November 7th and 23rd).

30th - Croation Congress (Sabor) unanimously adhere to Yugo-Slav declaration of independence (see 29th).

WESTERN FRONT

 

BALKAN FRONT

29th - San Giovanni di Medua (Albania) occupied by Italian forces (see January 25th, 1916).

31st - Scutari (Albania) retaken by Italian forces (see January 23rd, 1916).

 

PALESTINE FRONT

28th - Muslimiya Junction, north of Aleppo, Syria, occupied by British cavalry.

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

28th - Battle of Sharqat begins (see 30th).

30th - Battle of Sharqat ends (see 28th). Turkish army on the Tigris surrenders.

 

AUSTRIAN NAVY

31st - Austrian Emperor makes over the Austro-Hungarian Fleet to the Yugo-Slav National Council (see 29th).


MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month - 69 ships of 117,000 tons gross. (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

 

NOVEMBER 1918

 

POLITICAL

WESTERN EUROPE

EASTERN & SOUTHERN EUROPE

ASIA & AFRICA

NAVAL & MARITIME

FRIDAY 1st NOVEMBER

DIPLOMACY

1st - "State of War" begins between The Ukraine and Poland (see 23rd).

3rd - Allied Governments agree to Germany's proposal for an armistice and peace on basis of President Wilson's proposals of January 8th (see 5th and October 23rd).

3rd - Armistice between Austria-Hungary and the Entente signed (see 4th, 15th, and October 27th).

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

1st - Baron von Flotow succeeds Count Andrassy provisionally as Austro-Hungarian Foreign Minister (see October 25th, and entry next above).

2nd - Administration of Carniola taken over from the Austro-Hungarian authorities by Slovene leaders (see August 17th).

HUNGARY

1st - Independent Hungarian Government formed. Count Karolyi appointed Premier (see October 24th and 31st).

BULGARIA

1st - King Boris of Bulgaria abdicates (see October 4th).

WESTERN FRONT

 1st - Battle of Valenciennes begins (see 2nd).

2nd - Battle of Valenciennes ends (see 1st and 3rd).

3rd - Valenciennes occupied by British forces (see 2nd, and August 25th, 1914).

BALKAN FRONT

 1st - Belgrade retaken by Serbian forces (see October 9th, 1915, and December 9th, 1918).

ITALIAN FRONT

3rd - Trieste occupied by Italian forces.

 TRANS-CASPIA

1st - Merv , Trans-Caspian, retaken by British and Russian forces (see August 18th).

EAST AFRICA

1st - German force in East Africa enters Rhodesia and attacks Fife (see 9th, and September 29th).

GERMAN NAVY

3rd - Mutiny breaks out in the German fleet at Kiel (see August 3rd, 1917).

U-BOAT WARFARE

2nd - Last British merchant vessels, S.S. "Surada" and "Murcia", sunk by submarine (in the Mediterranean).

SPECIAL FORCES WARFARE

 1st - Austrian battleship "Viribus Unitis" (below - Photo Ships) sunk by Italian frogmen in Pola harbour.

 

NORTH RUSSIA

(link to Admiralty despatch on North Russian operations, November 1918 to October 1919)

MONDAY 4th NOVEMBER

 DIPLOMACY

4th - Hostilities between Austria-Hungary and the Entente cease (see 3rd and 15th).

5th - Marshal Foch placed in supreme strategical direction of all forces operating against Germany on all fronts (see April 14th).

5th - President Wilson sends final Note to the German Government with Allies acceptance of armistice proposals (see 3rd and 8th).

8th - German armistice delegates reach Allied General Headquarters (see 11th, and October 23rd).

9th - Joint Declaration by British and French Governments regarding future of Syria and Mesopotamia.

10th - The Kaiser crosses the frontier into Holland (see 9th and 28th).

10th - King of Rumania announces that the Romanian nation have taken up arms again on the side of the Allies (see December 6th, 1917).

GERMANY

7th - Bavaria proclaimed a Republic.

9th - German Imperial Chancellor (Prince Max) announces that the Kaiser has decided to abdicate. Prince Max becomes Regent. Herr Ebert becomes Imperial Chancellor (see 10th, 28th, and October 4th).

