Read all about USS Jeannette's general description, specifications and time line.

Notes:

1. Latitude/longitude, including for days in port, show representative decimal positions for each day, as calculated by the Old Weather project's analysis program. As such, they differ by varying amounts from the positions recorded, usually at noon, in the log pages. In addition, some latitudes/longitudes have been amended in edited logs for errors in the logs, for errors in identifying locations by the analysis program, or simply for greater accuracy. In all cases, refer to the log-page scans for the positions as originally recorded. Not all log pages contain this information and the ships' positions have therefore often been estimated.

2. Full account of any day is available by clicking on the link above that day. Any groups of links may refer to log book covers and introductory information; some may be blank.

3. Editor's note: De Long's private journal Volume 1 & 2 were edited and published by his wife, Emma De Long, as “The voyage of the Jeannette. The ship and ice journals of George W. De Long, lieutenant-commander U.S.N. and commander of the Polar expedition of 1879-1881” (pub. 1884). Quotes from the journal in this transcription are from this online illustrated edition:
https://archive.org/details/voyageofjeannett001delo
https://archive.org/details/voyageofjeannett02delo


"You, Lieutenant DeLong, have a very strong vessel, have you not? Magnificently equipped for the service, with unexceptionable crew and aids? And you will take plenty of provisions, and all the coal you can carry? Then, put her into the ice and let her drift, and you may get through or you may go to the devil, and the chances are about equal!"


Captain Nye, whaling barque Mt. Wollaston (lost in the ice with all hands in 1879)


Crew List and Their Fates

[Name]

[Designation

(Inquest report)]

[Boat]

[Fate]

[Log Book Designation]

George W. DeLong

Commanding Officer

First Cutter

Died in Lena Delta

Lieutenant

James M. Ambler

Passed Assistant Surgeon

First Cutter

Died in Lena Delta

P.A. Surgeon

George W. Melville

Chief Engineer

Whaleboat

Rescued by natives

P.A. Engineer

Raymond Lee Newcomb

Naturalist and Astronomer

Whaleboat

Rescued by natives

Seaman

William Dunbar

Ice Pilot

Second Cutter

Fate not known

Seaman

John (Jack) Cole

Boatswain

Whaleboat

Rescued by natives

Seaman

Jerome J. Collins

Expedition Meteorologist & Correspondent "New York Herald"

First Cutter

Died in Lena Delta

Seaman

John W. Danenhower

Second Officer

Whaleboat

Rescued by natives

Master

Charles W. Chipp

Executive Officer

Second Cutter

Fate not known

Lieutenant

William F. C. Nindemann

Carpenter

First Cutter

Sent ahead for relief -rescued

Seaman

Louis P. Noros

Seaman

First Cutter

Sent ahead for relief -rescued

Seaman

Charles Tong Sing

Cook

Whaleboat

Rescued by natives

Seaman

Aniguin

Dog-driver and Hunter

Whaleboat

Rescued by natives, died 1883 in Siberia (Smallpox)

Hunter & dog driver

Alfred Sweetman

Carpenter's Mate

Second Cutter

Fate not known

Seaman

Walter Sharvell

Coal heaver

Second Cutter

Fate not known

Coal Heaver

Albert G. Kuehne

Seaman

Second Cutter

Fate not known

Seaman

Edward Star

Seaman

Second Cutter

Fate not known

Seaman

Henry D. Warren

Seaman

Second Cutter

Fate not known

Seaman

Peter E. Johnson

Seaman

Second Cutter

Fate not known

Seaman

Hans H. Ericksen

Seaman

First Cutter

Died in Lena Delta

Seaman

Heinrich H. Kaack

Seaman

First Cutter

Died in Lena Delta

Seaman

George W. Boyd

Coal heaver

First Cutter

Died in Lena Delta

2nd Class Fireman

Walter Lee

Machinist & Coppersmith

First Cutter

Died in Lena Delta

Machinist

Adolph Dressler

Seaman

First Cutter

Died in Lena Delta

Seaman

Carl A. Goertz

Seaman

First Cutter

Died in Lena Delta

Seaman

Nelse Iverson

Coal heaver

First Cutter

Died in Lena Delta

Coal Heaver

Ah Sam

Seaman

First Cutter

Died in Lena Delta

Seaman

Alexey

Dog-driver and Hunter

First Cutter

Died in Lena Delta

Hunter & dog driver

John Lauterbach

Coal heaver

Whaleboat

Rescued by natives

Coal Heaver

Herbert Wood Leach

Seaman

Whaleboat

Rescued by natives

Seaman

James H. Bartlett

Fireman

Whaleboat

Rescued by natives

1st Class Fireman

Frank E. Manson

Seaman

Whaleboat

Rescued by natives

Seaman

Henry Wilson

Seaman

Whaleboat

Rescued by natives

Seaman


THE VOYAGES OF HMS USS JEANNETTE 1879-1881
(More detailed plots follow in the text)

JP map overview

(Maps prepared using Journey Plotter, developed by Maikel. The Plots can only be approximate. They are made by joining-up positions on successive days, and sometimes positions are not given. There will therefore be occasions when the ship appears to have travelled overland)

LOG BOOK – 25 JUNE 1879 TO 9 JANUARY 1880


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Title Page

Arctic Steamer "Jeannette"

Commanded by Lieutenant George W. DeLong

Commencing June 25th, 1879, at Navy Yard, Mare Island, Cal., and ending January 9th, 1880, at Latitude N. 72° 25' Longitude W. 177° 26' at which point the ship is still beset and drifting in the pack ice of the Arctic Ocean.


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Directions for keeping the ship's log


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List of Officers & others

Attached to and on board of the US Arctic Steamer "Jeannette", commanded by Lieut. Geo. W. De Long, USN, at the time of leaving the anchorage at San Francisco, Cal. the 8th day of July 1879.


George W. DeLong

Lieutenant

Chas. W. Chipp

Lieutenant

John W. Danenhower

Master

George W. Melville

P.A. Engineer

James M. Ambler

P.A. Surgeon

Mr. Jerome J. Collins, Meteorologist

Seaman

Mr. Raymond L. Newcomb, Naturalist

Seaman

Mr. William Dunbar, Ice Pilot

Seaman

John Cole

Seaman

Alfred Sweetman

Seaman

W.F.C. Nindemann

Seaman

Walter Lee

Machinist

James H. Bartlett

1st class Fireman

George W. Boyd

2nd class Fireman

Walter Sharvell

Coal Heaver

Nelse Iverson

Coal Heaver

John Lauterbach

Coal Heaver

Louis P. Noros

Seaman

H.W. Leach

Seaman

Henry Wilson

Seaman

C.A. Görtz

Seaman

P.E. Johnson

Seaman

Edward Star

Seaman

Henry D. Warren

Seaman

H.H. Kaack

Seaman

A.G. Kuehne

Seaman

F.E. Manson

Seaman

H.H. Erickson

Seaman

Adolph Dressler

Seaman

Charles Tong Sing

Seaman

Ah Sam

Seaman

Ah Sing

Seaman

Alexey

Hunter & dog driver

Aniguin

Hunter & dog driver


Ah Sing [seaman]: Discharged August 21st, 1879 at St. Michaels, Alaska and provided with passage to San Francisco, Cal.


Alexey: Received at St. Michaels, Alaska, August 21st.

Aniguin: Received at St. Michaels, Alaska, August 21st.


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Armament Page

1 steam cutter

2 whale boats

2 cutters

2 dinghies

1 folding canvas boat


Small Arms


12

Remington BL rifles

7000 rifle cartridges

From Bureau of Ordnance through Mare Island Yard

6

Remington BL revolvers

3000 revolver cartridges

3

Winchester repeating rifles

2500 Winchester cartridges

Private purchase

4

Remington RB shot guns

and 6000 cartridges

2

Remington RB with extra rifle band

and 2000 cartridges

10

English BL rifles

and 500 cartridges

10

English ML rifles

and 500 cartridges

6

English self-cocking revolvers

and 500 cartridges


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THE VOYAGES OF USS JEANNETTE
Operations in the North Pacific

JP map Jeannette North Pacific

LOGS FOR JUNE 1879

At Navy Yard Mare Island, California


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25 June 1879


Lat 38.1, Long -122.3

Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal.


Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1 tons 1360 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 140 tons 1340 lbs


At 2pm the ship was placed in commission by Captain P.C. Johnson, US Navy, and turned over to the command of Lieutenant George W. DeLong, US Navy.


Officers

Lieutenant George W. DeLong, U.S. Navy

Lieutenant Chas. W. Chipp, U.S. Navy

Master John W. Danenhower, U.S. Navy

P.A. Eng. George W. Melville, U.S. Navy

P.A. Surg. G.M. Ambler, U.S. Navy


Crew

Walter Lee, Coppersmith

Jas. H. Bartlett, Fireman

William Dunbar, Seaman

Louis P. Noros, Seaman

H.W. Leach, Seaman

Henry Wilson, Seaman

C.A. Gortz, Seaman

R.E. Johnson, Seaman

Edward Starr, Seaman

Henry D. Warren, Seaman

H.R. Kaack, Seaman

A.G. Kuehne, Seaman

F.E. Mansen, Seaman

H.H. Erickson, Seaman

W.F.C. Nindemann, Seaman

Adolph Dressler, Seaman

John Lauterbach, Coal Heaver

Geo. W. Boyd, Coal Heaver

Nelse Iversen, Coal Heaver


At 2.10 slipped from buoy and stood down the river with a pilot and having on board a board of officers consisting of Capt. P.C. Johnson, USN, Cmdr. C.J. McDougal, USN and Chief Engineers George F. Kurtz and Edward Farmer US Navy. Engines working smoothly and well. Ship's draught forward 10' 11" Aft 13' 3 ½". At 3.07 crossed range of Thompson's Point and Pyramid Rock and set course by landmark on Jamalpais. Put three patent logs over. Strong flood tide and gentle breeze from S.

[signed] Chas. W. Chipp, Lieutenant U.S.N. Executive Officer


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Gentle wind from S.S.W. At 4.07 patent logs showed 4.6, 4.3, 4.4. Mean speed per hour 4.4 knots. The turning power of the ship was then tested. Complete circle with helm a ‘port was made in 7m 41s. Complete circle with helm a ‘starb‘d was made in 5m 38s. Estimated diameter of circles 110 yards At 4.45 started on return over previous track and crossed range at 5.10. Distance per patent logs 2 ¼ miles. Speed per hour 5.4 knots. Mean speed for both runs 4.9 knots. Returned to Navy Yard 5.30 and moored to lower buoy off Sectional Dock. Board of officers left the ship at 5.30. Hauled fires. Draught 10' 11" forward 13' 3½" aft.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from S. Ship swung to ebb tide at 6.30.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Light S.W. wind increasing to a strong breeze at 10.

[signed] Alfred Sweetman


Moon 1° S.

First quarter


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Description of the Instruments

[Paper insert:]

Description of the Instruments used in making the meteorological observations recorded in the columns of the Log Book.


Barometer

The standard was a mercurial barometer made by Adie, London, No. 1231, and was placed in the state-room of the Commanding Officer.

For convenience of observation a holosteric aneroid barometer made by T.S. & J.D. Negus, New York (without numbers) was placed in the open air on the outside of the cabin bulkhead and remained there from June 25th to 4.30pm September 25th, 1879. The entries in the log book between these dates are readings of this barometer; and a general correction of one tenth of an inch (0.1") subtractive must be applied to these to make them agree with the standard mercurial at similar temperatures.

At 4.30pm September 25th, 1879, the said aneroid was moved to within the cabin, and set by comparison with mercurial standard to a reading reduced to a temperature of 32° Fahrenheit.

At 2pm September 27th, 1879 it was set to comparison with mercurial standard to a reading reduced to a temperature of 46° Fahrenheit. The reading of this aneroid was discontinued at midnight October 31st, 1879.

From 1am November 1st, 1879 to midnight January 9th, 1880 the readings for the log were made from aneroid barometer No. 28051 which had been set by comparison with mercurial standard to a reading reduced to 32° Fahrenheit.


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[Paper insert:]

Thermometers

The standard was a mercurial thermometer, No. 4313 made by Green, New York.


Air Dry Bulb, Air Wet Bulb.

From June 25th to October 31st midnight, the dry bulb was recorded from readings of mercurial thermometer No 2009, USN, made by J.T. Large, and which comparison with mercurial standard requires a correction of eight tenths of one degree (0.8°) additive. The wet bulb was recorded from readings of a mercurial thermometer (without number) made by J.D. Potter, Poultey, London, and which by comparison with mercurial standard requires a correction of three and a half degrees (3 ½°) subtractive.

From November 1st, 1879, 1am, to January 9th, 1880, midnight, the dry bulb was recorded from readings of standard mercurial thermometer made by Green, New York.


Water Surface.

These temperatures were recorded from readings of a mercurial thermometer made by J.D. Potter, Poultey, London, which by comparison with mercurial standard requires correction of two degrees (2°) subtractive.


Deep Sea Temperatures

At 1 fathom from the lead. L. Casella, London No 24415

At 16 fathoms from the lead. L. Casella, London No 27110

At 30 fathoms from the lead. L. Casella, London No 25257


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[Paper insert:]

Specific Gravities

Water brought up by "Sigsbee Water Cups".

Salinometer (Hydrometer weighted with red sealing wax, marked "Tagliabue, New York, Specific Gravity Co." F. Scale 1.020 to 1.031.

Hydrometer (weighted with small shot), no name of maker. Marked "Specific Gravity Co F." Scale 1.000 to 1.030

[signed] George W. DeLong Lieutenant US Navy Commanding Jeannette


Force of Wind

From June 25th to October 31st, 1879, the force of the wind was estimated and recorded according to the Beaufort scale.

From November 1st, 1879, 1am to January 9th, 1880 midnight - the velocity of the wind was estimated and recorded by the readings of an anemometer, marked "J. Green, N.Y." 10 "Signal Service USA" No. 120"

[signed] George W. DeLong


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26 June 1879

Lat 38.1, Long -122.3

Navy Yard Mare Island, Cal.


Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1500 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 139 tons 2080 lbs

Underway, standing down San Francisco Bay.

11pm Set fore and aft

12pm Took in fore and aft


[This page rescanned for every new inventory page inserted in the logbook at this date.]


Com. and until 4am

Clear weather. Fresh breeze from S.W. At 3 wind moderated and weather became foggy.

[signed] William Dunbar.


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breeze from S.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breeze from W.S.W. Engaged in receiving stores and stowing holds. A complete list of stores in the ship is attached to the log. Observed bearings for compass deviation as ship swung to ebb tide.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Fresh breeze from S.S.W. Engaged receiving stores and making preparations for departure from Navy Yard. Started fires under both boilers at 2.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Fresh breeze from S.S.W. Received visits from Commodore E.R. Calhoun and the officers of the Navy Yard and receiving ship.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Fresh breeze from S.S.W. At 6.17 slipped buoy and steamed down the river with pilot on board. Was cheered by yard workmen. Manned rigging and returned cheers. Was cheered by receiving ship "Independence". Ship's draught 13' 4 ½" aft and 10' 11" forward. Engines working smoothly.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Hazy weather. Fresh breeze from S.W. by S. Standing down San Francisco Bay. Jerome J. Collins and Raymond L. Newcomb were this day enlisted in the U.S. Naval Service as Seamen for special duty during the cruise of this vessel. By order of Comd'g the rate of Wallis Lee, Coppersmith was changed to Machinist with pay of $50 per month to date from today.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon 7° S.

First quarter


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List of stores on board "Jeannette"

Navigation Outfit


6 box chronometers

2 mercurial barometers

1 lead line reel

1 letter press

3 transporting cases

3 aneroid barometers

3 scratch blocks

¼ lbs red linen thread

2 triple chro. boxes

3 hydrometers

6 lbs awning

¼ lbs blue linen thread

3 comparing watches

6 log books

4 log chips

12 sheets blotting paper

3 liquid compasses 7 ½"

30 grs. log paper

2 time glasses 14"3

1 box pens

6 boat-liq. comp.

6 chronometer comp. books

1 time glass 28

1 comp. dev. & comp.

1 azimuth circle

2 time & position books

20 lbs. log line

5 Rodgers dev. cards

4 Superior sextants

1 double burner lamp

2 order books

1 Reported Dangers N.P.

1 night octant

1 single burner lamp

6 mem. books

1 Vancouver Island pilot

6 artificial horizons

6 store room lanterns

10 sheets D.E. paper

2 lists foreign l'ts

1 Superior spy glass

18 hand lantern

10 yards tracing muslin

1 Alaska directory

1 Superior binocular

2 sets Army signals

1 Gunters scale

1 Pacific Coast dir.

2 ord. binocular

2 Am. ensign. 10'

3 doz. black lead pencils

1 Gen. Ex. N.P.

40 lbs. Sig. halliards

1 Am. ensign. 12'

½ doz. blue lead pencils

1 N.P. pilot (parts I & II)

12 spare lamp chimneys

1 narrow pennant 20'

½ doz. red lead pencils

1 N.P. directory

2 spare lamp shades

1 narrow pennant 9'

2 fog horns

3 Casella-Miller thermometers

2 spare lamp globes

4 narrow pennant 6'

1 pair dividers

1 rain gauge

6 gr. wove wick

1 Union Jack No.7

10 spare lantern shades

1 Colby's horizon In.

32 lbs spun wick

1 Union Jack No.8

1 tripod for azimuth

12 deflecting bars

2 lamp feeders

1 deck trumpet

3 thermometers

6 deck magnets

2 trimming scissors

5 yards red bunting 18"

300 candles (running lts.)

1 standard measure

4 horn lanterns

5 yards blue bunting 18"

2 cases for psychrometers

2 Bliss. taff rail logs

12 horn lanterns shades

5 yards white bunting 18"

charts portfolio 2

1 gradienter

3 hand leads 7 lbs.

2 ½ yards yellow bunting 18"

Pacific 629 to 705 in. sx 653

1 pocket compass

2 hand leads 9 lbs.

10 yards ravens

charts part. No.4

2 prismatic comp.

1 deep sea lead 80 lbs.

5 yards white muslin

(25 to 60 inclusive)

1 pocket sextant

1 deep sea lead 100 lbs.

3 yards sandi cups

charts part. No. 5 (526.527.528.529)

2 current meters

6 hand lead lines

1 coasting line 32 lbs

charts part. No. 9 (579 to 1040 in.)

1 pocket prismatic circle



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List of Stores on board Jeannette.

Navigation Outfit Col 5+6 and Ordnance


12 rubber blankets

1 Argus chronometer

6 Rem. revolvers

10 Tower rifles

12 canteens

1 Hall chronometer

12 Rem. rifles & spare parts

10 muzzle loading rifles

2 side gauges

1 sextant

6 revolver cart. boxes

6 Vaughn revolvers

1 mosquito bar

1 course indicator

6 revolver frogs

500 Vaughn cartridges

10 knapsacks

1 aneroid barometer

12 rifle cart. boxes

500 Tower cartridges

1 anemometer

1 mercurial barometer

18 waist belts

500 muzzle cartridges

1 dip circle

1 spyglass

2 padlocks & keys

500 percussion caps

1 Zenith telescope and stand

1 binocular

1 copper funnel

1 Brass gun & carriage

1 Morse register

1 port charts. 2 loose charts

1 powder measure

2 whale guns

1 Alaska Coast pilot

3 thermometers

1 lbs match rope

6 kegs (150 lbs) powder (blasting)

1 Behring's Sea dir.

1 Walker's patent log

1 D.E. machine

1 kegs (50 lbs) rifle powder

1 Adm. Arc, papers 1875

2 time glasses 14s"

20 boarding pikes

6 bullet moulds

1 Buchan's meteorology

1 clock

20 boarding guards


1 Loomis meteorology

250 gals sperm oil

250 magazine candles


1 Guyat's tables


7000 rifle cartridges


2 hand leads 11 lbs


3000 revolver cartridges


1 hand leads 7 lbs


2000 S.R. cartridges


2 hand leads 15 & 30


6000 shot gun cartridges


1 hand lead line


2500 Winchester cartridges


1 deep-sea lead line


5000 USMC shells


1 masthead light


15000 wads No. 12


2 side lights


2000 wads No. 10


2 bull's eye lanterns


5000 percussion caps


1 Copper globe lantern


3 Winchester rifles


1 French Mod. lamp


4 D.B. shotguns


8 small hand lamps


2 shotguns & S.R.


2 binnacles


470 lbs shot


1 standard binnacle


50 lbs shot




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List of Stores on board Jeannette.

Engineer's stores Col 1-4


1 balance spring

1 bulls eye lamp

50 lbs iron, flat ¾"x4"

18 lbs square steel 1"

1 iron beck

6 box lamps

82 lbs iron, flat ¾"x2"

10 lbs square steel ¾"

1 hand bellows

25 lbs sperm candles

82 lbs iron, flat ½"x3"

6 lbs square steel ½"

1 forge

12 lbs concentrated lye

54 lbs iron, flat ½"x2"

1 lbs copper tacks

3 iron blocks

23 lbs copper bolt 1"

18 lbs iron, flat ¼"x2"

100 lbs tallow

12 flat chisels

9 lbs copper bolt ¾"

47 lbs iron, flat sq.1"

6 ordinary thermometers

3 calipers

6 lbs copper bolt ½"

32 lbs iron, flat sq. ¾"

12 thermometers for Salinometer

12 cape chisels

15 lbs copper bolt 1 ¼" drifts

9 lbs iron, flat sq. ½"

24 sheets tin

1 compasses

62 lbs copper sheet

34 lbs iron, flat sq. rod ½"

10lb black tin

2 coal mauls

1 lbs ground emery

38 lbs iron, flat sq. rod 1"

25 ft. rubber tubing 9/16"

1 pipe wrench

½ in emery cloth

16 ft. pipe iron ¾"

50 lbs iron washers

2 screw drivers

6 sq. bastard files

30 nipples. 30 plugs

200 lbs cotton waste

2 ratchets

24 flat bastard files

30 elbows. 30 unions

5 lbs iron wire

1 crank drill

24 ½ ~ bastard files

30 tees

5 lbs copper wire

24 drills

6 round bastard files

5 lbs plum bags

5 lbs brass wire

3 Prossers ex. 2 ½"

3 tri saw files

10 lbs iron rivets

3 gr screws

1 mounted grindstone

1 set firing tools

2 lbs copper rivets

½ lbs worsted zephyr

1 hack saw

41 lbs sheet gum ½"

10 lbs rosin

1 wooden snatch block

6 saw blades

60 lbs sheet gum ¼"

2 lbs rotten stone

6 doormats 1 ladle

2 chipping hammers

40 lbs sheet gum 3/16"

6 sail needles

500 gals sperm oil

3 copper hammers

30 lbs sheet gum 0.12"

5 lbs sal ammoniac

25 official envelopes

1 hatchet

17 lbs sheet gum 1/16"

½ lbs sewing twine

5 qrs paper

1 metal hydrometer

¼ lbs ground glass

12 steel shovels

6 gum loops

50ft hose 2.5"

6 hammer handles

22 lbs flat steel 1"x 1 ½"

1 piece India ink

50ft hose 1"

12 hydrometers

22 lbs octagon steel 1 ¼"

2 pts. black ink

1 hose pipe

6 lamp shades

20 lbs flat steel 1"

1 bot. carmine ink

1 hydraulic jack 10 tons

1 indicator cord

10 lbs flat steel ¾"

1 bot. mucilage

2 jack screws

70 lbs flat iron 1x4

5 lbs flat steel ½"

6 sts drawing paper



50a27fd77438ae05bd00003d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_015_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd00003f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_015_1.jpg)


List of Stores on board Jeannette.