CZECHOSLOVAKIA

9th - Czech forces at Ekaterinenburg proclaim national independence.

SERBIA

6th - King Peter of Serbia re-enters Belgrade (see 1st, and January 17th, 1916).

YUGOSLAVIA

7th - Yugo-Slav conference at Geneva decide to form a joint Yugo-Slav-Serbian Government to control military and foreign affairs (see 23rd, and October 29th).

WESTERN FRONT

4th - Battle of the Sambre.

4th - Second Battle of Guise (4th/5th).

6th - Sedan taken by United States forces (see August 29th, 1914).

8th - Maubeuge retaken by British forces (see September 7th, 1914).

10th - Mezieres retaken by French forces (see August 27th, 1914).

10th - Ghent reoccupied by Belgian forces (see October 12th, 1914).

GERMAN REVOLUTION

9th - Revolution breaks out in Berlin.

RUMANIA

10th - Allied forces cross the Danube at Ruschuk and enter Rumania.

ITALIAN FRONT

 4th - Battle of Vittorio Veneto ends (see October 24th).

 

MESOPOTAMIAN FRONT

4th - Mosul occupied by British forces (see October 23rd).

EAST AFRICA

9th - Kasama, Rhodesia taken by Colonel von Lettow-Vorbeek's force (see 1st and 13th).

 

ROYAL NAVY

5th - H.M.S. "Campania" (below, sinking - Maritime Quest) sunk by collision in the Firth of Forth.

 

U-BOAT WARFARE

9th - H.M.S. "Britannia" sunk by submarine in the Atlantic (last warship so lost).

ADRIATIC

 4th - Antivari, Montenegro occupied by Italian naval forces (see January 22nd, 1916).

 5th - Fiume occupied by Italian naval forces (see 18th, and October 30th)

EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN

.9th - Alexandretta, Syria occupied by Entente naval forces.

MONDAY 11th NOVEMBER

 DIPLOMACY

11th - Armistice concluded between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. Signed in Marshal Foch's special train at Rethondes Station in the Forest of Compiegne.

11th - British Government recognise Latvian Provisional Government as independent (see January 12th).

12th - German-Austrian Republic proclaimed.

15th - Hungarian Government (see 1st) concludes separate armistice with General Officer Commanding Allied Army, General Henry, at Belgrade (see 3rd).

17th - Yugo-Slav National Council at Agram protest against the Italian occupation of Fiume (see 5th and 18th).

ESTONIA

11th - New National Government formed in Estonia (see 16th, and January 13th).

16th - New National Government in Estonia order general mobilization (see 11th.).

POLAND

16th - Polish Government (M. Pilsudski) issue declaration proclaiming Poland an Independent and Sovereign State (see June 3rd).

AUSTRIA-HUNGARY

12th - Emperor of Austria abdicates (see October 31st).

CZECHOSLOVAKIA

14th - Professor Masaryk elected First President of the Czecho-Slovak Republic (see October 21st).

HUNGARY

16th - Hungary declares Independence (see 1st, and October 31st).

17th - M. Moraczewski appointed Polish Prime Minister (see 16th).

WESTERN FRONT

11th - Mons retaken by British forces (see August 24th, 1914).

11th - Hostilities on the Western front cease at 11 a.m. (see 8th, and December 14th).

FRANCE

17th - Mulhouse (Alsace-Lorraine) again occupied by French forces (see August 25th, 1914).

GERMANY

16th - Allied Armies begin march into Germany.

UKRAINE

15th - General Petlyura commences revolt against The Ukraine Government (see December 11th).

 

EAST AFRICA

13th - German force in East Africa reaches the Chambezi River, Rhodesia. News of armistice received (see 9th, 14th and 25th).

14th - Hostilities in East Africa cease.

ROYAL NAVY

14th - H.M.S. "Cochrane" wrecked at entrance to Liverpool.

GERMAN NAVY

15th - German cruiser "Koenigsberg" (below - Photo Ships)  with German naval delegates, enters Firth of Forth to arrange surrender of the German fleet (see 20th and 21st).