Engineer's stores Col 5-8


6 sheets blotting paper

24 hand lanterns

6 packing hooks

12 scrub brushes

2 qrs. foolscap

42 lbs lead pipe

6 screw hooks

6 white wash brushes

2 qrs letter paper

65 lbs sheet lead

2 pipe wrenches

20 yards hemp canvas

2 qrs note paper

10 lbs marline

1 pair pliers

1 engine & boiler

1 gr paper fasteners

10 lbs nails

1 set reamers

  for steam launch

1 dry pen holders

2 lbs bellows nails

1 screw punch

1 bag pipes for same

1 dry lead & 1 doz slate pencils

12 squirt cans

1 sewing palm

2 boxes taps & dies

4 log slates

6 oil feeders

1 pair Timmans shears

1 hand saw

1 ve~k book 2qr.

12 lbs hemp packing

1 pair hand shears

12 blades for slice bars

12 drawing tacks

10 lbs cotton packing

1 shoe knife

1 tallow kettle

1 nest ink saucers

50 lbs tucks packing

4 iron sledges

1 ratchet brace

1 Gunter's scale

10 lbs Seldens packing

2 soldering irons

3 oil measures

1200 indicator cards

½ gr sandpaper

1 kettle tallow

12 drills

2 log books

50 lbs black paint

1 bung borer

2 coal hammers

2 ink stands

4 gal red paint

1 screw plate & tape

5 Cape & Cold chisels

25 lbs round iron

0.5 gal papan (American)

1 set gas stocks, taps &c

361 spanners

25 lbs round iron

100 lbs red lead

1 bench vice

5 packing screws

15 lbs round iron

100 lbs white lead

1 hand vice

18 box spanners

7 lbs round iron

20 lbs litharge lead

2 hose spanners

6 caulking irons

7 lbs round iron

10 gal turpentine

6 screw wrenches

1 oil syringe

28 lbs sheet iron

16 ft. iron pipe 1.5"

12 glass tubes

3 oil punches

142 lbs sheet iron

16 ft. iron pipe 1.25"

4 oz. hydrochloric acid

1 piece iron 4x1.25

227 lbs sheet iron

16 ft. iron pipe 1"

20 gals asphaltine

1 pair cutting shears

214 lbs sheet iron

1 lamp trimmers

20 lbs anti-att metal

1 piece sheet rubber

10 lbs ~swicking

1 oil funnel

60 lbs bolts & nuts (ass't)

1 anvil

1 set pipe tape

2 funnels

1 lbs borax

0.5 bar steel

12 globe lanterns

1 set measure

12 Bristol bricks

6 pairs tongs

12 bunker lanterns

1 brass syringe

12 corn brooms

2 screw janks~




2 soldering irons




3 shovels




1 Salinometer




1 lot rubber packing




3 pieces sheet brass




4 spare blades for propeller




1 copper hammer




3 canvas buckets




1 lot lamp wick




1 steel yard




1 piece rubber 0.5"




8 pieces rubber 0.5" 10x9



50a27fd77438ae05bd000041: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_016_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd000043: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_016_1.jpg)


List of Stores on board Jeannette.

Engineer's stores Col 9-12


1 manila towline 5" 694 lbs

4 serving boards

2 copper hose pipes

12 lbs cotton & 15 lbs flax twine

6 chain hooks

1 serving mallet

1 set stencils (complete)

1 pair 10" shears

1 anchor, stock 500+150=650

15 sail needles

15 ~squilgees 6 axes

20 mattresses 20 covers

1 junk axe

1 pair cutting nippers

1 young's galley(complete)

20 pillows

12 clamp & shand brushes

1 pair pliers (for wire)

1 cleaver 1 griddle

9 doz loops 6p. India ink

2 tar brushes

1 2ft rule

2 copper & 2 iron tea kettles

4 pts. black ink. 3 pen knives

10 hickory brooms

12 scrapers

1 grid iron & 2 ladles

3 mucilage. 63 D. paper

1 silver call

1 steel saw

3 bake & 3 frying pans

3 box P fasteners. 111 s. blotting paper

30 lbs hemp cord'g 6th.

15 lbs Seine~ twine

6 stew pans & 2 pokers

2 doz penholders. 0.5 rm letter paper

30 lbs hemp cord'g 9th.

4 lbs whipping twine

1 iron pot & 2 shovels

3 gr. steel pens 1gr reg paper

60 lbs hemp cord'g 12"

4 lbs sewing twine

2 iron spoons & 2 tongs

3 flat rulers. 3 porc~ slates

70 lbs hemp cord'g 15"

12 thimbles

2 tinder boxes, flint &c

96 red tape. 9 eq. invoice

7 0lbs hemp cord'g 18"

12 lbs tallow

2 tormentors~, 2 waffle irons

1 conduct & 1 liberty book

60 lbs hemp cord'g 1.75in

0.5 bbl. tar

2 fish. 1 scouse kettle

3 doz red & blue pencils

70 lbs hemp cord'g 2"

1 tank for tar

2 36.5 tons coal (Anc.)

10 bd'ls official envelopes

210 lbs lanyard stuff 3.25"

1 tapeline

0.5 ton black "~ coal

1 set-Yeo. acc't books

70 lbs Vyome~ spun yarn

6 brad & 2 wire awls

1 sack charcoal

12 monthly returns

50 lbs marline

6 belaying pins

32 campstools 9 lbs beeswax

1 balance or scale

50 lbs hambroline

3 dust brushes

50 clothes bags. 60 coal bags

3 pieces India rubber

9 toggle irons

12 bath bricks

233 yards flax canvas Nos. 3.6.7.8.

1 vial red ink

1 hack saw

8 white wash brushes

1 Commander 2 fids.

52 lbs hemp  rope 3.5" 4 st.

24 hooks & thimbles

16 candle timer~

150 yds. old canvas

10 lbs hemp rope 3.5" 3 st.

200 fish hooks

1 fire extinguisher

2 sail hooks 2 knives

97 lbs hemp rope 3.25" 4 st.

350 lbs junk

16 charges extinguisher

1 measuring line. 1 jackass

161 lbs hemp rope 3" 4 st.

25 fishing lines

1 conductor point

47 needles (assorted)

31 lbs hemp rope 2.75" 4 st.

1 grams~

1 side pump leather

16 palms (assorted)

71 lbs hemp rope 2.5" 4 st.

2 hides (4 sides)

100 ft. force pump hose

3 prickers. 1 yd. stick

10 lbs hemp rope 2.25" 3 st.

10 marline spikes

2 spanners

140 f'th Boltrope (ass't)

9 ~man books 2 P. folders



50a27fd77438ae05bd000045: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_017_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd000047: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_017_1.jpg)


List of Stores on board Jeannette.

Equipment stores Col 1-4


32 lbs 2" hemp rope 3st.

2 upholsters twine – 2 lbs

1 old side ladder

3 whale spears

97 lbs ratline stuff (18 & 15th)

4 toggles 2", 8 iron rings

1 box ink. 1 box cutlery

3 davit cleats

48 lbs serging (9 & 6th)

2 gr. mat. tufts. 1.5 lbs fish lines

2 bark crocking

2 spare bollards

92 lbs marline 2 sides leather

1 roll mat. binding. 64 coal bag

4 sledges. 2 ice saws

2 spare axe handles

6 yards flax canvas No.7

10 clue irons. 30 hammocks

1 box zinc trays

20 round battens

3 lbs sewing twine

37 thimbles. 100 yd. H. Duck

1 cross cut saw

1 basket scales ~

118 lbs 4" manila rope

2.5 sides Bellows leather

1 pit saw

1 hemp towline 3.5"

174 lbs 2.75" manila rope

88 eyelet-grommets 1"

1 sledge cooking stove

1 gross hawser 5"

46 lbs 3.25" manila rope

12 0.5" eyelet-grommets

1 box old fishing lines

1 gross hawser 4"

235 lbs 3" manila rope

20 1 5/16th" eyelet-grommets

6 life buoys 10 rowlocks

1 tin tar oil

882 lbs 2.75"manila rope

27 lbs cod-line

1 ship's bell 4 squilgees

2 bbl. lime

482 lbs 2.5" manila rope

3 grapnels.3 s'ks charcoal

1 lot old stove pipe

1 jar chlor. lime

415 lbs 2.25" manila rope

3 cord pine wood

1 bag with glue

2 cork fenders

173 lbs 2" manila rope

12 harpoons. 6 ice claws

1 iron tank. 1 meat safe

2 chain stoppers

65 lbs 1.75" manila rope

1 ice drill. 1 ice gouge

1 gangway ladder

2 sets manila wheel ropes

32 lbs 1.5" manila rope

2 choppers. 2 slicers

2 gangway stanchions

2 watch tackles

10 lbs white marline

2 whale knives & 7 lances

2 anchor ports

1 jackass

280 yards cot. can. (Nos. 1.5.6)

3 ice chisels. 3 pick axes

12 spare oars

1 suit stoned sails~

103 yards cot. can. (8 oz.)

1 pair whale bbl. slings

2 harness casks

2 topsails

226 yards hammock duck

1 pair T slings

1 wooden davit

1 jib. 1 spanker

18 yards bag duck

6 boat anchors

2 sets saw legs

1 forecastle awning

96 yards light ravens~

3 iron tanks

2 sets harness casks

1 Q'r D'k awning

1594 yards flax canvas (No 2.3.4.5.6.)

1 bag rosin

2 spare T. G. yards

1 suit boat sails

358 lbs boltrope (3.25" to 1.25")

6 sieves

1 box pat. kindling

2 new topsails

84 lbs manila (2" to 9th)

2 wheel standards

16 tent poles. 4 tents

1 skylight cover

46 lbs cotton twine. 17 lbs beeswax

1 spare wheel

19 sledge battens

4 new T.G sails

3 lbs 3/8ths" hemp line. 3 lbs houseline

3 dead light plugs

1 lot cooking utensils

1 new outer jib

10 lbs wh. marline. 0.5 W. lin thread

4 awning stanchions

1 large ice pick

1 new jib


2 hood rods




1 flagstaff




1 stand awn stanchion




[Editor's Note: last 4 items for steam launch]





50a27fd77438ae05bd000049: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_018_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd00004b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_018_1.jpg)


List of Stores on board Jeannette.

Equipment stores Col 5, Naturalists stores, Scientific Outfit Scientific Books, Photographic Equipment, Surgeon's outfit


[Equipment stores col5]

[Naturalists Outfit col2]

[Scientific Outfit col2]

[Scientific Books]

1 new sq. foresail

1 lbs copper wire (annealed)

2 glass jars for hydrometers

Johnson's Cyclopedia

1 new boomd~ foresail

0.5 lbs brass wire (annealed)

3 cold bulb thers

Blazano's Storms

1 new boomd mainsail

6 lbs iron wire (assorted)

3 chro watches

Flint. Human Physiology

1 new spanker

1 lbs sponges 2 gr. corks

2 pluviometers

Dall's Alaska

1 new fore topmast staysail

50 yards cotton sheeting

1 transit theod. &c.

Coves American Birds

4 boat covers

2 tin & 1 glass funnel

1 reflecting circle

US Dispensatory

1 hoisting engine cover

100 bottles (4&2 oz.)

4 specimen water bottles

Ellis' Med. Formulary

2 new tents

50 lbs cotton batten

7 deep sea thers.

Hygiene

Naturalists Outfit

400 lbs Indian meal

4 aneroid bar

Analysis of Urine

2m~ ship tags. 1gr quill pens

1 bbl. calcined plaster

1 pocket spectroscope

Ringer's therapeutics

12 penholders. 3 D pencils

100 fruit jars

3 sets pocket Thers

Roscoe's El. Chemistry

1 box D pens.  6 papers pens

50 lbs arsenic

4 aneroid bar.

Rech's Ocean

2m naturalists pens. 2 syringes

3 lbs picric acid

1 pocket spectroscope

Manual of Mollusca

50 sheets cork. 2 gr vials

5 lbs salsylic acid

3 sets pocket thers

Brocas Human Hybridity

20 sheets parchment. 2 whetstones

1 lbs chloroform

6 holders for vac thers

Chauvenet's Sp P. Asst

12 bradawls. 12 surgeon's needles

2 lbs glycerin

12 holders for merc. thers

Peschels Races of Man

12 s. blk thread. 12 s. wht thread

1 lbs cyanide potash

12 holders for min thers

Gerkin's Ice Age

6 papers needles. 18 sable brushes

1 gal sulp. acid

4 pocket anemometers

Bancroft's Native

6 paint or sash brushes. 10 scissors

Scientific Outfit

6 Sigsbee's cups

Races. Pacific Coast

2 steel scrapers. 2 tape measures

1 pendulum (complete)

1 large anemometer

Surgeon's outfit

2 ebony scalpels. 2 forceps

1 transit (complete)

25 mer thermometers

8 oz. acacia pulvis.

2 B. files. 50 lbs tow.

1 Zenith Tel. (complete)

20 min thermometers

8 oz. acid acetum

1 marking pat. 2 brushes & ink

1 magneto meridian

1 Daniel's hydrometer

4 oz. carbol. crye~

1 qr. D. paper. 40lb manila paper

1 small clip circle

6 small stands

3 oz. carbol imp.

0.5in. large shelf paper.

1 ozomometer.

Photographic

8 oz. acid. cit.

50 slats Bristol board 22x28

3 ther. for. ter. rad.

30 doz dry plates

16 oz. acid mur.

25 slats Bristol board medium

3 B.B. thers in vacuo

1 camera

16 oz. acid nit.

3lb, iron wire (annealed)

3 hydrometers

1 complete outfit chemicals




1 incomplete outfit chemicals




1 incomplete outfit small apparatus




1 complete apparatus




2 doz dry plates




1 camera (old)




50a27fd77438ae05bd00004d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_019_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd00004f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_019_1.jpg)


List of Stores on board Jeannette.

Surgeon's Stores, Instruments and appliances

[Surgeon's Stores & c. col2]

[Surgeon's Stores & c. col3]

[Surgeon's Stores & c. col4]

[Surgical Instruments col2]

16 oz. acid sulphur

4 oz. Cupric Sulphas.

16 oz. potass.bitart

1 pocket case

4 oz. acid salisyl.

4 oz. digitalis tinctura

80 oz. et soda tart.

1 urinary case

4 oz. acid tan.

4 oz. ergotae ext fluid

4 oz. permanganas.

6 cupping glasses

12 oz. Aconiti rad

16 oz. ferri chloride tinc.

16 oz. potassi iodidum

1 Pal. battery

32 oz. acid adipes cerat. ben

8 oz. ferri sulph liq.

8 oz. potass bromidum

2 thumb lancets

16 oz. acid Oether 10 oz. Aloe

4 oz. glycerigae ext

16 oz. pruni~ring ext. fluid

1 razor. 1 strop

8 oz. Oethers spir. comp

32 oz. glycerinea

8 oz. Quinae sulphas.

1 microscope

48 oz. alumen

2 oz. gentianae ext.

16 oz. Resinae ceratum

2 p rubber syringes

48 oz. aqua am.

8 oz. Hydrag. chlor. unte~

4 oz. Rhei. ext. fluid

1 spec anal

4 oz. am. carbonas.

8 oz. iodinium

64 oz. saponisliminatum

1 spec aural

4 oz. am. chloridum

4 oz. hydrag. pilul.

8 oz. scillae syrupus.

1 urinometer

1 oz. antimonial potass tart

2 oz. Idoform~

8 oz. senegoe ext fliud

2 hypodermic syr.

1 oz. argentic nitras

8 oz. Ippecacuana. Ex. flu.

4 oz. simapis~ pulvis

1 self adj. syringe

1 oz. argentic fusa

16 oz. Ippecacuana pul. comp

32 oz. bicarb sodii

4 sets clinical ther.

8 oz. arnical rad. ext. flu.

1 oz. Jalapae ext.

64 oz. sodae chlor. liq

2 field & 2 screw tourniquets

1 dr. attropae sulphas

10 lbs lime juice~

16 oz. sulphur

Surgical appliances

10 oz. belladonna ext. alc

128 oz. sulphate of magnesia

8 pts. terebinth oleum

6 suspension bandages

8 oz. bizmuth sub carb

1 oz. menth. pip. el.

1 oz. tiglii oleum

3 binders boards

8 oz. camphora

4 dr. morphia sulphas.

80 oz. vaseline

2 buckskins. 3 lbs cotton batten

2 oz. cantharidis tinct

12 pts. morrhax~ oleum

8 oz. zinci carb proecip.

5 lbs gypsum. 5 lbs lint

16 oz. caprici ext. fluid

8 oz. myrrh

2 oz. zinci sulphur

0.5 oz. ligature silk

16 oz. chlor purificat.

8 oz. opei pulvis.

16 oz. tinc. Kramina~

3 yards ligature wire

8 oz. chlor hydras.

1 oz. uncio vomicae ex. fluid

Surgical Instruments

6 yards oiled muslin

16 oz. Chinchona ex.f comp.

2 lbs opei tinctura

1 aspirator, 1 atomizer

2 sets needles, thimbles &c.

4 oz. Colchini Sem ext. flui.

8 oz. pilul cath. comp.

10 p bougie. 10 p catheter

12 hair pencils. 20 yards ad. plant~

4 oz. Colodian

8 oz. Plumbi acetas.

1 dental case 1 eye & earcase

1 lbs bath sponge. 2 Isinglass plant~

4 oz. Colocynth

0.5 podophyl resina

1 ex. and boat~ case

0.5 lbs surgical sponge 0.25 lbs Yel. wax

8 oz. Creta preparta.

4 oz. potass. arsenet liq.

1 general op case

1 tape line


8 oz. potass. bicarb.


6 pieces tape



50a27fd77438ae05bd000051: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_020_0.jpg)

[same as http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_012_1.jpg]

50a27fd77438ae05bd000053: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_020_1.jpg)


List of Stores on board Jeannette.

Miscellaneous Stores, Surgical appliances and surgical stores




Miscellaneous Stores


~ apparatus stand

1 lbs glass tubing

29 yards tracing cloth

1 rubber sponge

~ apparatus atmospheric

0.25 lbs twine

1 three leg dividers

50 Copper record cyl.

~ gr bottles & 1 gr. veal corks

4 doz assorted vials

12 sticks India ink

4 cards Crowquill pens

~ cork screw & cork extractor

Hospital Furniture

24 rubber erasers

set sketch blocks

~ glass and 1 gutta percha funnel

2 bed pans

24 drawing pencils

China white and

~ nutmeg grater. 1 Acessory~ lamp

2 feeding cups

24 camel's hair brushes

wash pencils

~ bot. red litmus paper.

4 medicine spoons

2 box water colors

1 lot carpenter's tools

~ bot blue litmus paper

2 tumblers

4 parallel rulers

1 crow's nest

~ glass measure 8 oz.

2 glass urinals

6 brass dividers

1 melodeon~

~ glass measure 4 oz.

2 wine glasses

6 qts David's ink

12 cabin chairs

~ glass measure 2 oz.

Stationary

6 qts Stephen's ink

5 stoves (complete)

~ glass measure 1 oz.

2 medical journals

12 bot. red ink.

1 cabin mess outfit

~ glass measure 1 dr

2 bat. mucilage

6 safety ink stands

1 forecastle mess outfit

mortar and pestle, glass

0.25qr blotting paper

6 qts mucilage

2 doz snow knives

mortar & pestle Wedgewood

4 qr filtering paper

300 paper fasteners

4 skinning knives

percolator

1 penknife

2 T squares

1 cook knives

~ doz wood pill boxes

1 portfolio

6 doz lead pencils

4 doz harness swivels

~ doz tile pill boxes

1 ruler

1 magnifier

6 basins.  6 slop jars

Apothecary's scale

Miscellaneous

1 case instruments

6 water cans

~ pre. scissors

1 leather medical case

1 copy Burts Solar compass

1 ratchet bitt brace

~ sheepskins

32 gal whiskey

5 doz sheets linted paper

300 gals alcohol

~ spatula 6"

30 gal brandy

3 bxs crayons 24.36.18

Additonal surgeons Outfit

~ spatula 5"

20 gal sherry

2 triangles. 1 protractor

6 pts alcohol

~ spatula 4"

20 gal ale

1 dot pen. 4 offsetts

1 lbs potass chloras

~ spatula 3"

20 gal porter

2 Nautical Almanacs 1879.1880

18 pts. brandy

~ spirit lamp

48 gal extract of malt

50 ft. metal tape

24 pts. whiskey

~ test case

10 gal rum

50 lbs ferri suphas.

18 pts. sherry wine

~2 test tubes

50 ft. Payne's tape





50a27fd77438ae05bd000055: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_021_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd000057: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_021_1.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd000059: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_022_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd00005b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_022_1.jpg)



2 oz. amyl nitrate

1400 lbs cornmeal

60 lbs beets

100 lbs dried apples

1 lbs potass. bromide

7100 lbs flour

300 lbs split peas

50 lbs dried pears

8 oz. Ferri et qui citras.

5000 lbs pilot bread

300 lbs rice

920 lbs lime juice (3 bbl.~

2 oz. hydr. ox. flav.

3000 lbs pork

100 lbs barley

360 lbs S.W. evap

1 lbs hydr victras ungt.

2500 lbs roast beef

1500 lbs Rio coffee

25 lbs essence coffee

3 trusses

2500 lbs roast mutton

1000 lbs Java coffee

50 lbs Ass't crackers

1 India rubber urinal

1000 lbs corned beef

50 lbs cocoa

25 lbs mixed candies

12 pipettes

1000 lbs beef soup

3300 ex c. sugar

300 lbs ass't fruits

6 clamps for tubing

250 lbs turkey

550 lent loaf sugar

100 lbs rye flour

1 box litmus paper

250 lbs chicken

1000 condensed milk

200 lbs Graham flour

2 yards black silk

100 lbs roast veal

1500 lbs pickles. 5 Bbl.~

100 lbs buckwheat

2 qr wrap paper

100 lbs tongue

1500 lbs vinegar (5 Bbl.)

175 lbs ground rice

0.25 qr blotting paper

100 lbs boneless ham

2100 lbs syrup (7 bbl.)

20 lbs farina

1 set weights

100 lbs oxtail soup

600 lbs molasses (2 bbl.)

10 lbs arrowroot

124 bottle clasps

125 lbs mock turtle soup

300 lbs salt

20 lbs Pearl sago

12 bottles Linct. pint

1400 lbs oatmeal

160 lbs raisins

30 lbs corn starch

16 bottles Linct.0.5 pint

900 lbs hominy

500 lbs tea

20 lbs tapioca

4 bottles Linct. 4 pint

800 lbs mutton soup

50 lbs ground ginger

25 lbs vermicelli

12 bottles Saltmouth~ 1 pt

1000 lbs desiccated potatoes

100 lbs mustard

5 lbs ground cloves

16 bottles Saltmouth~ 8 oz

2100 lbs tomatoes

70 lbs pepper

10 lbs ground allspice

15 bottles Saltmouth~ 4 oz

500 lbs green corn

100 lbs cheese

5 lbs ground cinnamon

1 old medicine chest

500 lbs succotash

10 lbs hops

3 lbs ground mace


250 lbs green peas

15 lbs yeast pow'd

10 lbs citron


250 lbs turnips

160 lbs prunes

100 lbs salmon


100 lbs onions

200 lbs apple butter

100 lbs mackerel


30 lbs pumpkin

200 lbs quince butter



100 lbs carrots

200 lbs peach butter





~ lbs codfish

50 lbs apples

100 lbs haddock

67 prs mitts

~00 lbs Finan Haddies

50 lbs greengages

100 lbs peaches

12 Sou'westers

~50 lbs lobster

50 lbs damsons

6300 lbs pemmican

50 prs drawers

~50 lbs spiced salmon

25 lbs currant jelly

1106 lbs Pemmican

151 prs. woolen stockings

~50 lbs oysters

25 lbs apple jelly

200 lbs pork

48 single blankets

~0 lbs clam chowder

50 lbs cranberries

1 half bbl. vinegar

4 Duffle coats

~0 lbs fish

100 lbs nuts

1 half bbl. molasses

1 pair Duffle pants

~0 lbs tripe

10 lbs curry pow'd

2 boxes yellow soap (150 lbs)

25 pairs Duffle boots

~0 lbs kidneys

12 lbs capers

Clothing

8 Duffle blankets

~0 lbs sardines

12 lbs olive oil

33 pairs sea boots

98 skull caps

~0 lbs sausage

10 lbs yeast

33 D. Blankets

27 helmet caps

~5 lbs chicken soup

5 lbs Saleratus

20 lbs blk. lin. thread

36 seal skin caps

~0 lbs dried peaches

20 lbs triple extract

20 lbs wht. lin. thread

6 deer skin frocks

~0 lbs figs

166 lbs stearine candles

50 sp. sewing cotton

18 whitw wool frocks

~0 lbs dates

10 lbs pow'd herbs

50 sp. black sewing silk

24 seal skin mitts

~0 lbs okra

1500 lbs medium beans

40 p needles

26 pairs moccasins

~0 lbs string beans

1400 lbs butter

25 pairs scissors

13 comforters

~0 lbs lima beans

10 lbs lemon peel

3 doz fine combs

4 rubber blankets

~0 lbs asparagus

10 lbs orange peel

3 doz course combs

23 haversacks

~0 lbs strawberries

1000 lbs mutton broth

16 rubber water bottles

9 leather jackets

~0 lbs raspberries

400 lbs mutton soup

16 rubber water bottles

8 hammocks

~0 lbs lard

50 lbs Hotch Potch

33 oil skin suits

1 bale white flannel

~0 lbs pickled cabbage

100 lbs pigs feet

18 Hard Times suits

14 berth mattresses

~0 lbs assorted pickles

1800 lbs plug tobacco

6 Hard Times ulsters

1 lot old hammock mattresses

~0 lbs olives

100 lbs smoking tobacco

6 Hard Times quilts

1 lot old hammock pillows

~5 lbs catsup

400 lbs chocolate

5 pairs Sat. trousers


~2 lbs chutney

600 lbs cider vinegar (2 bbl.)

2 caps


~2 bot r. India sauce

70 lbs pipes (300)

10 cap ribbons




20 mock seal skin caps




50a27fd77438ae05bd00005d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_023_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd00005f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_023_1.jpg)


Inventory - Construction and Repair

2 sets hatch battens

1 copper measure

1 monkey wrench

20 lbs litharge

4 copper funnels

1 set socket gauges

8 ring bolts

10 gals turpentine

1 sounding rod

1 adze

2 split boxes

2 gals. Demar varnish

1 doz door knobs #2

1 set augers

6 boat buckets

30 lbs putty

1 doz door knobs #2.5

3 wood axes

12 deck buckets

50 lbs yellow ochre

1 broad axe

1 set bitts

1 brass cock

20 lbs Venitian red

6 paint brushes

6 chisel sockets

2 wood axe handles

1 bevel

2 varnish brushes

1 compasses

5 brass padlocks

9 pairs drawer pull

2 seam brushes

1 claw hammer

3 lbs copper burrs

1 riveting hammer

6 cross cut files

1 tack hammer

6 sheets copper

1 Cooper's hammer

4 fine saw files

1 glass cutter

6 yards fear naught

1 set gimlets bitts

12 hand saw files

6 gainlets

6 airport lenses

1 pair cut nippers

2 rat tail files

1 set calking irons

6 glass lights

1 pair hand shears

1 half round file

1 drawing knife

2 lbs glue


1 horsing iron

1 glue kettle

50 lbs sheet lead


1 putty knife

1 oil stone

200 lbs nails


1 pitch ladle

12 carpenter's pencils

50 lbs copper nails


1 calking mallet

2 nail punches

10 lbs copper tacks


1 horsing mallet

1 rasp

200 lbs oakum


1 carpenter's mallet

1 compass saw

50 sheets sand paper


1 beading plane

1 dovetail saw

0.5 bbl. pitch


1 jack plane

1 panel saw

6 gr. screws


1 rabbit plane

3 wood saw

20 lbs iron spikes


1 smoothing plane

2 saw setts

100 lbs 10d. nails


1 wooden clamp screws

1 steel square

250 lbs white lead


1 screwdriver

1 tool chest

100 lbs black lead


1 measuring tape

1 iron bench vise

1 gal japan (drying) varnish


1 mess chest

1 iron thumb vise

20 gal linseed oil




50a27fd77438ae05bd000065: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_025_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd000067: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_025_1.jpg)


27 June 1879

Lat 37.81, Long -122.4

At anchor San Francisco Cal.


Ship lying between wind and tide

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 2 tons 1270 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 137 tons 810 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and foggy. Moderate breeze from W.S.W. At 12.10 anchored off San Francisco in 9 fathoms. Ebb tide running. Veered to 45 fathoms. Goat Island Light [Editor's note: Yerba Buena Island] bore N.E. ½ E. (p.s.). Alcatraz Lt. bore W.N.W. ¼ W. (p.s.). Hauled fires. At 1 swung to flood. U.S.S. Alaska at anchor near us.

[signed] Alfred Sweetman


4 to 8am

Overcast and foggy. Gentle breeze from W. Swung to ebb at 5.30

[signed] William Dunbar

8am to meridian

Overcast and foggy. At 10.30 shifted berth under fore and aft sail. Came to with starboard anchor in 9 fathoms and veered to 30 fathoms starboard chain. Ship's head S.E. by E. (p.s.). Goat Island Light bearing N.E. ¾ E. (p.s.) and Alcatraz W. by N. (p.s.). Ship's draught aft 13' 4 ½ " for'd 10' 11". Comd'g Officer made official visit to "Alaska".

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and foggy. Moderate breeze from S.W. Ship swung to flood at 12.30

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Overcast and foggy. Moderate breeze from S.W.

[signed] Alfred Sweetman


6 to 8pm

Overcast and foggy. Moderate breeze from S.W. At 6.20 ship swung to ebb.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Overcast and foggy. Moderate breeze from S.W.

[signed] John Cole


Moon 13° S.

First quarter


50a27fd77438ae05bd000069: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_026_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd00006b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_026_1.jpg)


28 June 1879

Lat 37.81, Long -122.4

At anchor San Francisco Cal.


Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 150 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 137 tons 660 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and foggy. Gentle S.W. wind. Swung to flood at 2.20.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Overcast and foggy. Gentle S.W. wind. Swung to ebb at 6.30.

[signed] Alfred Sweetman


8am to meridian

Weather cleared. Gentle breeze from S.W. by S. Starboard watch was sent ashore on liberty.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Hazy weather. Fresh breeze from S.W. Swung to flood at 2.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Hazy. Fresh S.W. wind. Swung to ebb at 5.30

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Foggy. Fresh S.W. wind.

[signed] Alfred Sweetman


8pm to midnight

Foggy. Fresh S.W. wind.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 18° S.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 70 ff):

The Jeannette was put in commission June 28, 1879, when the silk flag which his wife had made for Captain De Long was used. This flag was to be used in taking possession of any new found land in the name of the United States, and to be unfurled when the highest latitude was reached. The orders for the expedition were given by the Secretary of the Navy in a letter dated Washington, June 18, 1879, which, after reciting the terms of the two Acts of March 18, 1878, and February 27, 1879, proceeds: —


"Under the authority conferred by these Acts of Congress, the Jeannette has been accepted, fitted out, officered, and manned under the orders of this Department, and you have been ordered to the command of the voyage of exploration.

As soon as the Jeannette, under your command, is in all respects ready for sea, you will proceed with her to Behring Strait, to execute the important and hazardous service intrusted to you. In the execution of this service, the Department must leave the details to your experience, discretion, and judgment. It has full confidence in your ability in all matters connected with the safety and discipline of the ship, the health and comfort of the officers and crew, and the faithful prosecution of the object of the voyage.


On reaching Behring Strait, you will make diligent inquiry at such points where you deem it likely that information can be obtained concerning the fate of Professor Nordenskjöld, as the Department has been unable to have positive confirmation of the reports of his safety. If you have good and sufficient reasons for believing that he is safe, you will proceed on your voyage toward the North Pole. If otherwise, you will pursue such course as, in your judgment, is necessary for his aid and relief.


You will, as opportunity offers, advise the Department of your whereabouts, and of such matters of interest connected with the voyage as you may desire to communicate. Wishing you a prosperous voyage, and commending you, the officers and crew, and the object of your expedition, to the protecting care of Almighty God,

I am very respectfully yours,

R. W. Thompson,

Secretary of the Navy.''



50a27fd77438ae05bd00006d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_027_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd00006f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_027_1.jpg)


29 June 1879

Lat 37.81, Long -122.4

At anchor San Francisco Cal.


Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 150 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 137 tons 510 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Foggy. Fresh S.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Foggy. Fresh S.W. wind. Swung to flood at 4.30. Starboard watch returned from liberty

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Foggy. Fresh S.W. wind. Port watch was sent ashore on liberty.

[signed] Alfred Sweetman


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and cool. Misty about horizon. Swung to ebb tide at 2.30.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Cloudy and cool. Fresh S.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Cloudy and cool. Fresh S.W. wind. Swung to flood at 6.40.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Cloudy and cool. Fresh S.W. wind.

[signed] Alfred Sweetman


Moon 22° S.

First quarter


50a27fd77438ae05bd000071: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_028_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd000073: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_028_1.jpg)


30 June 1879

Lat 37.81, Long -122.4

At anchor San Francisco Cal.


Water received during the preceding 24 hours: 600 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 600 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 650 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 136 tons 2100 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Clear and pleasant. Fresh S. breeze. Swung to ebb at 12.30.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Moderate breeze from S.W. Swung to flood at 4.30.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Moderate breeze from S.W. The following named men were enlisted in the Naval Service for the cruise of the Jeannette, John Cole and Alfred Sweetman as seamen and Walter Sharvell as coal heaver. Received on board 600 gallons water and three bags sand.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Fresh S.W. wind. Swung to flood at 3.45

[signed] Alfred Sweetman


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Fresh S.W. wind.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Fresh S.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Fresh S.W. wind. Swung to ebb at 9.15. Cloudy from 10 to 12.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon declination 25° S.

Moon First quarter



LOGS FOR JULY 1879


50a27fd77438ae05bd000075: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_029_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd000077: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_029_1.jpg)


1 July 1879

Lat 37.81, Long -122.4

At anchor San Francisco Cal.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 90 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 510 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 200 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 136 tons 1900 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and foggy. Moderate S.W. wind.

[signed] Alfred Sweetman


4 to 8am

Weather foggy. Clear overhead. Gentle breeze from S.W. Swung to flood at 5.30am.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breeze from the south. At 8.30 swung to ebb tide.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Fresh breeze from S.S.W. At 2pm the U.S.S. Alaska left harbor and stood up the bay. Received on board the following articles. 25 lbs wicking. 3 ½ door knobs, 20 boarding pikes and guards, 2 cleavers, 3 sides pump leather, 1 brass hoop, 5 padlocks, 2 bales felt. 4 shrimp poles and hoops, 2 cots, 2 boxes mutton broth.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Weather pleasant, hazy around the horizon, moderate breeze from the S.W. by S. Swung to flood at 4.15pm.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Fresh breeze from S.S.W. Weather pleasant.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Clear sky and pleasant weather, with light airs from S.W. Ship swung to ebb tide at 10.20.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 26° S.

First quarter


50a27fd77438ae05bd000079: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_030_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd00007b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_030_1.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd00007d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_031_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd00007f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_031_1.jpg)



2 July 1879

Lat 37.81, Long -122.4

At anchor San Francisco Cal.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 90 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 420 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 250 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 136 tons 1650 lbs


[Paper insert:]

2nd July, 1879

Charles Tong Sing was this day inlisted in the U.S. Naval service, as seaman, for the cruise of the 'Jeannette', his pay to be ~ 35.00 a month.

[signed] Chas W. Chipp, Lieutenant & Exec. Officer


Commenced and until 4am

Weather pleasant. Clear blue sky till 3. From 3 to 4 overcast. Light breeze from the south.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Hazy around the horizon. Gentle breeze from the S.W. Received on board fresh provisions for crew.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Moderate breeze and fine weather. Hazy at times around the horizon from 8 to 10am. From 10 to meridian weather much the same with increasing breezes. Swung to ebb tide at 12.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Strong breeze from south. Weather pleasant. At 4 received on board 30 cases of alcohol. By order of Commanding Officer G.W. Boyd Coal Heaver, was this day rated 2nd Class Fireman.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Fresh breeze from south-west.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Moderate south-west breezes. Sky overcast.

[signed] Alfred Sweetman


8pm to midnight

Moderate breezes from S.W. Hazy weather. At 11 ship swung to ebb tide.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 25° S.

First quarter


50a27fd77438ae05bd000081: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_032_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd000083: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_032_1.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd000085: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_033_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd000087: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_033_1.jpg)


3 July 1879

Lat 37.81, Long -122.4

At anchor San Francisco Cal.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 90 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 330 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 200 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 136 tons 1450 lbs


[Paper insert:]

3rd July, 1879

Ah Sam was this day inlisted in the US Naval Service, as Seaman, for the cruise of the 'Jeannette', his pay to be $35.00 a month, and Ah Sing was inlisted as 1st cl. Boy, for the same term, his pay to be $15.00 a month.

[signed] Chas W. Chipp, Lieutenant & Exec. Officer


Commenced and until 4am

Clear and pleasant with light south-west wind.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Weather pleasant. Hazy round the horizon. Light breeze from the south. Ship swung to ebb tide at 7.30

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Light variable winds until 10.30, after which steady S.W. wind, pleasant weather and clear sky with hazy horizon. At 10 o'clock received 33 suits of oil clothing from Heath, Gallup & Co.

[signed] Alfred Sweetman


Meridian to 4pm

Weather pleasant. Received on board the following stores. 12 boxes Brandy, 5 kegs of medical stores. 1 case medical stores. 1 keg of stout. 1 bbl. of stout.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant with light south-west winds.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Light S.W. wind and clear sky. Hazy horizon. Swung to flood tide at 6.40

[signed] Alfred Sweetman


8pm to midnight

Pleasant weather, bright and clear. Calm from 10.30. Swung to ebb tide at 11.45.

[signed] Alfred Sweetman


Moon declination

Full moon


50a27fd77438ae05bd000089: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_034_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd00008b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_034_1.jpg)


4 July 1879

Lat 37.81, Long -122.4

At anchor San Francisco Cal.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 90 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 240 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 200 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 136 tons 1250 lbs


Commenced and until 4am

Weather clear and pleasant. No wind until 2. From 2 to 4 moderate breeze from the S.W. Weather continues pleasant and clear.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant with light S.W. wind. Ship swung to flood at 8. Received on board fresh provisions for the crew.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant weather. Light breeze from the E. until 9, when the wind changed to gentle N.W. breeze.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Weather pleasant. Received a call from Lord Loftus at 2.30. Ship swung to ebb at 2.15.

[signed] Alfred Sweetman


4 to 6pm

Fine weather with clear sky. At 4.30 Lord Loftus left the ship.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Light airs from S.W. with pleasant weather.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Weather pleasant with a clear sky.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 19° 11' 56" S.

Full moon


50a27fd77438ae05bd00008d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_035_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd00008f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_035_1.jpg)


5 July 1879

Lat 37.81, Long -122.4

At anchor San Francisco Cal.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 90 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 150 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 150 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 136 tons 1100 lbs


Commenced and until 4am

Weather clear and pleasant. Calm until 2. From 2 to 4 light south-west airs.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Pleasant weather with blue sky. Calm until 7. From 7 to 8 light air from the E. Received on board fresh provisions for the crew.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant with light westerly wind. Ship swung to flood at 8.15. 11.30 received from Heath, Gallup & Co. 45 cases of preserved meats. 3 cases of grate bars from the Navy Yard, Mare Island.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Clear weather with strong breeze from the south-west. Ship swung to ebb tide at 2.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Fresh breezes from south-west. Weather clear and pleasant.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Clear pleasant weather wind south-west.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant weather with light S.W. wind.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 14° S.

Full moon


50a27fd77438ae05bd000091: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_036_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd000093: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_036_1.jpg)


6 July 1879

Lat 37.81, Long -122.4

At anchor San Francisco Cal.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 80 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 70 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 250 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 136 tons 850 lbs


Commenced and until 4am

Clear and pleasant with light south-west winds.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Weather pleasant with lightly overcast sky. Light breeze from the south.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Pleasant weather with S.W. wind. Swung to flood at 8.30. Received on board from Mare Island Navy Yard, deck house &c, correct according to bill.

[signed] Alfred Sweetman


Meridian to 4pm

Fresh breezes from the S.W. Weather pleasant.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Moderate gale from the S.W. with clear and pleasant weather.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant with moderate S.W. gale.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Strong S.W. wind. Sky overcast. Swung to flood at 9.20.

[signed] Alfred Sweetman


Moon 9° S.

Full moon


50a27fd77438ae05bd000095: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_037_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd000097: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_037_1.jpg)


7 July 1879

Lat 37.81, Long -122.4

At anchor San Francisco Cal.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 70 gallons

Water received during the preceding 24 hours: 600 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 600 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 150 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 136 tons 700 lbs


Commenced and until 4am

Weather thick and misty with moderate breeze from S.W. the first part of this watch. From 3 to 4 calm. Ship swung to ebb tide at 3.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Cloudy and misty with light southerly airs.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Weather misty with light air from the southward. Swung to flood at 9. Received 600 gal. water on board.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

At 1.30 received on board seven packages four of which was Alaska mail and three contents unknown. Weather misty. Ship swung to ebb at 3.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Moderate weather overcast and misty.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Weather overcast with a gentle breeze from the S.W.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Drizzling rain. Light breeze from the S.W. Ship swung to flood at 9.30.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon 4° S.

Full moon


50a27fd77438ae05bd000099: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_038_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd00009b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_038_1.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd00009d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_039_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd00009f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_039_1.jpg)


8 July 1879

Through the Golden Gate - From San Francisco to Unalaska

Lat 37.81, Long -122.4

At anchor San Francisco Cal.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 80 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 520 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1 tons 560 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 135 tons 140 lbs


List of stores on board schooner "Fanny A. Hyde"

[Paper insert:]


Col1

Col 2

Col 3

Col 4

~ c. cornmeal

7 c. split peas

1 c. kidneys

1 c. Julienne soup

~5 bbl. flour

3 c. Carolina rice

7 c. sausage

1 c. fresh apples

~2 ~bls pilot bread

1 c. barley

1 c. chicken soup

0.5 bbl. lard

~9 c. roast beef

19 c. gr. Rio  coffee

1 c. dried peaches

100 tons coal

~1 c. roast mutton

16 c. ro. Rio coffee

1 c. tomatoes (special)


~4 c. corned beef

1 box chocolate

1 c. okra


~6 c. beef soup

20 c. ex c. sugar

1 c. string beans


~1 c. turkey

7 c. Cat loaf sugar

13 c. mutton broth


~~ chicken

1 sk salt

1 c. vegetable soup


~2 roast veal

1 c. raisins

1 c. each of almonds, vermicelli, groceries


~~ tongue

11 ch. tea

1 c. each of oatmeal, split peas


~~ bacon

1 box mustard & pepper

7 c. macaroni


~~ " boneless ham

4 box cheese

1 c. each of Graham flour, barley


~~ " oxtail soup

1 c. prunes

1 c. lima beans


~~ bbl. mutton suet

1 hf bbl. apple butter

1 c. peaches


~~ c. mock turtle soup

1 hf bbl. peach butter

1 c. raspberries


~~ " oatmeal

1 hf bbl. quince butter

1 c. pickles


~~ " hominy

1 c. dried apples

3 c. chutney


~~ " d. potatoes

1 c. dried pears

1 c. greengages


~~ " tomatoes

9 box s.w. soap

2 c. damsons


~~ " corn

3 c. ext beef

1 c. currant jelly


~~ " succotash

1 c. salmon

1 c. olive oil


~~ " green peas

3 c. mackerel

1 c. medium beans


~~ " turnips

4 c. haddock

27 kegs butter


~~ " onions

1 c. codfish

3 c. Bartlett pears


~~ " pumpkins

2 c. finnan haddies

4 c. gooseberries


~~ " carrots

1 c. lobster

1 c. apple jelly


~4 " beets

1 c. clam chowder




Commenced and until 4am

Thick and misty with light breeze from S.W.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Cloudy and misty. Light S.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Cloudy and misty. Light S.W. wind. Received on board 13 cans pemmican, 80 bags potatoes, 20 bags onions, 20 bags turnips, 10 bags carrots, 4 doz. cabbages, 3 boxes eggs.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Fresh breeze from S.W. Making preparations for sea. At 3.30 hove in to 15 fathoms. Received on board 12 bbl. beef. The schooner "Fanny A Hyde", Jespersen, to carry coal and stores to St Michaels, Alaska. List attached to log. Schooner sailed at 4.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Fresh breeze from W.S.W. At 4.10 got underway and steamed out of the harbor accompanied by the yachts of the S.F. Yacht club and by the steam tugs "Gov. Irwin", "Ellen Griffith", and "Rabboni". Draught of ship 13' 4" aft and 11' 9" forward. The ships and steamers in harbor dipped their colors.