 

TURKEY

12th - Allied fleet passes through the Dardanelles (see 13th, and October 30th).

13th - Allied fleet arrives at Constantinople (see 12th and 21st).

CASPIAN SEA

17th - Baku again occupied by British forces (see September 15th). (link to part of British despatch)


MERCHANT SHIPPING

British, Allied and Neutral ships lost to enemy submarines, mines and cruisers etc in the month to 11 November - 8 ships of  15,000 tons gross. Total for 1918 to date – 1,313 ships of 2,724,000 tons gross.

 

Grand total for war – 6,927 ships of 13,089,000 tons gross  (Lloyd's War Losses)

 

MONDAY 18th NOVEMBER 

DIPLOMACY

21st - Greek, Serbian, and Rumanian Governments issue circular memorandum announcing their decision to strengthen the union between the three countries by all available means.

FRANCE

19th - General Petain created Marshal of France (see May 15th, 1917).

BELGIUM

21st - Belgian Government reinstated at Brussels (see 18th, and August 17th, 1914).

21st - M. L. Delacroix succeeds M. Cooreman as Belgian Prime Minister (see May 31st) and M. Masson succeeds Lieut.-General de Ceuninck as Minister for "War (see August 4th, 1917). (M. Delacroix was the first Minister to hold the title of Prime Minister. See note to entry of May 31st.)

YUGOSLAVIA

23rd - Yugo-Slav National Council vote for union with Serbia and formation of a common State with Serbia and Montenegro (see 7th, 29th, October 29th and December 4th).

FRANCE

18th - Last German troops recross French frontier (see August 2nd, 1914)

19th - Metz (Alsace-Lorraine) occupied by French forces.

BELGIUM

18th - Brussels reoccupied by Belgian forces (see 21st, and August 20th, 1914).

19th - Antwerp reoccupied by Belgian forces (see October 10th, 1914).

21st - Namur occupied by British forces (see August 25th, 1914).

LUXEMBOURG

20th - Luxembourg frontier crossed by United States forces (see August 2nd, 1914).

GERMANY

24th - British and United States troops reach German frontier (see December 1st).

 

 

 

RUSSIAN CIVIL WAR

18th - Counter-revolutionary coup d'etat at Omsk. Russian Admiral Kolchak proclaimed "Dictator of all Russia."

20th - General Marushevski appointed Governor-General and Commander-in-Chief of Russian forces in North Russia (Archangel) (see June 30th).

UKRAINE

23rd - Lemberg captured by Polish forces (see 1st)

.ITALIAN FRONT

18th - Italian troops reinforce naval detachment in Fiume (see 5th and 17th).

 

GERMAN NAVY

20th - First contingent of German submarines surrender to the British Navy at Harwich (see 15th).

21st - German High Seas Fleet arrives at Rosyth, en route for internment in Scapa Flow (see 15th and 20th).

TURKEY

21st - French troops land in Constantinople (see 13th).

MONDAY 25th NOVEMBER

GERMANY

28th - Kaiser Wilhelm II signs abdication (see 9th and 10th).

RUMANIA

28th - The General Congress of The Bukovina decide in favour of complete union with Rumania (see December 7th).

30th - Rumanian Government re-established at Bucharest (see December 1st, 1916).

SERBIA

29th - Montenegrin National Assembly (Skupshtina) meet at Podgoritsa and vote for union with Serbia (see 23rd).

FRANCE

25th - Strasbourg (Alsace-Lorraine) occupied by French forces.

BELGIUM

26th - Last German troops recross Belgian frontier (see August 4th, 1914).

GERMANY

26th - French troops cross German frontier.

ESTONIA

28th - Narva (Estonia) captured by Bolshevik forces (see March 4th).

ITALIAN FRONT

 26th - United States force enters Fiume (see 17th).

EAST AFRICA

25th - German forces in East Africa surrender to Allied forces at Abercorn, Rhodesia (see 13th and 14th).

BLACK SEA

26th - Allied fleet arrives at Sevastopol and takes over remainder of the Russian Black Sea Fleet from the Germans (see 13th, and May 1st).