[signed] Alfred Sweetman


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Light W.S.W. wind. Received a salute of 21 guns whilst passing Fort Point. Colors were dipped. At 6.30 stopped off buoy No. 2 and parted with accompanying vessels. Cheers were exchanged etc. At 6.35 set course S.W. by W. and started ahead. At 7 changed course to S.W. by W. ½ W. (p.c.). At 8 took departure. Entering buoy bore S.W. by W. (p.c.) ½ mile distant. Supply schooner "Fanny A. Hyde" about 5 miles distant and bearing S.E. (p.c.).

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant until 10 when it became overcast and misty. Light breeze from W. by N. At 8.05 made South Farallon Light bearing S.W. by W. (p.c.) and at 8.10 Point Reyes Light bearing N.W. by W. (p.c.). At 9.30 changed course to W.N.W. (p.c.) At 12 South Farallon Light bore S.S.W. (p.c.) and Point Reyes Light N.W. ½ W. (p.c.)

[signed] John Cole


Moon 2° N.

Full moon


50a27fd77438ae05bd0000a1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_040_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd0000a3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_040_1.jpg)


9 July 1879


Lat 38.22, Long -123.60

On passage from San Francisco, Cal to Ounalashka


Distance run by log since preceding noon 45 knots 0 fathoms.

Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 70 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 450 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 650 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 129 tons 1730 lbs


9am: Made fore and aft sail

11am: Set square sail to TG

6pm: Took in foresail & ~

7pm: Set foresail. Took ~ flying jib


Com. and until 4am

Mild thick mist at times. Light breeze from N.W. At 2.10 changed course to W. by N. (p.c.) At 3.30 last sight of Point Reyes Light bearing N.E. by E. (p.c.)

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Weather thick and foggy. Sighted a schooner steering by the wind on port tack.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Cloudy with wind freshening from N.W. by W.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast. Fresh breeze from N.W. by W.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Fresh breeze from W.N.W. Fog squalls. A ship in sight steering east.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Cloudy. Fresh N.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Overcast. Drizzling at times. Fresh breeze from N.W. by W. Short, choppy sea from N.W.

[signed] William Nindemann


[Editor's note: Order of last two entries reversed in logbook]


Moon 7° N.

Full moon


50a27fd77438ae05bd0000a5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_041_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd0000a7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_041_1.jpg)


10 July 1879

Lat 36.87, Long -126.77,

On passage from San Francisco, Cal to Ounalashka


Distance run by log since preceding noon 144.9 knots

Latitude by D.R. at noon 37° 11' 00"

Longitude by D.R. at noon 126° 22' 00"

Latitude by observation at noon 36° 52' 08" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 126° 46' 15" W.

Current during the time 1 knots 1 fathoms per hour setting to the S.W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 400 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 1750 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 123 tons 2220 lbs


5am: Took in foresail

6am: Flying jib & spanker

8am: Patent log lines fr~

9am: Hauled in and cl~

10am: Put over P.L. [patent log]

Noon: P.L. 15 ½

2pm: all sails on ~

3pm: ~ the ~ ~

7pm: Set the fore~


Com. and until 4am

Thick and foggy. Fresh breeze from N.W. by W.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Cloudy and misty. Strong N.W. by W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Cloudy and pleasant. Overcast at times. Fresh breeze from N.W. by W.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Fresh breezes from N.W. by W. with fog squalls. Passed several sticks of timber.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Fresh breeze from N.W. by W. with fog.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Weather misty. At times foggy. Fresh breeze with a light sea from the N.W.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Fog squalls, wind moderating.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 12° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd77438ae05bd0000a9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_042_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd0000ab: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_042_1.jpg)


11 July 1879


Lat 36.33, Long -128.18

On passage from San Francisco, Cal to Ounalashka


Distance run by log since preceding noon 104 knots 9 fathoms.

Latitude by observation at noon 36° 20' 00" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 128° 11' 00" W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 350 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 1850 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 118 tons 370 lbs


3am: Took in all the square sails

6am: Ship is under ~ and aft sail.

10am: Fore and aft sails

Noon: P.L. 114 ¼

10pm: Took in all sails


Commenced and until 4am

Weather cloudy and misty with moderate W. wind. Tacked ship at 2.30 to N'd.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Weather foggy. Fresh breeze from the westward.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Weather moderate sky overcast. Wind W. inclined to southerly. At the close of the day, ship is heading on course W.N.W. with fore and aft sail set.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and misty with moderate south-west breeze.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Overcast and misty. Moderate S.W. wind. Thick fog at times.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Overcast and misty. At 7 tacked ship to W.N.W. Light airs from N'd.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Overcast and misty. Light northerly airs.

[signed] John Cole


Moon 16° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd77438ae05bd0000ad: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_043_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd0000af: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_043_1.jpg)


12 July 1879

Lat 37.02, Long -129.76

At Sea


Distance run by log since preceding noon 77 knots 0 fathoms.

Latitude by D.R. at noon 37° 15' 00" N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 129° 37' 00" W.

Latitude by observation at noon 37° 01' N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: No observation

Current during the time 0 knots 5 fathoms per hour setting to the South 23° W.

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations: worked back to meridian 129° 45' 22" W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 300 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 1400 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 112 tons 1210 lbs


1am: Set all fore and aft sail except fore sail

4am: Set top sails & T.G. sail

6am: Set square fore sail

Noon: P.L. 88

7pm: Took in the spanker

10pm: Set the spanker


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and misty. Light N. wind.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Overcast and cloudy. Light breeze from N.N.E.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Cloudy and misty with moderate N.E. wind.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy and overcast. Moderate breeze from the N.E.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Fresh breeze from N.E. Cloudy.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Cloudy with E.N.E. wind.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Cloudy and overcast. Light breeze from the N.N.E.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon 20° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd77438ae05bd0000b1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_044_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd0000b3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_044_1.jpg)


13 July 1879

Lat 37.91, Long -132.00

At Sea


Distance run by log since preceding noon 127 knots 3 fathoms.

Latitude by D.R. at noon 38° 12'

Longitude by D.R. at noon 131° 59'

Latitude by observation at noon 37° 54' 28"

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 132° 00'

Current during the time 0 knots 6 fathoms per hour setting to the S. 2° W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 200 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 1200 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 107 tons 10 lbs


7am: Took in square fore and mainsail

9am: spanker

Noon: Set main sail P.L. 127 3/8

4pm: Took in T.G. sail


Com. and until 4am

Fresh breezes from N. to N.E. Weather cloudy. Course W.N.W. All sail set.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant with light northerly wind. 7 o'clock calm.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Weather pleasant though cloudy. Light breeze from N. At 10 the Commanding Officer inspected ship, held general muster and read articles of war, then held divine service.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Light breezes from N.E. and clear.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Clear calm and pleasant weather.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Calm pleasant weather.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Light breezes from the W. with pleasant weather.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 23° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd77438ae05bd0000b5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_045_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd0000b7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_045_1.jpg)


14 July 1879

Lat 39.86, Long -133.45

At Sea


Distance run by log since preceding noon 90 knots 2 fathoms.

Latitude by D.R. at noon 39° 52' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 133° 33' 30" W.

Latitude by observation at noon 39° 51' 52" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 133° 27' W.

Current during the time 0 knots 5 fathoms per hour setting to the South.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 150 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 750 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 101 tons 1500 lbs


1am: Set all fore and aft sail

Noon: P.L. 90 ¼


Com. and until 4am

Clear and pleasant with light S.W. winds.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Weather cloudy. At times overcast. Light breeze from S.W. At 6.40 broke off to N.W. by W. ½ W. Steering full and by.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Weather cloudy. Light breeze from W. by S. Light squalls of mist at times. Steering full and by.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy and misty with moderate S.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Weather cloudy. Light breeze from S.W. Condemned and threw overboard 48 lbs roast beef marked "Erie" and 30 lbs roast beef marked "Cutting & Co".

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Fresh breezes W. by S. with dark gloomy weather.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Overcast and misty with moderate S.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


Moon declination 25° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd77438ae05bd0000b9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_046_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd0000bb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_046_1.jpg)


15 July 1879

Lat 39.33, Long -134.25

At Sea


Distance run by log since preceding noon 73 knots 6 fathoms.

Latitude by D.R. at noon 39° 25' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 134° 29'

Latitude by observation at noon 39° 20'

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 134° 15'

Current during the time 0 knots 4 fathoms per hour setting to the S. 63° E.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 60 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 260 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 350 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 650 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 96 tons 850 lbs


Noon: P.L. 73 ¾


Com. and until 4am

Weather overcast and misty. Light breeze from N.W. At 1 put ship round on starboard tack W. by S. ½ S.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Light breeze from N.W. Misty at times.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Cloudy and misty with light westerly wind. At 11 tacked ship.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Weather overcast at times and misty. Light breeze from W.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Fresh breezes W. by N. Hazy. Misty at times.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Fresh breeze W. by N. and hazy, weather variable.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Misty with light breeze from the W.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon 25° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd77438ae05bd0000bd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_047_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd0000bf: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_047_1.jpg)


16 July 1879

Lat 40.50, Long -134.94

At Sea


Distance run by log since preceding noon 75 knots 2 fathoms.

Latitude by D.R. at noon 40° 31' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 134° 41' W.

Latitude by observation at noon 40° 30' 15" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 134° 56' 30" W.

Current during the time 0 knots 4 fathoms per hour setting to the S. 85° W.

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations: worked back to noon 134° 56' 15" W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 300 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 150 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 91 tons 700 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Fresh breeze from W. Cloudy and misty at times.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Cloudy and misty. Light W. airs.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Pleasant and clear. Gentle N.W. breeze.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Pleasant weather and clear with gentle S.W. breeze.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Weather pleasant. Moderate S.W. breezes.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Weather clear and pleasant moderate breeze from W.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Weather thick at times and overcast with moderate breezes from W. to W.S.W.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 26° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd77438ae05bd0000c1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_048_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd0000c3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_048_1.jpg)


17 July 1879

Lat 41.96, Long -136.01

At Sea


Distance run by log since preceding noon 112 knots 4 fathoms.

Latitude by D.R. at noon 42° 03' 45" N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 136° 00' 30"

Latitude by observation at noon 41° 57' 40"

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 136° 00' 45"

Current during the time 0 knots 2 fathoms per hour setting to the South.

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations 4 pm: 136° 21' 52" W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 250 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 4 tons 2090 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 86 tons 850 lbs


Noon: P.L. 112 ½


Com. and until 4am

Clear and pleasant with light S.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Pleasant though cloudy. Light S.W. breeze.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Light breezes from S.W. with fine weather. Sky overcast at times.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant with moderate S.W. wind. At 1.30 changed course to W. by N.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Pleasant, weather cloudy – moderate breeze from the S.W. At 5.30 changed course to W. by N. ¼ N.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Fresh breeze from S. Sky overcast and misty at times.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Cloudy and misty with fresh southerly wind.

[signed] John Cole


Moon 23° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd77438ae05bd0000c5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_049_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd0000c7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_049_1.jpg)


18 July 1879

Lat 43.22, Long -138.12

At Sea


Distance run by log since preceding noon 134 knots 4 fathoms.

Latitude by D.R. at noon 43° 15' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 138° 25' W.

Latitude by observation at noon 43° 13' N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Current during the time 0 knots 5 fathoms per hour setting to the S. 82° E.

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations at 3.30pm: 138° 06' 22" W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 200 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 650 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 81 tons 200 lbs


Noon: P.L. 134 ½

6pm: Took in square sail

Tacked ship to ~

In all fore and aft ~

Set fore & aft sail ~

8.30 and all fore ~

Sail in at 9.30


Com. and until 4am

Weather misty and foggy. Light S.W. breeze. At 3.15 headed off to W.N.W.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Thick fog with moderate breeze from W.S.W.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Cloudy and misty with moderate S.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Pleasant weather. Cloudy with light W. breeze.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Moderate breeze from W.S.W. Weather hazy.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Cloudy with light westerly wind.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Pleasant but cloudy. Light N.W. airs and calm.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon 21° N.

New moon


50a27fd77438ae05bd0000c9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_050_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd0000cb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_050_1.jpg)


19 July 1879


Lat 44.08, Long -139.33

At Sea


Distance run by log since preceding noon 90 knots 2 fathoms.

Latitude by D.R. at noon 44° 13' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 139° 06' 22" W.

Latitude by observation at noon 44° 04' 48" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 139° 19' 37"

Current during the time 0 knots 4 fathoms per hour setting to the S. 48° W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun observed at no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 75 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 90 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 215 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 350 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 75 tons 2090 lbs


Noon: P.L. 90 ½


Com. and until 4am

12 to 2 light W. air and clear. 2 to 4 foggy

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Fog and mist with light W. airs

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Cloudy and overcast, at times foggy. Calms and light airs from W.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Calm and hazy. Weather pleasant. Men employed setting up rigging and blacking iron work.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Calm cloudy and pleasant.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Light air. Weather overcast and misty.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Light N.W. airs. Thick fog. At 8 engines stopped to remove portion of air pump blocking which got adrift. Went ahead with engines at 8.55

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 17° N.

New moon


50a27fd77438ae05bd0000cd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_051_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd0000cf: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_051_1.jpg)


20 July 1879

Lat 44.68, Long -140.93

At Sea


Distance run by log since preceding noon 66 knots 6 fathoms.

Latitude by D.R. at noon 44° 36' 24" N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 140° 42' 00" W.

Latitude by observation at noon 44° 40' 46" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 140° 55' 37" W.

Current during the time 0 knots 4 fathoms per hour setting to the N. 66° W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun observed at 8 hr 07 m L.A.T. 20° 00' 00" E.

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations 4.20pm 141° 18' 00" W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 65 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 80 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 230 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 4 tons 490 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 71 tons 1600 lbs


Noon: P.L. 66 ¾

2pm: Made all sail

10pm: Set main sail and ~


Com. and until 4am

Foggy. Light airs from W.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Pleasant but overcast at times. Misty. Light W. airs.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Calm pleasant weather. At 10 divine service was held and Commanding Officer inspected ship.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Calm and pleasant at 3. Light breeze S.S.E.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Weather pleasant with light air from S.W.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Weather pleasant with moderate E.S.E. breeze.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Cloudy and misty with moderately S. wind.

[signed] John Cole


Moon 12° N.

New moon


50a27fd77438ae05bd0000d1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_052_0.jpg)

50a27fd77438ae05bd0000d3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_052_1.jpg)


21 July 1879

Lat 45.68, Long -143.40

At Sea


Distance run by log since preceding noon 120 knots 2 fathoms.

Latitude by D.R. at noon 45° 41' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 143° 19' W.

Latitude by observation at noon no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 143° 24' W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 140 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 320 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 4 tons 1090 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 67 tons 510 lbs


3am: all sail except ~

And ~ fore sail

Noon: P.L. 120 ½

2pm: Took in all sail

7pm: Set jibs and main ~

~ fore sail and spanker

9pm: Set top sail

10pm: Set top gallant sail

Midnight: all sail set


Com. and until 4am

Weather foggy. Light breeze from S. At 4 wind veered to S.W. by S. Ship heading N.W. ½ W.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Light breeze from W. thick drizzly rain. Clearer at 6. Wind canted to S.W.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant with moderate S. E. wind. At 11.55 wind veered to W. in a squall, bringing down thick misty weather.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Pleasant weather. Gentle breeze from W.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Light S. breezes and pleasant. Condemned and threw overboard 8 lbs. mutton soup marked "Cutting & Co. San Francisco, Cal".

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant with light S.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Weather pleasant, cloudy and overcast. Gentle S.W. breeze.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon 6° N.

New moon


50a27fd77438ae05bd0000d5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_053_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0000d7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_053_1.jpg)


22 July 1879

Lat 46.58, Long -145.67

At Sea


Distance run by log since preceding noon 117 knots 6 fathoms.

Latitude by D.R. at noon 46° 35' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 145° 40' W.

Latitude by observation at noon no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 120 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 390 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 4 tons 1690 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 62 tons 1060 lbs


1am: all sail but square

Foresail set

6am: Set square fore sail

and took in fore stay ~

Noon: all sail

Patent log 117 ¾

11pm: Took in all sail


Com. and until 4am

Hazy and misty at times moderate S.S.W. breeze.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant with light S.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Clear and cloudy at times. Weather pleasant. Light S. breeze.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

At 1 stopped engine. At 1.15 started engine. Moderate breeze from S.S.E. thick and rainy. (Stopped engine to adjust nuts on valve stem)

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Cloudy and rainy with moderate S.E. wind.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Foggy with drizzling rain and moderate S.E. breeze.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Moderate breeze from S.S.E. with rain. At 10.30 wind veered to W. with a rain squall.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 0°

New moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd0000d9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_054_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0000db: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_054_1.jpg)


23 July 1879

Lat 47.43, Long -147.71

At Sea

Distance run by log since preceding noon 123 knots 4 fathoms.

Latitude by D.R. at noon 47° 39' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 148° 12' W.

Latitude by observation at noon worked back from PM Sumner 47° 26' N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 147° 42' 30" W.

Current during the past 48 hours 0 knots 4 fathoms per hour setting to the S. 55° E.

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations at 3.30pm 148° 08' 45" W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 55 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 335 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 4 tons 1490 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 57 tons 1810 lbs


8am: Set all fore and aft sail

10am: Set all square sail

except fore sail

Noon: P.L. 123 ½

2pm: Set the square

Fore sail and took ~

Fore stay sail


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and misty light W. wind

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Foggy at times – overcast with light S.W. airs.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Light breeze from S.S.W. with fog. Wind S. at 10.00. Set square sails.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Calm and pleasant with light S.E. wind.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant with light S.S.E. breeze.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Fresh breeze from S.S.E. Weather pleasant. Cloudy with detached openings.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Fresh S.E. wind and cloudy with detached openings.

[signed] John Cole


Moons 6° S.

New moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd0000dd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_055_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0000df: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_055_1.jpg)


24 July 1879

Lat 48.45, Long -150.33

At Sea


Distance run by log since preceding noon 124 knots 2 fathoms.

Latitude by D.R. at noon 48° 31' 24" N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 150° 17' 00" W.

Latitude by observation at noon 48° 27' 04" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 150° 19' 45" W.

Current during the time 0 knots 2 fathoms per hour setting to the S. 22° W.

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations at 4.30pm 150° 40' 45" W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 55 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 280 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 4 tons 2090 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 52 tons 1960 lbs


1am: at 12.30 taffrail log

66 2/10 m Took in all ~

3am: H. Log 79 ¼ m

9am: Set all fore and aft ~

Noon: P.L. 124 ¼


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and misty with a gentle breeze from W. 12.30 Wind hauled ahead.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Light breezes from W. with clear pleasant weather.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant with moderate W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Weather clear and pleasant. Fresh W.S.W. breeze.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Clear with passing cloudy. Fresh breeze S.W. by W.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant with fresh S.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Cloudy and overcast with fresh breeze from S.W.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon 12° S.

New moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd0000e1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_056_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0000e3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_056_1.jpg)


25 July 1879

Lat 48.40, Long -152.62

At Sea


Distance run by log since preceding noon 101 knots 2 fathoms.

Latitude by D.R. at noon 48° 24' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 152° 07' W.

Latitude by observation at noon no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 152° 37' 15" W.

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations at 5.30pm 152° 58' 45" W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 55 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 225 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 250 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 47 tons 1710 lbs


6am: Set fore and main top ~

And top gallant sails


9am: Hauled down fore stay ~

10am: Set fore sail

Noon: P.L. 101 ¼

3pm: Took in all sail

4pm: Set fore and aft sail


Com. and until 4am

Fresh S.W. by S. breeze and thick fog.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant with light S.W. wind

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

From 8 to 11 pleasant. 11 to 12 Wind light S.S.W. with drizzling rain and cloudy.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Thick and rainy with light breezes E. by S.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Thick and rainy. Light breeze N. by W. At 4 stopped engines for 10 minutes to attach forward main feed pump.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Cloudy but pleasant – gentle breeze. Condemned and threw overboard 114 lbs. beef marked "Erie Packing Co."

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Moderate breeze W. by N. overcast and misty at times.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 17° S.

First quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd0000e5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_057_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0000e7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_057_1.jpg)


26 July 1879

Lat 50.11, Long -154.46

At Sea


Distance run by log since preceding noon 104 knots 4 fathoms.

Latitude by D.R. at noon 50° 36' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 154° 32' W.

Latitude by observation at noon 50° 06' 30" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 154° 27' 45" W.

Current during the time 0 knots 6 fathoms per hour setting to the S. 5° E.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 55 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 175 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 4 tons 1990 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 42 tons 1960 lbs


1am: Set all fore and aft

sails

Noon: P. Log 104.5

6pm: Under all fore and aft ~


Com. and until 4am

Cloudy and misty with light S.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Cloudy. Drizzling rain at times. Fresh S.W. breeze. At 6 wind veered to W. by S. in rain squalls, ship heading north-west.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

From 8 to 11 overcast fresh breezes from W.S.W. and misty at times. From 11 to 12 foggy. Drizzling rain. Condemned and threw overboard 6 lbs beef soup marked "Huckins".

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Weather clear and pleasant. Moderate breeze from W. by S.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Cloudy and overcast at times drizzling rain. Strong W. breeze.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Strong breeze from W.S.W. and passing clouds.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Cloudy and squally with variable W. wind. At 11 tacked ship.

[signed] John Cole


Moon 22° S.

First quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd0000e9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_058_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0000eb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_058_1.jpg)


27 July 1879

Lat 50.79, Long -156.19

At Sea


Distance run by log since preceding noon 85 knots 6 fathoms.

Latitude by D.R. at noon 50° 51' 48" N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 156° 03' 45" W.

Latitude by observation at noon 50° 47' 21" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 156° 11' 15" W.

Current during the time 0 knots 4 fathoms per hour setting to the S.W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 70 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 105 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 750 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 37 tons 1210 lbs


4am: Under all fore and aft ~

P. Log 85 ¾

2pm: Took in all sail

6pm: Set fore and aft sail

Mid.: Ship under fore and aft ~


Com. and until 4am

Cloudy and overcast with fresh breeze from N.W.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Moderate breezes from N.W. by N. canting northerly. Weather pleasant with passing clouds.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant with moderate N.W. wind. At 10 Captain inspected ship and held divine service.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Pleasant weather fresh W. breeze. At 2 put the ship on her course W. by N.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Fresh W. N. W. breezes and hazy weather.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Cloudy but pleasant with fresh W. wind. At 6.10 tacked ship.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Cloudy and misty, at times drizzling rain. Strong breeze W. by S.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon 24° S.

First quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd0000ed: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_059_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0000ef: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_059_1.jpg)


28 July 1879

Lat 51.77, Long -156.83

At Sea


Distance run by log since preceding noon 74 knots 4 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 51° 43' 36" N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 156° 45' 00" W.

Latitude by observation at noon 51° 46' 13" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 156° 50' 00" W.

Current during the time 0 knots 1 ½ fathoms per hour setting to the N. 50° W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 55 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 50 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 760 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 32 tons 850 lbs


6am: Set square sails

11am: Took in all square sails

Noon: P.L. 74 ½


Com. and until 4am

Fresh breezes W. by S. Thick misty weather, foggy at times.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Cloudy and misty with fresh W. breeze. At 6 stopped engines. The main valve stem of after engine having broken. Fitting spare one

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Overcast with fresh N.W. breeze. At 10.10 started ahead with engines. Condemned 162 lbs. canned roast beef marked "Cutting and Co". Threw overboard 126 lbs and left 36 lbs for dog food.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast. Misty at times. Fresh breezes from W. by N.

[signed] William Dunbar

4 to 6pm

Cloudy and pleasant. Moderate W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Weather overcast. Light breeze from W.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Thick weather. Light rain at times. Moderate breeze from W.S.W.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 26° S.

First quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd0000f1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_060_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0000f3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_060_1.jpg)


29 July 1879

Lat 52.76, Long -157.99

At Sea


Distance run by log since preceding noon 183 knots 2 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 52° 56' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 157° 43' W.

Latitude by observation at noon 52° 45' 36" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 157° 59' 30" W.

Current during the time 0 knots 5 fathoms per hour setting to the S. 40° W.

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations 158° 25' 15" W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun observed at 8am 20° 00' 00" E.

Variation of the compass by azimuth at 5pm 21° E.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 250 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 250 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 150 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 27 tons 700 lbs


1am: Took in all sail

6am: Set fore and aft sails

10am: Took in foresail

Noon: Patent log 83 ¼

7pm: Set square sail P.L. 14

9pm: Took in square sail


Commenced and until 4am

Cloudy and hazy. Light W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Weather foggy and misty with light breeze from W. At 6 put ship on port tack heading N.W. ½ W. (p.c.)

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Overcast. Gentle breeze from W.S.W. to W. by N. At 9.30 tacked ship to S.W.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy and misty. Light N.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Cloudy at times, at others foggy and misty. Light breeze from N.W. Condemned for dog food the following articles: viz:-

102 lbs beef soup marked "Huckins".

18 lbs roast beef marked "Cutting & Co".

1 ½ lbs turnips marked "Kemp Day & Co".

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Light breeze from N.N.W. Thick fog.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Fog and mist with light N.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


Moon 26° S.

First quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd0000f5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_061_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0000f7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_061_1.jpg)


30 July 1879

Lat 53.00, Long -160.46

On passage from San Francisco, Cal to Ounalashka, Alaska


Distance run by log since preceding noon 88 knots 4 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 53° 10' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 160° 23' 30" W.

Latitude by observation at noon 53° 00' 01" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 160° 27' 45" W.

Current during the time 0 knots 3 fathoms per hour setting to the S. 14° W.

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations Sun at 5pm 160° 28' 16" W

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun observed at 7 21° 00' 00" E

Variation of the compass by azimuth at 5pm 21° 00' 00" E


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 160 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 360 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 4 tons 2190 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 22 tons 750 lbs


1am: Took in all sails

6am: Set fore and aft sail

7am: Took in fore and aft sail

Noon: P.L. 88 ½

8pm: Set all fore and aft ~


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and foggy until 2 when sky cleared. Light W.N.W. wind.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from W.N.W.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Foggy and misty until 11 when the weather cleared. Light westerly breeze.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy and pleasant with light airs from W. by N. At 1.15 changed course to W. ½ N. (p.c.). Condemned for dog food 66 lbs roast beef marked "Erie".

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Calm and hazy.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from W. by S.

[signed] John Cole

8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breeze from W. by S. At 11.50 weather became thick and misty. Clear overhead.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon 24° S.

First quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd0000f9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_062_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0000fb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_062_1.jpg)


31 July 1879

Lat 53.65, Long -163.46

On passage from San Francisco to Ounalashka, Alaska


Distance run by log since preceding noon 111 knots 0 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 53° 39' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 163° 27' 45" W.

Latitude by observation at noon no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 310 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 1450 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 16 tons 1540 lbs


2am: Took in fore and aft sail

9am: Set fore & aft sail

10am: Set square sail

Noon: Patent log 111

9pm. Took in square sails


Commenced and until 4am

Light airs and clams. Thick fog.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Thick fog. Light airs from W. by S. and calms.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Foggy weather. Light S.S.W. wind. At 11.50 stopped engines and took a cast. No bottom at 100 fathoms. Started ahead at 12.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Thick fog. Light breeze from S. to S.S.W. At 1.20 changed course to W. (p.c.).

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from S.W. Hazy at times.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Cloudy and hazy. Gentle breeze from S.S.W. At 7.50 thick fog set in. Condemned and threw overboard 36 lbs beef marked "Cutting & Co." At 7.50 got a cast of the lead. No bottom at 102 fathoms.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Weather hazy. Light breeze from S. Got casts at 10 and 12. No bottom at 100 fathoms.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 20° S.

First quarter



LOGS FOR AUGUST 1879


50a27fd87438ae05bd0000fd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_063_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0000ff: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_063_1.jpg)


1 August 1879

Lat 53.75, Long -165.78

Making Passage from San Francisco, Cal to Ounalashka, Alaska


Distance run by log since preceding noon 84 knots 2 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon (From Position of Ougalgan Island) 53° 45' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon (From Position of Ougalgan Island) 165° 58'

Latitude by observation at noon no observation

Current during the time 2 knots 0 fathoms per hour setting to the S. 12° W.

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations Sun at 4.30pm 165° 47' W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 260 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 4 tons 1990 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 11 tons 1790 lbs


2am: Took in fore and ~

aft sail

6am: Pat-log 82 ½ at 5.45


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and misty with light airs from S. until 2 after which calm with thick fog. At 2 got a cast. 58 fathoms with fine black sand. At 2 slowed down to half speed and at 2.40 commenced turning in circles with helm hard a 'port. Started ahead at 3 on W. course (p.c.). At 3.20 changed course to W. by N. (p.c.). At 4 got a cast in 47 fathoms. Fine black sand and debris of volcanic origin. Started ahead at half speed.

[signed] John Cole

4 to 8am

Calm. Thick fog. Large masses of kelp passing and many birds. At 4.45 started ahead at full speed. At 5.45 took a cast. 44 fathoms with black sand. At 6.10 came to with stream anchor and veered to 65 fathoms of hawser. Fires cleaned and kept low. Evidences of a current setting S.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Ship at anchor. Tide running southerly. At 11 ship swung. Condemned for dog food 6 lbs roast beef marked "Cutting Packing Co".

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy and foggy. Sky clearing at times. At 1.15 hove up anchor and steamed ahead bringing ship to course W. by N. (p.c.). At 3 got a cast. 44 fathoms. Broken shell and black sand. At 3.15 let go stream anchor and veered to 60 fathoms hawser. Heard the noise of birds and surf. Sent the whale boat with a party to explore. At 3.30 the fog lifted and a small island (Ougalgan) was in sight bearing N.N.W. (p.c.).

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Cloudy. At times foggy. Light airs from W.N.W. At 5.25 got underway. Whale boat and party returned to ship at 5.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Cloudy. Foggy at times. At 7 anchored in 35 fathoms. Veered to 75 fathoms of hawser. At anchor near Ounalga Island.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Cloudy. Thick fog. Light airs. Ship swung at 11 to S.E. At 11 weather cleared. Light W.N.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


Moon 16° S.

Full moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd000101: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_064_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000103: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_064_1.jpg)


2 August 1879

At Unalaska

Lat 54.00, Long -165.85

Making Passage from San Francisco, Cal to Ounalashka, Alaska


Distance run by log since preceding noon 43 knots 0 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon (Position Kaleghta Point [Cape Kalekta]) 54° 00' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon (Position Kaleghta Point) 166° 25' W.

Latitude by observation at noon no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 7.30am 165° 51' W.


Strong current in Ounalga and Akoutan Straits setting to S'd about 5 knots


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 210 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 3 tons 730 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 8 tons 1060 lbs


5am: Set fore and aft sail


Commenced and until 4am

Cloudy. Light wind from W.N.W. Heavy fog hanging over lands.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Cloudy and misty. Clearing at times. At 4.45 got underway and stood up Ounalga Straits. Very strong current setting to the S'd & E'd through the straits – heavy tide rips and water very much agitated. Steaming at five knots the ship could not stem the tide. At 7.45 bore up to the N'd and crossed over to Akontan Pass going within a quarter of a mile of Akontan Island and into the eddy current.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Weather foggy. Light wind from N.W. by N. Passing along south side of Akontan Island. At 9.40 set course W. by N. (p.c.). At 9.50 changed to W. (p.c.). At 10 was off southern headland of Akontan with Abatanok on range with S.E. extremity of Akontan. A conical peak bearing S.W. by W. ¾ W. (p.c.) on Ounalashka Island in sight at times above the fog bank. At 10.10 set course W. by S. (p.c.). At 11.05 weather became very thick. At 11.40 sighted land and rocks on port bow and ahead. Steamed in slowly and came to anchor at 12 in 35 fathoms. Condemned for dog food 36 lbs. roast beef marked "Cutting & Co".

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Weather foggy. Calm. At 12.45 fog lighted up and Kaleghta Point visible on N.W. (p.c.) bearing. Distant ½ mile. Got underway and steamed passed Kaleghta and examined Cape Cheerful. At 1.30 entered Illioliuk Bay. Steamed into the harbor and shackled to buoy in narrows at 4. The steamer "St. Paul" and schooner "St. George" of the A.C. Co. and the Revenue Cutter "Rush" in port. Hauled fires. Draught of ship 9' 6" for’d and 12' aft. The ships in port dipped colors also the flags on shore were dipped.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Weather pleasant. Misty at times. Received official visit from Commander of "Rush" and official of A.C. Co. Sent mail ashore.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Cloudy. Mist hangs over the land.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Cloudy. Calm. Mist hanging over the land.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon 11° S.

Full moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd000105: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_065_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000107: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_065_1.jpg)


3 August 1879

Lat 53.9, Long -166.5

At Buoy, Port Illiouliouk, Ounalashka


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 160 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1200 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 7 tons 2100 lbs


3pm: Hauling in.

4pm: Alongside wharf.


Commenced and until 4am

Cloudy, overcast, calm.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Calm. Sky overcast.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Cloudy and pleasant. Light mist over the land. Light airs from N.E.

[signed] William Nindemann

Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant with light breeze from N.N.E. At 1.30 Commanding Officer made official visit to the Revenue Cutter "Rush". Commenced hauling in to wharf at 2.45.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Calm after 5. At 5.30 secured ship alongside the coal wharf of A.C. Co.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Calm.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Weather hazy. Clear sky at times. Calm. Passing showers.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 5° S.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 83 ff):

Here we are at last, having reached this place yesterday afternoon, after knocking around for two days in thick fogs among a hundred or more islands, very incorrectly laid down on the charts (some of them not at all), and getting mixed up generally. I have seen some crooked navigation, but our experience in getting through the passes into Behring Sea goes far beyond anything for difficulties. Our great troubles were thick fogs and terrible tides. We were never able to see more than three miles in any one direction, and then only for a few minutes at a time. Getting observations was out of the question, for when we could happily see the sun we could not see the horizon; so we had to grope our way along like blind men. However, we got here all right, and here we are, until Wednesday morning, the 6th instant, when we sail for St. Michael's direct, omitting St. Paul's Island.


My only reason for stopping at St. Paul's Island was to get some seal skins and leave a mail for the Alaska Fur Company. But I find I can get all the furs I want here, and the [Steamer] St. Paul has brought down all the agents of the Company, and so I deliver the mail here. I am very glad it is so, because now I can go direct to St. Michael's, which place I hope to reach on the 13th, and leave on the 16th.



50a27fd87438ae05bd000109: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_066_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00010b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_066_1.jpg)


4 August 1879

Lat 53.9, Long -166.5

Port Illiouliouk, Ounalashka


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water received during the preceding 24 hours: 400 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 410 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 150 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 7 tons 1950 lbs


Alongside wharf


Com. and until 4am

Clear and pleasant. Calm.

[signed] John Cole

4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Calm. Commenced coaling at 6.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Light S.W. wind. Coaling ship. Received on board 12 codfish for officers and crew. Revenue Cutter "Rush" sailed.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light south-westerly wind.

[signed] John Cole

4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from S. by W.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Pleasant. Gentle breeze and fresh squalls from S. by W. At 6.30 got out another bow fast.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Cloudy and pleasant with light S. by W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


Moon 0°

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p.86):

The revenue cutter Rush, during her visit to St. Michael's and her cruise to the northward, passed through Behring Strait, some twenty miles to the northward and eastward of East Cape in Siberia, without having encountered any ice whatsoever. Supposing that Professor Nordenskjöld had already passed south, no communication was had by the Rush with St. Lawrence Bay. No communication from St. Lawrence Bay had been received at St. Michael's at the date of the sailing of the Rush on the 23d July, and consequently there was no knowledge of the safety or movements of Professor Nordenskjöld's party.



50a27fd87438ae05bd00010d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_067_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00010f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_067_1.jpg)


5 August 1879


Lat 53.9, Long -166.5

Port Illiouliouk, Ounalashka


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 360 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 150 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 7 tons 1800 lbs

Received on board 131 tons 1083 lbs


Alongside wharf


Com. and until 4am

Cloudy. Calm. Pleasant. Last part of watch light airs from S.W. Steamer "St Paul" left harbor at 3.30.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Overcast. Light airs from S.W. Commenced coaling at [Editor's note: entry incomplete]

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Cloudy. Moderate S. wind and squalls. Rain last two hours. Received from A.C. Co. stores a full list of which will be appended.


List of supplies furnished by the Alaska Commercial Co.


13 fur seal blankets case 1

½ doz wisp brooms case 5

3 snow shovels 1 pkg

19 fur seal skins case 1

18 lbs whale sinew case 5

5 c coal oil 50 gals

10 fur seal blankets case 2

½ doz claw hatchets case 5

½ doz fox traps

16 marmot robes case 3

5 reindeer coats 1 bdle

2 tins matches 10gr.

1 squirrel coat case 3

3 reindeer bags 1 bdle

4 pairs snow shoes

1 musquash coat case 3

1 reindeer skin 1 bdle

3 bars O iron 7/8 inch 92 pound

25 intestine shirts case 4

15 reindeer bags 1 bdle

3 sheets gal'vd iron 7/8 inch 36 pounds

9 pair buffalo overshoes case 4

39 reindeer skins 6 bdles

20 p'd iron tacks

1 clothes line case 4

17 bundles walrus hide rope

1/6 doz rim knob locks

1 pc scarlet flannel 34 yards case 4

12 brooms 1 pkge

1 keg nails 8s

347 ft. spruce board

30 ft. T & G

60 gallons cranberries

1000 ft. RW. rustic

12 student lamp chimneys

1 sheep

500 ft. 2×3

84 ft. plank 3×12

11 850 lbs dried fish


131 tons 1083 lbs Nanaimo coal

30 pairs reindeer mitts (1 case)



26 squirrel coats (3 cases)


[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Raining until last hour when the weather cleared. Light S.W. wind with occasional squalls.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Clear. Fresh southerly wind and occasional squalls.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Clear. Moderate southerly wind and fresh squalls. At 6 finished coaling.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Weather pleasant with opening clouds. Moderate breeze from S'd until 11 when it veered to W. in a squall.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon 6° N.

Full moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd000111: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_068_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000113: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_068_1.jpg)


6 August 1879

From Unalaska to St. Michael's

Lat 54.25, Long -166.42

Making passage from Port Illiouliouk to Saint Michaels, Alaska


Distance run by log since preceding noon 24 knots 0 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 54° 15' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 166° 25' W.

Latitude by observation at noon 54° 15' N.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 310 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 3 tons 1360 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 135 tons 1473 lbs


1am: Alongside wharf

5am: At 5.50 put over Pat.

Log Harpoon 0

~liss at 94.4

6am: Standing out of harbor

8am: Set fore and aft sails

Noon: Pat. Log 22.8

Taf. 21.8

11pm: Took in fore and aft sail


Com. and until 4am

Strong breeze from S.W. and squalls. At 2 started fires under two boilers.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Light variable wind with squalls from S.W. At 5 got underway and steamed out of harbor. Drought of ship 11' 4" forward and 13' 04" aft. The flags on shore and on the shipping were dipped and a salute of 3 guns on shore and one on the "St. George" was fired. At 5.50 took departure. Ulakta Head bearing W. by N. (p.c.) one mile distant. Set course N.N.W. ¼ W. (p.c.) for Nounivak Island. Fresh breeze from N.N.W. and misty weather.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Cloudy. Misty at times. Moderate breeze from W. At 11.15 wind veered to N'd. Ship heading N. by W. (p.c.).

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and cloudy. Fresh breeze from W.N.W. Rough sea.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Overcast. Fresh breeze from N.W. Rough head sea.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Overcast. Gentle breeze from N.W.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Light breeze from N.W. Overcast. At 10 tacked ship to W'd. At 11 took in sail and brought ship to her course N.N.W. ¼ W.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 16° N.

Full moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd000115: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_069_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000117: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_069_1.jpg)


7 August 1879


Lat 55.72, Long -167.16

Making passage from Port Illiouliouk to Saint Michaels, Alaska


Distance run by log since preceding noon 97 knots 2 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 55° 17' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 166° 02' W.

Latitude by observation at noon 55° 43' N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: worked back from pm observation 167° 09' 40" W.

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations Sun at 4.15pm 167° 14' 00" W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 260 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 10 tons 250 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 125 tons 1223 lbs


6am: Set all sail

Noon: P.L. 97 ¼


Com. and until 4am

Cloudy. Light mist. At 2.15 stopped engines to tighten nut on valve rod. Started ahead at 2.40. Calm.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Overcast and cloudy. Calm first part. Light easterly wind last part.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Overcast. Moderate easterly wind. At 11.55 stopped engines and hove ship to. Got a cast in 74 fathoms. Black mud and sand. Dredged for deep sea specimens. Condemned dog food 42 lbs roast beef marked "Cutting Packing Co".

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy and pleasant. At 12.20 filled away on course N.N.W. ¼ W. (p.c.) Moderate S.E. wind.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Overcast and pleasant. Fresh breeze from S.E. At 6 changed course to N. by W. ½ W. (p.c.).

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Misty. Fresh breeze from S.E. by E.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Cloudy and misty. Fresh breeze from S'd & E'd.

[signed] John Cole


Moon 16° N.

Full moon


Soundings

At 62 fathoms = 37°. Specific gravity at 55°, 1.025. density at 55°. 1.02560

At 47 fathoms = 37° No specimens of water attained.


50a27fd87438ae05bd000119: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_070_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00011b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_070_1.jpg)


8 August 1879

Lat 58.75, Long -167.95

Making passage from Port Illiouliouk, Ounalashka to Saint Michaels


Distance run by log since preceding noon 173 knots 2 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 58° 45' 00" N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 167° 48' 00" W.

Latitude by observation at noon no observation

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations Sun at 4.50pm 167° 57' 15" W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth at 4.50pm ship's head N. ½ W. (p.s.) 21° 00' 00" E.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 55 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 105 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 9 tons 2090 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 115 tons 1373 lbs


Noon: P.L. 173 ¼


Com. and until 4am

Cloudy and misty. Drizzling rain at times. Fresh breeze from S.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Fresh breeze from S.S.E. Weather thick and misty.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Cloudy and misty. Fresh breeze from S.S.E.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and misty. Fresh breeze from S.S.E.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Cloudy with portions of clear sky. Fresh breeze from S.E. by S.

[signed] William Dunbar

6 to 8pm

Cloudy. Fresh breeze from S.E. by S.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Weather misty. At 10 thick mist set in. Fresh breeze from S.E. by E.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon 19° N.

Full moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd00011d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_071_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00011f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_071_1.jpg)


9 August 1879

Lat 60.85, Long -168.38

Making passage from Port Illiouliouk, Ounalashka to Saint Michaels


Distance run by log since preceding noon 137 knots 0 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 61° 02' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 168° 21' W.

Latitude by observation at noon 60° 51' N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 168° 23' W.

Current during the time 0 knots 4 fathoms per hour setting to the S. 5° E.

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations Sun at 4.15pm 168° 19' 15" W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 55 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 150 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 9 tons 390 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 105 tons 983 lbs


Noon: P.L. 137

10pm: Set fore and aft sail


Com. and until 4am

Misty. Foggy at times. Moderate breeze from S.E. to E.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Cloudy and hazy. Gentle breeze from N.W. by W. Calm first partially

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Cloudy and foggy. Gentle breeze from N.N.W. At 11.40 put dredge over and towed it until 11.55. At 11.55 got a cast of the lead in 17 ½ fathoms. (Nothing in the cup when hauled up). Lost overboard one Casella-Miller max and min thermometer. Started ahead at 12.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast. Foggy at times. At 1 got a cast of the lead in 17 ½ fathoms. Fine sand. Green ooze. Lost overboard one Sigsbee's water cup. At 3 change course to N. by W. (p.c.).

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Cloudy. Clear at times with light N.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Cloudy and pleasant. Gentle breeze from N.W.

[signed] William Nindemann

8pm to midnight

From breeze from N.W. Misty. At 10 wind canted to N'd. Made fore and aft sail and stood W.N.W. (p.c.). Steering full and by.

[signed] William Dunbar


Soundings

At 16 ½ fathoms = 43.5° Density 1.024028 at 60°

At 1 fathom = 47.5°


Moon 23° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd000121: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_072_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000123: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_072_1.jpg)


10 August 1879

Lat 62.07, Long -168.57

Making passage from Port Illiouliouk, Ounalashka to Saint Michaels


Distance run by log since preceding noon 90 knots 2 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 62° 04' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 168° 28'

Latitude by observation at noon no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 168° 34' W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 55 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 95 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 8 tons 1880 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 96 tons 1343 lbs


P.L. 90 ¼


Commenced and until 4am

Cloudy with light mist. Fresh breeze from N.N.W. At 4 tacked ship.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Overcast. Strong breeze from N.W. moderating towards end of watch. Rough short sea.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Fresh breezes from N.W. by N. and misty at times. Comd'g Officer inspected ship at 10 and held divine service at 10.30. At 11.45 towed dredge. At 11.55 hauled in dredge and got a cast of the lead in 20 fathoms. Fine gray sand. At 12 started ahead. Steering full and by.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy. Fresh N.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole

4 to 6pm

Overcast. Moderate breeze from N.W. Short, chopping sea from N.W.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Thick misty weather with strong N.W. wind. At 8 got a cast in 15 fathoms. Fine grey sand.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Cloudy and misty. Fresh N.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


Moon 25° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd000125: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_073_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000127: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_073_1.jpg)


11 August 1879

Lat 63.50, Long -166.52

Making passage from Port Illiouliouk, Ounalashka to Saint Michaels


Distance run by log since preceding noon 105 knots 4 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 63° 34' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 166° 31' W.

Latitude by observation at noon 63° 30' 09" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 55 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 40 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 8 tons 1980 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 87 tons 1603 lbs


9am: Set all square sail

Noon: P.L. 105 ½

5pm: Took in square sail


Com. and until 4am

Misty. Drizzling rain at times. Strong breeze from N.W. Choppy sea from N.W.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Strong breeze from N.W. and sharp sea. At 7.30 got a cast of the lead in 14 fathoms. Fine grey sand.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Cloudy. Fresh N.W. wind. At 11.45 hauled dredge. At 11.55 got a cast in 13 fathoms. Fine grey sand.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy. Strong breeze from N.W. At 2.30 came on thick with drizzling rain. At 3.30 weather suddenly changed, wind fell to almost a calm and fog lifted showing clear spaces near N. & W. horizon.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Overcast and cloudy with light N.N.W. wind. At 4 sighted land appearing like a number of islands and bearing from N. by W. ½ W. (p.c.) to N.W. by W. (p.c.). At 4.20 changed course to N.W. by N. (p.c.) and at 5.30 changed course to N.E. (p.c.).

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Cloudy. Moderate northerly wind. Land in sight to N'd & W'd resembling Sledge Island and Cape Nome bearing W.N.W. (p.c.) and N.N.W. (p.c.) distant 40 and 25 miles respectively at 8. Ship's head N.E. (p.c.). At 8 set course E.N.E. (p.c.).

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Rainy and disagreeable. Moderate breeze from the N. At 10.20 stopped and got a cast of the lead in 11 fathoms. Soft bottom.

[signed] William Nindemann


Soundings

1 fathom = 46°. Showing specific gravity 1.025 at 60°.


Moon 26° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd000129: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_074_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00012b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_074_1.jpg)


12 August 1879

At St. Michael's

Lat 63.47, Long -162.04

Making passage from Port Illiouliouk, Ounalashka to Saint Michaels, Alaska


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 60 gallons

Water condensed during the preceding 24 hours: 340 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 320 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 8 tons 480 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 79 tons 1123 lbs


9am: Hauled in pat. Logs

10am: Took in fore and aft sails

11am: At anchor

PM: At anchor


Com. and until 4am

Thick and rainy. Fresh breeze from N. At 3.30 sighted land bearing from S.E. by E. to S. by E. (p.c.) distant 10 miles. Ship's head E.N.E. (p.c.)

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Cloudy. Rain squalls. Fresh northerly wind. Stuart Island and mountains on mainland in sight. At 6.30 made Egg Island bearing E. ½ N. (p.c.). Ships head E.N.E. (p.c.). At 8.00 bore up to S. (p.c.). Egg Island bearing N.N.E. (p.c.). Ship's head E.N.E. (p.c.). Weather pleasant during last hour.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. At 8.15 sighted a house bearing S. by W. ½ W. (p.c.) [store house of Western Fur and Trading Co]. Ships head S. (p.c.). Stood in towards Indian village cautiously, using lead. At 9.10 a salute of three guns was fired from the buildings of the A.C. Co and it was answered with the steam whistle. At 10 anchored in 2 ¾ fathoms, soft bottom, and veered to 30 fathoms of starb'd chain. Bearings at anchor. Egg Island N. (p.c.) and Indian village W. ½ S. (p.c.). Ships head E. ¼ S. (p.c.). Draft of ship 10' 8" forward and 13' aft. Received a visit from Mr. A. Neuman, agent A.C. Co. Hauled fires.

[signed] William Nindeman


Meridian to 4pm

Breeze from N.N.E. to N. by E. Force from 4 to 3. Barometer low and falling slightly last hour. Clouds cir-cum, cum-str, cum and strat, moving S.S.W. Light rain last hour. Moderate sea setting into harbor. Engaged building gallery house and breaking out fore hold. Sent ashore to A.C. Co.'s storehouse, to be made in clothing the following skins; viz, 180 young hair seal, 35 old hair seal, 65 dear skin, 6 hook~juge, 1 bear skin.

[signed] Cha W. Chipp, Lieutenant U.S.N.


4 to 6pm

Clear. Moderate northerly wind.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Cloudy with light rain first hour. Fresh breeze from N. with sea running into the harbor.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Fresh breeze from N. by E. Light rain squalls.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 26° N.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 89 ff):

Our schooner [the consort with coal] has not yet arrived, and there is no news of Nordenskjöld.

I confess I am seriously embarrassed. I fully hoped to find our schooner here, and to learn some tidings of the Swede. I am disappointed in both. I have not coal enough in the ship to warrant me in going away without waiting for the schooner, and it follows that I must await her arrival. Then we must go to St. Lawrence Bay for one more effort to learn something of Nordenskjöld, and, should we learn nothing of him, poke along the northern coast of Siberia until we are frozen in for the winter. Meanwhile our fine season is slipping away, when we might reach Kellett Land [Editor's note: Wrangel Island] and push on to the northward. There are only ten tons of coal here at the station, and that is wanted this winter.

So I am resigned to wait patiently for the Fanny A. Hyde to arrive.



50a27fd87438ae05bd00012d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_075_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00012f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_075_1.jpg)


13 August 1879

Lat 63.47, Long -162.04

At anchor, Saint Michaels, Alaska


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 55 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 270 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 300 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 79 tons 823 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Clear. Fresh northerly wind. Long swell setting into harbor.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Cloudy and pleasant. Fresh breeze from N'd until 6 when it moderated. Light swell from seaward.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Gentle breeze from N.N.E. Cloudy and pleasant. Clouds cir, cir-cum, cum, str. Moderate sea setting into harbor. Ship riding to the wind. Engaged building galley house and in breaking out fore holds and store rooms. Condemned for dog food 33 lbs roast beef marked "Cutting & Co".

[signed] Cha W. Chipp, Lieutenant U.S.N.


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light northerly wind.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Cloudy and pleasant. Gentle E.N.E. wind. Rain last part.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Light airs from N.E. Rain squalls.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Light E.N.E. wind.

[signed] John Cole


Moon 24° N.

Last quarter


0a27fd87438ae05bd000131: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_076_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000133: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_076_1.jpg)


14 August 1879

Lat 63.47, Long -162.04

At anchor, Saint Michaels, Alaska


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 55 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 215 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 300 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 79 tons 523 lbs


4pm: Low water


Com. and until 4am

Cloudy and pleasant with light airs from S.W. Last part calm and a squall of drizzling rain. High water at 4.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Light airs and calms. Clear and pleasant. Ship swung from W. to S.S.E. (p.c.). At 7 loosed sail to dry.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from N.N.E.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy. Light breeze from N. Low water at 4.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Light breeze from N.E. with squalls of rain.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant with light airs from N.E.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from N.E. increasing to gentle breeze at 10.

[signed] William Nindemann

Moon 22° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd000135: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_077_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000137: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_077_1.jpg)


15 August 1879

Lat 63.47, Long -162.04

At anchor, Saint Michaels, Alaska


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 55 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 160 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 300 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 79 tons 223 lbs


7am: High water

5pm: Low water


Com. and until 4am

Calm and pleasant. Moon rose at 12.45.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Moderate breeze from E.N.E. Hoisted out steam launch. High water at 7.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Cloudy and pleasant. Light breeze from N.E. A hunting party left the ship in the steam launch.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy with passing showers first part of watch. Light to moderate breeze from E. Barometer falling. Clouds cum, nimb and stratus. Moderate sea setting into harbor. Ship riding head to wind. Engaged making chafing gear, building galley house and making canvas cover for same.

[signed] Cha W. Chipp, Lieutenant U.S.N.


4 to 6pm

Cloudy with passing rain squalls and fresh E.N.E. winds.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Cloudy. Fresh breeze from E.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Overcast and cloudy. Misty with drizzling rain first two hours. Barometer low and falling. Clouds cum, str and nimb. Moderate sea setting into harbor. Ship riding to the wind.

[signed] Cha W. Chipp, Lieutenant U.S.N.


Moon 18° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd000139: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_078_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00013b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_078_1.jpg)


16 August 1879

Lat 63.47, Long -162.04

At anchor, Saint Michaels, Alaska


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 55 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 105 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 300 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 78 tons 2163 lbs


7am: High water

5pm: High water


Commenced and until 4am

Overcast. Passing rain squalls. Fresh north-easterly wind. Heavy swell from seaward.

[signed] John Cole

4 to 8am

Cloudy and rainy with strong breeze from N.E. by E. Hunting party returned at 7.10. High water at 7.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Cloudy with heavy showers of rain. Wind light and variable. Hoisted in steam launch.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy and calm. At 2 weather cleared with light northerly breeze. Condemned for dog food 33 lbs. roast beef marked "Cutting Packing Co".

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant with gentle breeze from N.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Light airs from N. by W. Misty at times. Exchanged the 2nd dingy for a metallic life boat received from Mr. Ketchum of the W.F & T. Co.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Cloudy with passing showers of rain. At 11 clear and calm.

[signed] John Cole


Moon 14° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd00013d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_079_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00013f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_079_1.jpg)


17 August 1879

Lat 63.47, Long -162.04

At anchor, Saint Michaels, Alaska


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 55 gallons

Water [Editor's note: no entry] during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 105 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 300 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 78 tons 1863 lbs


8am: High water


Com. and until 4am

Pleasant. Light breeze from N.E.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Light breeze from S.W. pleasant. High water at 8.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from N. At 10 Comd'g Officer inspected ship and held divine service.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light and variable breezes.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Overcast. Light airs from N.W.

[signed] William Dunbar

6 to 8pm

Cloudy with light rain and then clear and pleasant with light S.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Overcast and cloudy. Light breeze from W.S.W.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon 7° N.

New moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd000141: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_080_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000143: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_080_1.jpg)


18 August 1879

Lat 63.47, Long -162.04

At anchor, Saint Michaels, Alaska


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 5 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 300 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 78 tons 1563 lbs


9am: High water

4pm: Low water


Com. and until 4am

Light airs from W. Sky overcast at times.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Overcast and pleasant. Light N.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Overcast. Light drizzling rain. Light breeze from N.W. At 11.45 sighted schooner "Fanny A. Hyde" in the offing. Sent a boat with Mr. Dunbar to pilot her in.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from N.W. by W. Received schooner "Fanny A. Hyde" alongside at 1.30. Started fires under stb'd boiler. Long swell from seaward. Crew at work discharging schooner.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Light airs from N.W. At 6 shifted galley to new cook house.

[signed] John Cole

6 to 8pm

Pleasant. Light breeze from N.W. Stopped work at 8.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Fine weather. Light breeze from N.W.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 19° S.

New moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd000145: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_081_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000147: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_081_1.jpg)


19 August 1879

Lat 63.47, Long -162.04

At anchor, Saint Michaels, Alaska


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 55 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 70 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 15 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1500 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 78 tons 63 lbs


3am: High water

5pm: Low water


Com. and until 4am

Clear and pleasant. Light air from N.W.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breeze from S.W. At 4.30 commenced work discharging schooner.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Pleasant. Light airs from N.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light northerly breeze. Discharging schooner.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breeze from N.W.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Pleasant. Gentle breeze from N.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Light northerly wind.

[signed] John Cole


Moon 5° S.

New moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd000149: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_082_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00014b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_082_1.jpg)


20 August 1879

Lat 63.47, Long -162.04

At anchor, Saint Michaels, Alaska


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 55 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 225 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 170 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 2300 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 77 tons 3 lbs


8am: High water at 9


Com. and until 4am

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from N.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from N. Commenced work at 5.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant first. Overcast second part. Light northerly wind.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from N.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from N'd. Finished receiving stores from schooner. Received on board 75 tons of coal and the greater part of the stores a list of which is appended to this day's log. (The full list of stores &c is appended to log of August 27th, 1879).

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Light northerly wind.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breeze from N.W.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon 11° S.

New moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd00014d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_083_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000153: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_084_1.jpg)


21 August 1879

Lat 63.47, Long -162.04

At anchor, Saint Michaels, Alaska


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 60 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 100 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 210 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1500 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 77 tons 743 lbs


10am: High water


Com. and until 4am

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breeze from N.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Light westerly wind.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breeze from N.W. Swung ship for compass deviation on a peak bearing N. 47° E. (mag.) and 30 miles distant.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from N'd. Received on board a lot of skin clothing &c a complete list of which is appended to this day's log. Started fires under port boiler at 3.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from N'd.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breeze from N.W. At 7.06 got underway and stood out of the harbor. Ship's draught 14' aft 11' 8" forward. Engines working smoothly. Salutes fired from redoubt and from W.F. & T. Co.'s place on opposite side.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from N'd & W'd. At 10 took departure. North end of Stuart Island bearing W.S.W. (p.c.). Ship's head N.N.W. (p.c.) and 8.5 miles distant. Set course W. by N. (p.c.).

[signed] William Dunbar


Ah Sing (seaman) was this day discharged from this ship and the Naval Service, and a passage provided for him in the schooner "Fannie A. Hyde" to San Francisco, California.

[signed] George W. De Long, Lieut. U.S.N. Commanding


Moon 17° S.

New moon


Articles received at St. Michael's

[Paper inserts:]

50a27fd87438ae05bd00014f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_083_1.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000151: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_084_0.jpg)



30 neck comforters

40 sets dog harness

36 drill jumpers

5 sleds

20 pairs woolen gloves

20 cakes = 2290lbs compressed dog food

4 dressed beaver skins

5 bundles thongs

5 tanned seal skins (Maklak)

4 pieces whale bone

5 tanned seal skins small (Surtak)

10 gal. coal oil

60 mink skins (Mr. Ketchum)

1 coal oil lamp

10 pieces = 400 yards cotton drill

2 illuminators

10 pieces = 504yards calico (prints)

2 shades

3 bbl. salt salmon

3 doz wicks

48 pairs snow shoes

5 pairs woolen pants

2 bidaikies (canoes)

1 pair hard time pants

1 bidara (skin boat)

5 woolen overshirts

40 dogs



Two natives, named respectively Alexey and Aniguin were received on board to accompany the ship on her voyage to the Arctic Ocean, as dog drivers, hunters and trappers, upon the following terms of agreement between them and the Commanding Officer, Lieutenant DeLong U.S. Navy: viz. Alexey, is to receive Twenty ($20.00) per month and a proper outfit which amounts to $50.00 and at the completion of his service a breach loading rifle and 1000 cartridges, his wife shall receive provisions during his absence amounting to $5.00 per month.

Aniguin receives fifteen ($15.00) per month and a proper outfit amounting to $50.00 and his mother shall receive provisions during his absence amounting to $5.00 per month (over)


Both men shall be clothed and found in the necessaries of life until their return to St Michael, Alaska Territory.



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 94 ff):

At one p.m. commenced receiving stores from Mr. Newman, consisting of our fur clothing, forty dogs, five dog sleds, forty sets dog harness, snow-shoes, tanned seal-skins, dressed beaver-skins, twelve sleeping bags, sixty-nine pairs seal-skin boots, seven pairs deer-skin boots, twenty-two pairs water boots, seventy-eight pairs blanket socks, thirteen dressed skins, two dressed wolf-skins, fifty-two double squirrel jumpers, twenty single squirrel jumpers, four light squirrel jumpers, three tame deer-skins, fifty deer-skin pantaloons, twelve hair-seal pantaloons, one undressed deer-skin, four dressed beaver-skins, one baidera, twenty cakes, 2,290 lbs. compressed dog food, etc. The made up garments have been manufactured from the skins, and ten blankets we sent on shore upon our arrival.


Mr. Newman generously presented me with a Winchester sixteen-shooter, eight hundred rounds ammunition, two deer-skin jumpers (parkies), seal-skin boots, water boots, sleeping bag, gloves, and fur cap. To this I must add a beautiful Arctic hare coverlet from Mr. Ketchum, and sixty mink-skins from the same gentleman for ship's use.


In our communications with the natives on the Siberian side we must have an interpreter, and it is advisable also to have someone acquainted with the driving and management of dogs and sleds. For these reasons I have hired two natives, named respectively Alexey and Aniguin, recommended by Messrs. Newman and Nelson, the Signal Corps observer, as well as collector for the Smithsonian Institution. Alexey was a collector of specimens for him, and speaks English and even writes it a little.



50a27fd87438ae05bd000155: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_085_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000157: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_085_1.jpg)


22 August 1879

Searching for Nordenskjöld's Vega-Expedition

Lat 63.92, Long -163.87

Making passage from Saint Michaels, Alaska to St Lawrence Bay, Siberia


Distance run by log since preceding noon 65 knots 2 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 63° 55' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 163° 52' W.

Latitude by observation at noon 63° 55' N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 163° 52' W.

Variation of the compass by Amplitude Sun observed at sunrise 25° 00' 00" E.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 60 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 200 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 500 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 147 tons 203 lbs


Noon: P.L. 65.25


Com. and until 4am

Clear and pleasant. Light westerly breeze.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breeze from W. Cape Darby in sight bearing N. by E. ¼ E. (magnetic).

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Pleasant. Light airs from W'd. At 11.45 towed dredge. At 11.50 hauled in dredge and got a cast with the lead in 9 ½ fathoms. Soft blue mud.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from W. by N. At 1.30 changed course to W.N.W. ½ W. (p.c.).

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breeze from W. by N. Steamed in a circle for a set of serial time azimuths. [signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from W'd. At 8 hauled in patent logs to keep them from being carried away by drift wood. At 8 Cape Nome bore N.N.W. ¼ W. (p.c.). Ship's head W.N.W. ½ W. (p.c.).

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from W. by N.

[signed] John Cole


Soundings

At 8 ½ fathoms = 51° – Salinometer 1.02220 at 51.5° – Hydrometer 1.021 at 54.5°


Moon 21° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 96 ff):

I have changed all my plans. On the 20th, while we were hoisting in our coal and provisions, I made up my mind that the schooner had about twenty tons more coal than we could carry from here; and as we had to go over to St. Lawrence Bay, I decided that if we had that amount of coal there to replace what we burned in going over, we should be better off than if we left it behind at St. Michael's. Hence I stopped receiving coal and provisions and got ready for sea, and last evening at seven o'clock we steamed out of St. Michael's, and are now on our way to St. Lawrence Bay. I ordered the schooner to follow us, and she was to leave this morning, and no doubt will arrive quite as soon as ourselves, for she is light and we are very deep.



50a27fd87438ae05bd000159: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_086_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00015b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_086_1.jpg)


23 August 1879

Lat 64.45, Long -166.87

Making passage from Saint Michaels to St Lawrence Bay


Distance run by log since preceding noon 83 knots 4 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 64° 27' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 166° 52' 00" W.

Latitude by observation at noon 64° 27' N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 166° 52' W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun observed at 7.15am 24° 30' E.

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations 168° 18' W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 60 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 40 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 180 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 800 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 141 tons 1673 lbs


5am: Set fore and aft sail

6am: Set square sail

7am: Took in all sail

4pm: Set main top sail with single reef


Com. and until 4am

First part clear, pleasant and calm. Gentle breeze from N.W. during last part. Sighted Sledge Island at 2.20.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Long swell from N. At 7.30 changed course to W.N.W. (p.c.). Set fore and aft sail. [signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Stormy from N. Ship pitching heavily. Sledge Island and Point Rodney in sight. At 12 Sledge Island bore E.N.E. (p.c.). Ships head W.N.W. (p.c.). Pitched into a heavy sea and stove men's water closets, also smashed spare wheel. Slowed the engines to 30 turns.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Clear. Blowing a moderate gale from N.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

At 4 set main topsail with one reef. Fresh gale from N. by E. At 5.30 took in main topsail and jib mid lay the ship to on the stb'd tack, head at N.W. (p.c.). Banked fires.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Clear. Fresh gale from N.N.E. Ship lying to on stb'd tack and drifting to W.S.W. Heavy sea. Hauled down and stowed fore staysail.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Fresh gale from N'd. Ship lying to and drifting to W.S.W. under foresail, mainsail and spanker.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon 24° S.

New moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd00015d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_087_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00015f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_087_1.jpg)


24 August 1879

Lat 64.25, Long -169.42

Making passage from St Michaels to St Lawrence Bay


Distance run by log since preceding noon 60 knots 0 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 64° 15' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 169° 25' 30" W.

Latitude by observation at noon 64° 15' N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 169° 25' 30" W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 60 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 40 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 160 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 2 tons 1920 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 138 tons 1963 lbs


2pm: Set staysail and jib

5pm: Set flying jib

8pm: Under fore and aft sail

9pm: Took in flying jib


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and cloudy. Fresh gale from N. by E. Rough sea. Ship hove to with foresail, mainsail and spanker.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Fresh gale from N. by E. Heavy sea. Ship hove to with foresail, mainsail and spanker.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Cloudy. Moderate gale from N.N.E. Ship lying to. Gale moderating.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Fresh breeze from N. by E. At 1.25 spread fires. At 1.40 started ahead with engines. Gradually increased to full speed.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Clear. Fresh northerly wind and rough sea.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Fresh breeze from N. by E.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Clear and cloudless. Fresh breeze from N. by E. Chop sea.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 26° S.

First quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd000161: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_088_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000163: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_088_1.jpg)


25 August 1879

At St. Lawrence Bay

Lat 65.52, Long -170.77

Making passage from Saint Michaels, Alaska to St Lawrence Bay, Siberia


Distance run by log since preceding noon 88 knots 2 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 65° 31' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 170° 46' W.

Latitude by observation at noon 65° 31' N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 170° 46' W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 80 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 40 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 120 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 600 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 133 tons 1363 lbs


3am: Set flying jib

9am: Took in all sail

3pm: At anchor


Com. and until 4am

Clear. Gentle N.E. by N. wind. At 2.30 sighted high land ahead and on port-bow.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from N.N.E. Cape Nonniagomo in sight bearing N. ¾ W. (true). Land to the W'd of St Lawrence Bay in Sight.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Light variable airs. At 10 stopped and got a cast of the lead in 16 ½ fathoms. Fine grey sand. Cape Krelongonne bearing N. (true) and 5 miles distant. At 10.30 started ahead and stood into St Lawrence Bay. While stopping to sound the dredge was towed and a large lot of crustacea obtained. At 12 ship on range of Capes Nonniagomo and Krelongonne about 4 miles from the latter.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from E'd. Stood into St Lawrence Bay and anchored on Lutkis Harbor at 2.20 in 17 fathoms, soft mud. Veered to 60 fathoms starboard chain. West end of Lutkis Island bearing S. ½ E. (p.c.). High summit W. by N. (p.c.). Ship's head east (p.c.). Draft of ship 11' 4" forward and 13' 8" aft. Commenced distilling.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from S. Cloudless.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Clear and cloudless. Light airs and calms. Stopped distilling at 8 and hauled fires.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Clear, cloudless, calm.

[signed] John Cole


Moon 26° S.

First quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd000165: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_089_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000167: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_089_1.jpg)


26 August 1879

Lat 65.67, Long -171.1

At Anchor, Saint Lawrence Bay, Siberia (Lutkis Harbor)


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 80 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 250 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 290 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1 tons 760 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 132 tons 603 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Clear and pleasant. Calm. Light airs from N'd after 2.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Light airs and calms.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Clear, calm, pleasant. At 9 sight a schooner in the offing. Started fires under port boiler at 11.30.

[signed] John Cole

Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from S.E. and calms. Condemned for dog food 6 lbs roast mutton, Liberty brand.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Clear, calm, pleasant. At 5 schooner "Fannie A. Hyde" arrived and hauled alongside. Schooner left St. Michaels on Friday AM August 22nd, 1879.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Clear, calm and pleasant.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Clear, calm, pleasant.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon 24° S.

First quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd000169: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_090_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00016f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_091_1.jpg)


27 August 1879

From St. Lawrence Bay to Cape Serdze Kamen

Lat 65.67, Long -171.1

At Anchor, St. Lawrence Bay, Siberia (Lutkis Harbor)


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 80 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 90 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 300 gallons

[Handwritten note:] Received from schooner 25 tons coal

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1 tons 160 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 156 tons 443 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Clear, calm and pleasant.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from N. Commenced discharging schooner at 6.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Clear, calm and pleasant.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from S. Started fires under starboard boiler at 2.30.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Fine weather. Light breeze from S. At 5.30 finished discharging schooner. The appended list of stores &c comprises all the articles received from her at Saint Michaels and at this port.

[signed] John Cole

6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Calms and light breezes from E.S.E. Draft of ship 11' 10" forward and 13' 10" aft. At 7.35 got underway and stood out of the harbor with schooner in tow.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Moderate breeze from N.E. Stood out of harbor on range of west end of Lutkis Island and High Summit. Schooner was cast off at 9.30. At 10 took departure. High Summit bearing N.W. by N. (true) and Round Hill on Cape Nuniagumo N. (true) 9 miles distant. Set course N.N.E. (p.c.) and put over the taffrail log set at 87.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 21° S.

First quarter.


50a27fd87438ae05bd00016b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_090_1.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00016d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_091_0.jpg)

[Paper inserts:]


List of stores received from schooner "Fanny A. Hyde"


2 cases corn meal

2 c pumpkin

4 c haddock

1 c currant jelly

35 lbs flour

3 c carrots

1 c cod fish

1 c olive oil

45 lbs pilot bread

4 c beets

2c Finan Haddies

1 c medium beans

19 c roast beef

7 c split peas

1 c clam chowder

3 c Bartlett pears

71 c roast mutton

3 c Carolina rice

1 c kidneys

4 c gooseberries

14 c corn beef

1 c barley

7 c sausage

1 c apple jelly

26 c beef soup

19 c gr. Rio. coffee

1 c chicken soup

1 c julienne soup

11 c turkey

16 c ra. Rio coffee

1 c dried peaches

1 c fresh apples

10 c chicken

1 box chocolate

1 c tomatoes (special)

½ bbl. lard

2 c roast veal

20 c extra c. sugar

1 c okra

100 tons coal

3 c tongue

7 c cut loaf sugar

1 c string beans


2 c bacon

1 sack salt

13 c mutton broth


4 c boneless ham

1 c raisins

1 c vegetable soup


3 c oxtail soup

11 chests tea (½ ch)

1 c almonds, vermicelli, groceries


2 bbl. mutton suet

1 box mustard, pepper

1 c oatmeal, split peas


3 c mock turtle soup

4 box cheese

7 c macaroni


14 c oatmeal

1 c prunes

1 c Graham flour, barley


10 c hominy

1 half bbl. apple butter

1 c lima beans


13 c desiccated potatoes

1 half bbl. peach butter

1 c peaches


40 c tomatoes

1 half bbl. quince butter

1 c raspberries


13 c corn

1 c dried apples

1 c pickles


14 c succotash

1 c dried peas

3 c chutney


6 c green peas

9 box S.W. soap

1 c greengages


7 c turnips

3 c ex. beef

2 c damsons


1 c onions

1 c salmon




3 c mackerel




The following named articles were given to the schooner; viz. 2 cases mutton, 1 case tomatoes, 1 keg butter.



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 102 ff):

The schooner arrived last evening, and we are now hoisting in the last of the coal and provisions, and shall leave at seven o'clock this evening. The weather is beautiful, light southerly breeze, and smooth sea, and I am anxious to be off. And yet it seems like saying good-by once more. However, I am in this thing and I am going to see it through.


I have interviewed the chief who saw the steamer several times since, and I have about come to the conclusion that it was Nordenskjöld's steamer that he saw. When I telegraphed the Secretary asking if the rumors concerning the Swedish Expedition were reliable, he referred to the Secretary of State. This Secretary telegraphed to our Minister at Stockholm, and the Minister telegraphed back that Nordenskjöld, when last heard from, was at Cape Serdze Kamen, and was to leave in May. Now Cape Serdze Kamen is one hundred and thirty miles from here, and there is a settlement on the Cape. I have decided to go there and make an inquiry, and if I find the Swedes were there and have left, I shall push for Wrangel Land at once; if not — and there is the sticker — I suppose I shall have to grope along until I find where they did winter. We have nearly one hundred and sixty tons coal, and all our provisions in the ship, and we can afford to steam a great deal yet.


We shall tow the schooner outside the harbor as we go. The natives are rather an ugly looking lot, and I do not care to leave the schooner alone with her little crew of six men. I have given the captain fifty dollars for himself; he has waited upon us faithfully, and carries back our mail-bag to General Miller for us, as well as our smiling angel of a Chinaman.



50a27fd87438ae05bd000171: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_092_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000173: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_092_1.jpg)


28 August 1879

Lat 66.01, Long -169.72

Making passage from Saint Lawrence Bay to Cape Serdze Kamen, Siberia


Distance run by log since preceding noon 38 knots 4 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 66° 00' 49" N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 169° 43' 00" W.

Latitude by observation at noon 66° 00' 49" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 169° 43' 00" W.

No current


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 80 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 20 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 240 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 4 tons 1440 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 151 tons 1243 lbs


6am: Set fore and aft sail

9am: Took in sail

11am: Set fore and aft sail

Noon: Taffrail log 25 ¼

3pm: Taffrail log 39 at 3.15

10pm: Pat. Log 63 ¾


Com. and until 4am

Clear. Fresh breeze from N. by E. Chop sea.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Cloudy and misty. Strong breeze from N.W. by N. At 7.20 changed course to N. by E. High, bluff land on N.N.W. bearing and trending to the west and to the N. (true).

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Cloudy. Heavy fog bank to N'd. At 10.30 sighted a schooner to the N.N.W. close under the land and standing to S'd. Exchanged colors. She flew the American ensign. At 11.45 towed dredge and got soundings in 28 fathoms. Black pebbles and broken shells. Started ahead with engines at 12. Cape East on port bow and beam about 3 miles distant.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy. Fresh breeze from N'd and W'd. At 3.15 East Cape bore W. by S. (true). Tacked ship to N.W.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Cloudy. Moderate breeze from N.N.W. Passed a piece of drift wood. At 5 land to the westward of East Cape in sight. Point of land bearing W. by N. ¼ N. (true) and what looked like an island bearing N. ½ N. (true). East Cape bearing W.S.W. (true). Heavy mist over the land.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Overcast. Fresh breeze from N.N.W. Land in sight on port-beam.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Cloudy. Moderate W.N.W. wind. At 10 a point of land in sight bearing W.N.W. (true) and about 9.30 miles distant. Tacked ship to the N'd at 10.

[signed] John Cole


Soundings

At 27 fathoms = 36.5° – Salinometer 1.02545 at 56.5°


Moon 17° S.

First quarter.


50a27fd87438ae05bd000175: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_093_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000177: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_093_1.jpg)


29 August 1879

At Cape Serdze Kamen

Lat 66.90, Long -170.8

Making passage from St Lawrence Bay to Cape Serdze Kamen, Siberia


Distance run by log since preceding noon 85 knots 00 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 66° 54' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 170° 48' W.

Latitude by observation at noon no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations (sun) at 4.20 171° 44' 30" W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 80 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 40 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 200 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 500 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 146 tons 743 lbs


8am: Taffrail log 100 ½ at 7.15

Noon: Taffrail log 120.5

5pm: Took in fore and aft sail


Com. and until 4am

Moderate breeze from W.N.W. Misty.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Overcast and hazy. Moderate breeze from N.W. by W. At 5 passed several sticks of drift wood. At 7.15 tacked ship to S'd & W'd.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Cloudy and overcast. Moderate breeze from N.W. by W. At 8.15 sighted high land bearing S.W. (true) and apparently 40 miles distant. Large patches of snow visible. At 11.45 towed dredge and got soundings in 22 fathoms. Fine grey sand and mud. At 12 land in sight from S. to W. by S. (true) 15 to 20 miles distant. High round hills with low hollows between them.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast. Fresh breeze from N.W. by W. Passed drift wood. Land on port bow and beam. Ship standing into a bay. A settlement in sight.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Overcast. Fresh breeze from N.W. At 5.10 anchored in 8 ½ fathoms in a large bay. Veered to 60 fathoms starboard chain. Hard bottom. Bearings at anchor. North headland (the south headland) (supposed to be Cape Serdze-Kamen) N.N.W. ½ W. (true). South headland S.W. ½ S. (true). Native village S.E. by E. (true). Distant 7.4 & 1 ½ miles respectively. Heavy banked fires, ready for a start. Water too rough. Draft of ship not taken.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Cloudy. Moderate N.W. wind. At 7 the Commanding Officer went ashore to interview the natives. He took a party of officers with him. Heavy banked fires.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Overcast. Wind from N.W. until 10 when it veered to S.W. At 8.20 Commanding Officer and party returned with the native chief of the settlement and some natives. The chief and party left the ship at 9.20. Heavy banked fires.

[signed] William Nindemann


Soundings

21 fathoms = 36° – Salinometer 1.02470 at 52°


Moon 12° S.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 106 ff):

This bay appeared to have a general north and south direction, to be about seven miles in width at its entrance, with fine large headlands. All around the edge of the bay was fringed with broken pieces of bay ice in a soft and rotten condition.

Upon getting in toward the beach we found so much ice moving about as to make a landing impossible; but after pulling to and fro for about half an hour, we saw the natives getting ready to come out to us in a skin boat.



50a27fd87438ae05bd000179: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_094_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00017b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_094_1.jpg)


30 August 1879

Lat 66.84, Long -171.10

At anchor Cape Serdze-Kamen & Making passage from that Cape to Koliutchin Bay


Distance run by log since preceding noon 42 knots 6 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 66° 50' 30" N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 171° 06' 00" W.

Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 70 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 40 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 170 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 3 tons 1480 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 142 tons 1503 lbs


9am: Set fore and aft sail

10am: Put over Taf. log at 9 reading 139.5

Noon: Taffrail log 150.2


Com. and until 4am

Overcast. Moderate breeze from S.W. At 3 Lieutenant Chipp went ashore to interview the natives. Spread fires at 3.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Overcast and cloudy. Light N.N.W. wind. At 4.20 Lieutenant Chipp returned with the native chief and party. At 6 got underway and stood out of the bay on N. by W. (p.c.) course. At 6.15 natives left the ship. At 6.20 went ahead at full speed. Made out another settlement in the northern part of the bay.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Overcast and foggy. At 9.30 changed course to "full and by" on the port tack. Moderate breeze from W.N.W. At 10 a party of natives from the northern village came alongside and shoved off at 10.15. At 11.45 towed the dredge and took soundings in 22 fathoms. Blue mud. Weather very thick at meridian.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Misty, foggy at times. Moderate breezes from W.N.W. Passed several pieces of drift wood. Tacked ship to N'd at 4. Steering full and by.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Foggy and misty. Moderate N.W. wind. Steering full and by.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Foggy and misty. Light breezes from N.W. Steering full and by.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Misty. Fresh breezes from N. At 10.50 changed course to W. (p.c.).

[signed] William Dunbar


Soundings

22 fathoms = 36°

Surface = 39° – Salinometer1.0217 at 53°


Moon 7° S.

First quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd00017d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_095_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00017f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_095_1.jpg)


31 August 1879

At Nordenskjöld's winter camp, Koliutchin Bay

Lat 67.18, Long -173.47

Making passage from Cape Serdze-Kamen to Koliutchin Bay


Distance run by log since preceding noon 86 knots 4 fathoms

Longitude by D.R. at noon 173° 28' 00" W.

Latitude by observation at noon 67° 11' 00" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 173° 28' W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 70 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 30 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 130 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 1800 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 136 tons 1943 lbs


8am: Took in fore and aft sail

9am: Ship off edge of pack awaiting return of whale boat

5pm: Put over taff log at 5.15 – 12 ¾

6pm: Set fore and aft sail

9pm: Hauled in taffrail log at 8.15 read 24 ¾


Com. and until 4am

Cloudy. Moderate N.W. wind. Passed several pieces of ice.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Weather overcast. Light breeze from N.W. An extensive pack of old ice extending five miles from the land and in an E. and W. direction as far as the eye could reach. A point of land bearing S. (true) in sight also the coast to the E'd & W'd. At 5 tacked ship and stood to N'd & E'd. At 5.40 changed course to S.E. (p.c.) and stood in toward the pack. Light snow squall.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Weather clear and pleasant. Light breeze from N.W. At 8.20 Lieut. Chipp was sent ashore with whale boat. Ship underway at the edge of the pack and awaiting return of Lieut. Chipp. At 10 got soundings in 15 fathoms, bottom coarse gravel, and towed the dredge.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breeze from N. At 1 Lieutenant Chipp returned with satisfactory information that Professor Nordenskjöld wintered in this vicinity and had left 2 or 3 months ago for the E'd. Obtained some papers, buttons and other evidences that the ship had been in this locality. At 1.10 started ahead at full speed on N. by W. (p.c.) course. At 2 held divine service.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Cloudy. Light breeze from N. At 5.15 was clear of the pack and changed course to N.W. by N. (p.c.). At 5.55 sighted a large island bearing N.W. by N. ½ W. (true).

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Overcast. Fresh breeze from the N. by E. Detached pieces of ice met with occasionally. A point of the coast to westward of the island in sight and bearing N.W. by W. (true). Steering full and by.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Overcast and cloudy. Fresh breeze from N. by E. Light snow squalls. Hauled in taffrail log at 8.15 on account of drifting ice. Steering full and by, and to avoid ice. At 11.40 stopped engines. At 12 went ahead at full speed.

[signed] John Cole


Moon 1° S.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 109 ff):

During the night let the ship run along west. At five a.m., having run off enough distance to bring us on the meridian of the eastern edge of Koliutchin Bay, sighted a point of land bearing south true, and a low coast line extending east and west. An extensive pack of old ice continuing to about five miles from the land seemed to reach as far as eye could see east and west, with a funnel-shaped opening, the funnel point toward the land. Supposing that such an opening would be caused by a river emptying its waters into a bay, and the chart showing such a river flowing into Koliutchin Bay, I decided to stand into the opening, which we accordingly did at 5.40, the land being hidden at times by passing snow-squalls.

At seven a.m. made out what looked like houses on the ridge of a small hill back from the beach, which I now saw we could not get to on account of the bay ice fringing it for about two miles in extent, — our funnel-shaped opening closing up at that distance from the shore.

The ice on the western side of our funnel-shaped opening made out from the land, so that it was 5.15 p.m. before we were clear enough of the pack to shape our course N.W. by N. At six we sighted a large island, supposed to be Koliutchin Island. During the first watch we were much bothered by loose ice in large lumps, requiring constant conning to avoid trouble. At ten p.m., finding the ice growing heavier, I put her on the other tack to N.E. true, and stood out of it, stopping the engines from 11.40 to twelve, to let the ship drift through some small openings into open water.




LOGS FOR SEPTEMBER 1879

In uncharted waters - From Koliutchin Bay in search of Wrangel Land


50a27fd87438ae05bd000181: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_096_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000183: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_096_1.jpg)


1 September 1879

Lat 68.20, Long -173.42

Making passage from Koliutchin Bay in search of Wrangel Land


Distance run by log since preceding noon 84 knots 6 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 68° 12' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 173° 25' 00" W.

Latitude by observation at noon no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 70 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 110 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 1000 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 136 tons 943 lbs


3am: Put over P.L. at 3 – 24 ¾

Noon: Taffrail log 55


Com. and until 4am

Cloudy. Light breeze from N.W. by N.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Fresh breeze from N.W. Light snow squalls. At 5.15 the surface water rose to 40° F. No land or ice in sight.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Overcast and cloudy. Light snow squalls and breeze from N.N.W. At 11.45 towed dredge and got soundings in 24 fathoms. Bottom black mud. Condemned for dog food 30 lbs roast beef marked "Erie Packing Co".

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy. Moderate breeze from N.W. by N. Light snow squalls last hour. Land appearing like a large island in sight bearing S.W. ½ W. (p.c.).

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Overcast and pleasant. Moderate breeze from N.W.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Cloudy and pleasant. Light N.W. wind. At 7 changed course to N.W. (p.c.). Beautiful sunset at 8.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Clear and beautiful weather. Bright moon and stars. Gentle N.W. wind.

[signed] William Nindemann


Soundings

23 fathoms = 33 ½° – Salinometer 1.02620 at 37 ½°

Surface = 38 ½° – Salinometer 1.02650 at 37 ½°


Moon 4° N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 111 ff):

During the afternoon land was sighted bearing S.W., — probably the land around Cape North on the Siberian coast. Although this land is sixty miles from our position, I can account for our seeing it only by mirage. It did not really seem over thirty miles. A considerable amount of pack ice was between us and this land.



50a27fd87438ae05bd000185: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_097_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000187: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_097_1.jpg)


2 September 1879

Lat 69.17, Long -176.11

Making passage from Koliutchin Bay to search for Wrangel Land


Distance run by log since preceding noon 97 knots 2 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 69° 16' 24" N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 176° 15' 00" W.

Latitude by observation at noon 69° 09' 58" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 176° 06' 30" W.

Current during the time 0 knots 1 fathoms per hour setting to the N. 50° W.

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations (sun) at 5pm 175° 32' 00" W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun observed at sunset 18° 00' E.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 70 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 60 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 100 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 5 tons 1300 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 125 tons 1883 lbs


9am: Set all sail


Com. and until 4am

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from N.W. Very smooth sea. At 2.30 there was a moderate display of the aurora borealis which lasted about 10 minutes and was under the constellation Cassiopeia.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from S.W. At 6.45 sighted ice ahead and on port bow, bearing from N.W. by N. (p.c.) to the westward as far as the eye could see. At 7.40 changed course to N.N.W. (p.c.).

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from S. At 10.40 entered the pack and stood through it. Comd'g Officer conning ship from masthead. Used engines and helm as necessary to clear floating ice. At 11.30 was clear of drifting ice and stood N.E. (p.c.) to skirt the pack. At 11.55 got soundings in 24 fathoms. Thick blue mud and shells. Towed dredge.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Fresh breezes from S.E. All sail set. Coasting the pack to N.E. and changing course as necessary. At 4 changed course to N. by W. ¾ W. The pack opening more to the W'd. Condemned for dog food 18 lbs beef soup marked "Huckins" and 1 bottle Royal Cambridge Chutney (broken in case) was condemned and thrown overboard.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Fresh breeze from S.E. At 5.45 changed course to N. by E. ¼ E. (p.c.). Coasting the pack.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Moderate breeze from S.S.E. Coasting the pack.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Overcast and misty with fog at times. Fresh breezes from S.E. At 9 banked fires under port boiler and at 9.30 banked fires under starboard boiler. Stopped engines at 9.50.

[signed] William Dunbar


Soundings

Bottom = 36° – Salinometer 1.02540 at 52°

At 9 fathoms = 36 ½°

Surface = 35 ½° – Salinometer 1.02380 at 35 ½°


Moon 9° N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 112):

On our course from eight last evening until seven this morning, — N.W. (at which time we were about one hundred miles from the southeast cape of Wrangel Land). But at the last-named hour made the ice-pack ahead, and extending as far to the westward as we could see. During the forenoon watch we ran through a lot of loose ice, making a true north course as well as possible. At 11.30, being through the loose ice, were confronted by the solid pack, which headed us off to the N.E, true during the afternoon watch while we were skirting it.



50a27fd87438ae05bd000189: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_098_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00018b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_098_1.jpg)


3 September 1879

Lat 70.55, Long -174.58

Making passage from Koliutchin Bay in search of Wrangel Land


Distance run by log since preceding noon 116 knots 0 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 70° 22' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 174° 25' 00" W.

Latitude by observation at noon 70° 33' 00" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 174° 35' W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 70 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 70 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 100 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 4 tons 1940 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 120 tons 2183 lbs


1am: Took in square sails

4pm: Anchored to a floe

7pm: Anchored to a floe


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and cloudy. Fresh E.S.E. wind. At 1 ran zone of the ice. Started ahead with engines and got clear without injury. Took in square sail. At 2.45 made ice and tacked ship to E.N.E. At 3.30 tacked ship to S'd.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Weather misty and foggy. Light breeze from E. At 4 made a sail bearing S.E. (p.c.). A barque standing to N.N.W. At 7.05 tacked ship to the S'd and at 7.30 tacked ship to N.N.W. Lost sight of the sail at 7.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Overcast and misty. Sun visible at times. Gentle breeze from S.E. At 8 entered the pack by a lead to the N.W. Working through pack of drift ice using helm and engines as necessary. At 12 got soundings in 28 fathoms. Blue mud. Towed dredge. A barque in sight to the S'd & E'd.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Foggy and misty. Calm. At 3.10 anchored to a floe. Heavy banked the fires.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Foggy. Calm. At 4.30 the fog partially lifted. Spread fires and got under way. Stood to N.N.W. (p.c.) until 5.30 when the fog shut in thick and the ship anchored to a floe. Heavy banked fires.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Light airs and calms. At 7 got soundings in 38 fathoms. Blue mud.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Foggy. Light airs and calms.

[signed] John Cole


Soundings

27 fathoms = 32 ½° – Salinometer 1.02520

15 fathoms = 32 ½° – Salinometer 1.0268 at 38 ½°

Surface = 34 ½° – floated water the top of the stern level with the water. Almost fresh.


Moon 14° N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 112 ff):

A lively day. At one a.m. sighted the ice ahead and on the weather bow. Hauled sharp by the wind, but before we could get steam had closed in on the ice, striking it easily with our port side, and we lay there until we had steam enough to crawl off. No damage done. Found we had drifted into a bay in the ice. Hauled off to the eastward and southeast.

Sighted a barque to the S.E. under all sail. Had her in sight for three hours, when we lost her in the fog. At her nearest she was four miles distant, and we were too anxious about finding a decent opening in the pack to run down and speak her. At eight a.m., there being nothing but ice in sight, except to the S.E. where we had come from, I concluded to put the ship into a likely looking lead in the pack opening towards the N.W. We accordingly worked along in this lead, keeping a general N.W. direction until 3.10 p.m., when it became so foggy and the ice so closely packed that we stopped and planted an ice-anchor in a convenient floe.



50a27fd87438ae05bd00018d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_099_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00018f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_099_1.jpg)


4 September 1879

Lat 71.10, Long -174.10

Making passage from Koliutchin Bay in search of Wrangel Land


Distance run by log since preceding noon 9 knots 0 fathoms

Latitude by D.R. at noon 71° 06' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 174° 30' W.

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations (Sun) at 5.20pm 174° 05' 45" W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth at 5.20pm 26° 18' E.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 70 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 300 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 330 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1 tons 1660 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 119 tons 523 lbs


AM: Anchored to an ice floe.

4pm: Set fore and aft sail

10pm: Took in fore and aft sail

10pm: Turning in a circle


Com. and until 4am

Foggy. Light airs from N.E. The ice in motion and drifting to S.E.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Foggy. Light airs from N.E. The ice in motion.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Foggy. Light airs from N.W. and calm. At 12 took sounding in 24 fathoms – blue mud.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Foggy. Light airs from N.N.W. to N. At 2 the fog cleared away. Spread fires and got underway and worked to the N.E.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Fresh breeze from N. At 4.30 got out of the pack. At 5 could see the ice to the N.E. pack extending from S.E. to N.W. and around to N. leaving about eight points of the compass open. Clear water. Passed a drifting tree that had been torn up by its roots. Herald Island was sighted at 4.30 bearing W.N.W. (true) and great distorted by mirage.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Light northerly wind. Banked fires and went ahead slowly, engines making 20 revolutions.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from N.N.E. At 9.10 put helm hard a 'port and turned in circles during remainder of the watch. Ice all about the horizon. Herald Island bearing W.N.W. (true).

[signed] William Nindemann


Soundings

At 23 fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.02610 at 34°

At 9 fathoms = 32° – Salinometer 1.02610 at 34°

At surface = 33.5°


Moon 18° N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 113 ff):

The day opens calm and with a thick fog. Still at anchor to the floe. We observe a gradual closing in of large floes around us, and a seeming drift of small pieces to the southeast through the small water spaces.

The pack ice surrounding us seems to have a uniform thickness of about seven feet, — two feet being above the water. It is somewhat hummocky, but I do not observe any hummock greater in height than six or seven feet. New ice has made around the ship during the night, the temperature standing at 29° during the night and up to eight a.m. Sounds as of surf heard to southeast indicating open water in that direction.

At two p.m. the fog cleared away, and we spread fires at once and got under way. The greatest amount of water space seeming to be to the northeast, we made our way in that direction generally, and at 4.30 we succeeded in getting out of the pack into the open sea; that is, comparatively open, because the pack extended from southeast around by west to north, while only to the eastward was there open water. Upon reaching this open water we passed a drifting tree that seemed to have been torn up by the roots, but, more important still, land was sighted at 4.30, bearing W.N.W. true. From the reckoning we have been able to keep of our position, this land is Herald Island, discovered and landed upon by Captain Kellett, of H.M.S. Herald, in 1849. Not caring to put the ship in the close pack which appeared to the northward of us and lose sight of Herald Island without advancing materially, I slowed the engines and kept the ship turning round in circles for the night, just clear of the ice.



50a27fd87438ae05bd000191: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_100_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000193: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_100_1.jpg)


5 September 1879

Lat 71.32, Long -174.31

Making passage from Koliutchin Bay in search of Wrangel Land


Distance run by log since preceding noon 45 knots 4 fathoms

Latitude by observation at noon 71° 19' N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 174° 18' 30" W.

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations (Sun) at 5pm 174° 56' 45" W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 70 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 20 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 280 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 3 tons 1880 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 115 tons 883 lbs


AM: Turning in a circle

1pm: Anchored to floe

2pm: working to N.E. in pack

2pm: Set fore and aft sail and main topsail. Assisting with sail when possible

3pm: working to N. in pack

4pm: Anchored


Com. and until 4am

Clear and pleasant. Light breezes from N. Ship turning in a circle until daylight at 2 when she started ahead slowly on N.N.W. (p.c.) course. Spread fires at 3.45.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Moderate N. wind. At 4 started ahead at full speed in a lead to the N'd & W'd. Ship forcing her way at times through young ice from 1" to 2" in thickness and using fore and aft sail where possible.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breeze from N'd. Pack becoming heavy. At 8.40 could proceed no further. Pack thick and close. Anchored to a floe and banked fires. Herald Island in sight and bearing W. by N. (true). Got soundings in 45 fathoms. Blue mud. At times during watch the loom of distant land was distinctly visible above Herald Island and snow clad mountains were also reported. At 12 got soundings in 45 fathoms. Blue mud.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from N. At 1 spread fires. Cast off from floe and worked to the N'd & E'd to the head of the lead. At 4 could proceed no further. Anchored to a floe. Ship's head N.W. (p.c.). North point of Herald Island bearing W. ¾ N. (p.c.) = W.N.W. ½ W. (true). Banked fires.

[signed] William Dunbar

4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Light northerly wind.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from N.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from N.

[signed] William Dunbar


Soundings

At 44 fathoms = 28°. – Salinometer 1.02540 at 33°

At 30 fathoms = 29°. – Salinometer 1.02590 at 42°

At 15 fathoms = 31.5° No specimen of water

Surface = 34°


Moon 22° N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 114 ff):

A clear and pleasant day throughout, with light northerly breeze. At four a.m. spread all fires and got a full head of steam, and entered the pack through the best looking lead in the general direction of Herald Island. For the first two hours we had but little trouble in making our way, but at six a.m. we commenced to meet young ice ranging from one to two inches in thickness in the leads, and seemingly growing tougher as we proceeded. We ground along, however, scratching, and in places scoring and cutting our doubling, until 8.40 a.m., when we came to pack ice from ten to fifteen feet in thickness, which of course brought us up. Anchored to the floe to wait for an opening.

At one p.m., seeing another chance to make a mile or two, we got up steam and worked ahead through thin, new ice, and between detached pieces of floe. At four we anchored again to a floe, and banked fires. Our sides, on the doubling, are scraped bright, and scratched and cut to some extent, but they are the scars of honorable wounds received in action with the ice.




THE VOYAGES OF USS JEANNETTE
Drifting in the Arctic ice

JP map Jeannette Arctic

50a27fd87438ae05bd000195: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_101_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000197: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_101_1.jpg)


6 September 1879

Trapped in the ice near Herald Island

Lat 71.32, Long -174.95

Anchored to a floe near Herald Island


Latitude by D.R. at noon 71° 19' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 174° 56' 45" W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 70 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 170 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 400 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1 tons 1260 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 113 tons 1863 lbs


2pm: Underway working to N.W. in the pack


Com. and until 4am

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from N.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Foggy at times. Light airs from N. At 6.30 there was the loom of distant land bearing S.S.W. (magnetic).

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

First hour clear and pleasant. Thick fog came down from the N'd. Cleared at 10 and was cloudy during remainder of watch. Light breeze from N. Set up two range poles on S.S.W. (magnetic) range at 11. At 11.30 could see land bearing S.S.W. (magnetic). Supposed to be about 75 miles. A small drift to the N.W. during last hour was observed by means of the range poles. At 11.50 took soundings in 40 fathoms. Blue mud.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Weather overcast. Thick fog at times. At 1 spreading fires and got underway. Working through pack to W.N.W. Made about one and a half miles. Using sail and engines in ramming.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Overcast and foggy. Gentle breeze from N. At 4.20 secured ship to a floe with head at W.N.W. (p.c.). Herald Island enveloped in fog. No bearing could be obtained. Used surplus steam in distilling and allowed fires to die out. Commenced snowing at 5.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Moderate breeze from N. and light snow falling. Three bears approached within a mile of the ship and then retreated toward Herald Island.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Overcast. Snowing. Moderate breeze from N. by E. Ice moving.

[signed] John Cole


Soundings

39 fathoms = 28.5° – Salinometer 1.02520 at 33°

25 fathoms = 29° – Salinometer 1.02590 at 31°

10 fathoms = 29.5° – Salinometer 1.02230 at 30.5°

Surface = 33° Salinometer immersed to top of stem.


Moon 24° N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 166 ff):

As far as the eye can range is ice, and not only does it look as if it had never broken up and become water, but it also looks as if it never would. Yesterday I hoped that to-day would make an opening for us into the land; to-day I hope that to-morrow will do it. I suppose a gale of wind would break the pack up, but then the pack might break us up, and that is not to be desired. This morning shows some pools of thin ice and water, but as they are disconnected, and we cannot jump the ship over obstructions, they are of no use yet to us. A thick fog hangs over everything, even the island. A light northerly wind with a steady barometer, and a temperature ranging between 23° and 32°.


At one p.m. the fog lifted, and we saw a chance of making about a mile toward the island. Spread fires again and commenced forcing our way, ramming wherever we were opposed, and with good effect. Of course, ramming a ship through ice from ten to fifteen feet thick was impossible, but wherever a crack or narrow opening showed between two floes, even of that thickness, we could by judicious ramming, and backing and ramming again, shove them apart enough to squeeze through.


Our steam-winch did good service, for we could easily snub the ship's head into a weak place when we did not have room to turn her with the helm. At 4.20, however, we had come to solid floes again, and as the thick fog again shut in we came to with our ice-anchor.



50a27fd87438ae05bd000199: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_102_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00019b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_102_1.jpg)


7 September 1879

Lat 71.35, Long -175.08

Anchored to a floe near Herald Island


Latitude by D.R. at noon 71° 21' N.

Longitude by D.R. at noon 175° 05' W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 70 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 380 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1 tons 960 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 112 tons 903 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and snowy weather. Gentle breeze from N.N.E., moderate at times.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from E.N.E. At 7 the north end of Herald Island. Ice moving. Ship apparently drifting to N.W.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Overcast. Foggy at times. Light N.E. wind. At 10 held general muster. Read articles for better government of the Navy. Comd'g Officer inspected ship and then held divine service. At 11.55 got soundings in 40 fathoms. Blue mud.

[signed] John Cole

Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from N.N.E. Lead of open water two miles to the eastward. Extending north and south. Ice in motion.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from E.N.E.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Moderate N.E. wind.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from N.E. until 10 when it became fresh and shifted to N.N.E. Ice in motion pressing on starboard beam and giving ship a list to starboard. A bear approached the ship and hastily retreated.

[signed] William Nindemann


Moon 26° N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 119):

A day of complete rest in every respect. The day begins with snow, clears, becomes and ends foggy. Ice moving a little, and ship seemingly moving to N.W.

In the watch from eight to midnight, experienced a slight pressure on the starboard beam, shoving the ship up on a tongue of ice on the port side and listing her to starboard about five degrees.



50a27fd87438ae05bd00019d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_103_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd00019f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_103_1.jpg)


8 September 1879

Lat 71.58, Long -174.81

Anchored to a floe near Herald Island


Latitude by D.R. at noon 71° 35' N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 174° 48' 25" W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun observed at 9am 22° 50' E.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 330 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 900 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 112 tons 3 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Thick weather. Fresh breezes from N.N.E. Ship having a heavy list to starboard until 1.30 when she righted.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Overcast. Passing showers of snow. Fresh N.E. wind. Traces of a bear were found within 20 yards of the ship's bows.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Fresh breeze from N.E. Ship heeling a little to starboard but righting herself during last hour. At 12 took soundings in 36 fathoms. Blue mud.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Moderate breeze from N.N.E. Pleasant weather.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Clear. Moderate N.N.E. wind.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Pleasant. Fresh breeze from N.N.E.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Moderate breeze from N.N.E. Ship heeled to starboard.

[signed] William Dunbar


Soundings

At 35 fathoms = No record temp.

At 21 fathoms = 26 ½° No water brought up by cup.

At 6 fathoms = 27 ½° – Salinometer 1.0260 at 33°

At surface = 32° Water rises one division over top of stem.


Moon 26° N.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 119):

At 1.30 this morning the ship righted again. Thermometer ranging between 22° and 28°. Forenoon foggy; afternoon clear. No sign of a lead in any direction. The northerly winds seem to have cemented the ice into one enormous pack. Soundings at noon in thirty-six fathoms blue mud. The ship has evidently moved since yesterday, when we had forty fathoms. In the first watch the ship heeled again to starboard about 9°, and jammed the rudder hard a-starboard.



50a27fd87438ae05bd0001a1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_104_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001a3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_104_1.jpg)


9 September 1879

Lat 71.58, Long -175.10

Anchored to a floe near Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon 71° 35' N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 175° 05' 48" W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun observed at 9am 23° 12' E.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 0 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 280 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 230 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 111 tons 2013 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Clear and pleasant. Moderate N.N.E. wind. Ship heeled to starboard.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Pleasant. Light breeze from N.N.E. Ice pressure on starboard beam. Ship heeling to starboard.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Moderate breeze from N.N.E. Ship in a nip and listed to starboard. Great strain on rudder. At 11.45 took soundings in 35 fathoms. Blue mud. The east end of Herald Island bore S. 5° W. (magnetic).

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light northerly wind. Ship heeling to starboard.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breeze from N.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from N'd. At sunset could see Wrangel Land bearing from S.W. by W. (p.c.) to S.S.W. (p.c.).

[signed] William Dunbar

8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Light northerly airs and calms. Ship heeling to starboard.

[signed] John Cole


Soundings

At 34 fathoms = (thermometer out of order) – Salinometer 1.02450 at 36°

At 20 fathoms = 28 ½° – Salinometer 1.02480 at 41 ½°

At 5 fathoms = 31 ½° – Floating to top of stem at 40°

At surface = 32°.


Moon 26° N.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 120):

A superb day; bright sunlight, thermometer ranging between 21° and 25°. No sign of a lead in any direction.

Ship still heeled 9° to starboard, and great pressure on the rudder casing. This must be eased or we may damage the pintles. We have been trying all day to explode torpedoes under the stern, but our slow-match was defective and would not burn, and we could not get an electric current through our non-insulated copper wire.



50a27fd87438ae05bd0001a5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_105_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001a7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_105_1.jpg)


10 September 1879

No position

Beset in pack off Herald Island


Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 0 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 230 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 370 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 111 tons 1643 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Calm and pleasant weather.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Pleasant weather. Light airs and calms. Ship listed to starboard. Righted a little at 7.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Foggy. Calm. Light airs from N.E. at times. All hands employed cutting the ice away from the rudder. Ship heeling 9° to starboard, caused by a tongue of ice pressing upon the keel at the foremast. Got up tackles at the eyes of the fore and main rigging, hooked them to ice claws on the floe and boused them well taut. Freed the rudder from ice pressure. At 12 got soundings in 32 ½ fathoms. Black mud. Herald Island obscured by fog.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Misty. Light airs from N.E. Light snow at times.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Overcast and misty. Light airs from N.E. The hunter Alexis shot a walrus which came up about ¼ of a mile from the ship, through 3" of ice. The walrus sunk. Snow covered with blood.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Foggy. Light N.E. airs.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Misty. Light airs from N.E. At 10 wind veered to E.N.E. and increased to gentle breeze. Light snowfall at times.

[signed] William Nindemann


Soundings

At 31 ½ fathoms = 29 ½° – Salinometer 1.02560 at 34°

At 17 ½ fathoms = 29° – Salinometer 1.02550 at 36°} A warm layer under a cold one.

At surface = 33°


Moon 23° N.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 121):

In the hope of helping the ship to right herself, got two tackles up, one at the fore-mast head, and one at the mainmast head, hooking them to ice-claws and setting them well taut. Broke away the ice around the stern and attempted sawing with ice-saws, but with no other effect than to bend up the saws.

Not a sign of a lead in any direction.


50a27fd87438ae05bd0001a9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_106_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001ab: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_106_1.jpg)


11 September 1879

No position

Beset in the pack off Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 0 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 180 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 120 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 111 tons 1523 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Misty weather. Light airs from N.E. to E.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Weather misty and mild. Light airs from S.E.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Misty weather. Light airs from E. Crew employed in unshipping rudder. Herald Island obscured by fog. At 12 got soundings in 29 fathoms. Light blue mud. The trend of the line shows that ship and ice are drifting to the N.W. Ship listing 9° to starboard.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Misty weather. Light breeze from E. Unshipped rudder and triced up to stem davits.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Snow and mist. Light airs from the E.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Calm and misty.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Calm and misty.

[signed] William Dunbar


Moon 19° N.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 121):

The ship has not righted any during the night. An examination of the ice around the stern this morning shows that we are between two floes about fifteen feet in thickness. The ice on the port side of the ship has been broken on its upper edges and piled up irregularly fore and aft, while on the starboard side (toward which the ship heels) the surface is smooth and unbroken.



50a27fd87438ae05bd0001ad: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_107_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001af: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_107_1.jpg)


12 September 1879

Excursion to Herald Island

No position

Beset in the pack off Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 0 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 130 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 400 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 111 tons 1123 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast. Snow falling. Light S.E. wind.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Misty and foggy. Light airs from S.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Misty. Calm. At 12 took soundings in 26 ½ fathoms, pebbles and blue mud. Trend of line indicates drift to N.W. Sun visible at times. Ship listed 6° to starboard. Herald Island obscured by mist.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Misty weather. Light fall of snow at times. Light airs from S'd & E'd.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Overcast and misty. Calm. Preparations making for sledge journey tomorrow. Condemned for dog food 12 lbs roast beef marked "Erie" and 10 lbs "Huckins" beef soup.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Overcast and misty. Calm. At 7.45 Herald Island could be seen indistinctly, bearing S. by E. (magnetic).

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Overcast and misty. Light variable airs.

[signed] John Cole

Moon 15° N.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 123):

There is a bare chance of there being drift-wood on Herald Island to help us out in the matter of fuel, and as this is an important matter, I conclude to send a sledge party toward the island to get information. Chipp, therefore, is ordered to prepare for a journey, and accompanied by Melville, Dunbar, and Alexey, to take a sledge and eight dogs to proceed toward Herald Island to-morrow morning at eight o'clock. It is just as well, also, that I should know something about the ice between the ship and Herald Island, and the existence of some harbor into which the ship might be, by some happy circumstance, secured for the winter, if there is to be no further advance for us this season. In making preparations for the sledge journey the day ends.



50a27fd87438ae05bd0001b1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_108_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001b3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_108_1.jpg)


13 September 1879

No position

Beset in the pack off Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water [distilled] during the preceding 24 hours: 80 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 90 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 111 tons 1033 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Foggy. Light airs from S.S.E., increased to gentle breeze at 2.

[signed] William Nindemann

4 to 8am

Overcast. Calm or light airs from S. Herald Island in sight bearing S. by E. (mag.) and covered with snow.

[signed] Hans H. Erichsen


8am to meridian

Weather overcast and misty. Light snow during last hour. Herald Island obscured. At 8.30 a sledge party consisting of Lieut. C.W. Chipp, Chief Eng. Melville, William Dunbar and the Indian Alexis started from the ship with a team of 8 dogs for a 48 hour journey towards Herald Island and provisioned for 10 days. The colors were set and the party was cheered on its departure. At 12 took soundings in 27 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. No drift indicated by line. Ship listed 6° to starboard. Condemned for dog food 10 lbs beef soup marked "Huckins".

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy weather. Snow squalls. Light snow ~. Light breeze from W.S.W.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Cloudy weather. Snow squalls. Light breeze from W.S.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


6 to 8pm

Cloudy with light airs from W.S.W.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Overcast and snowy. Light airs from W.S.W.

[signed] William Nindemann


Soundings

At 26 ½ fathoms = 29.7° – Salinometer 1.020 at 46°

At 12 ½ fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.02160 at 46 ½°

At surface = 33°


Moon 9° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd0001b5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_109_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001b7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_109_1.jpg)


14 September 1879

No position

Beset in the pack off Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 50 gallons

Water remaining on hand fit for use at noon 30 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 260 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 111 tons 773 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Cloudy weather. Calm

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 8am

Overcast and calm. Hazy.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Overcast. Light airs from S.S.E. and calms. At 9 Lieutenant Chipp and sledge party returned to ship having found thin ice and open water about 10 miles from the ship in the direction of Herald Island. At 10.30 Comd'g Officer inspected ship and held divine service. At 12 sounded in 28 fathoms. Blue mud. No drift indicated by line. Herald Island obscured by fog.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy. Snow squalls. Light breeze from S.E.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 6pm

Overcast. Light airs from S.E.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Misty. Light air from S.E.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Calm weather. Sky overcast. Commenced snowing at 10.

[signed] William Dunbar


Soundings

At 27 fathoms = 30.8° – Salinometer 1.0270 at 37 ½°

At 13 fathoms = 32.2° – Salinometer 1.02410 at 35°

At surface = 33°


Moon 3° N.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 124 ff):

At 8.30 we were pleased at sighting the sled party returning, and at nine we welcomed them on board. Chipp reports to me that when about seven miles from the ship he found much lighter ice than the ice-field we are now in, it being composed of floe pieces cemented together by young ice, in many places just strong enough to bear the weight of the sledge and party. At ten miles from the ship he came to a broad lead, one half mile wide, extending E. and W. as far as eye could reach, with open lanes extending in S.E., S., and S.W. directions. Here the ice was different again, showing evidences of severe pressure. The old floes were closer together, and the young ice was broken and forced up into ridges of eight to twelve feet in height. He followed the edge of this lead to the westward a mile or so, when it turned up to the N.W., with an edge of soft and rotten ice. The ice around Herald Island appeared to be rotten and cut up with leads. The point of view was about fifteen miles from the ship and five miles from the island. The shore was high and rocky, apparently cut in deep ridges, running down the face of nearly perpendicular sides. He saw no place that would offer any protection to a ship.



50a27fd87438ae05bd0001b9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_110_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001bb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_110_1.jpg)


15 September 1879

Lat 71.77, Long -175.60

Beset in the pack off Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon 71° 46' 10" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 175° 35' 52" W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun observed at 9.30am 22° 04' E.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 30 gallons

Ice used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 120 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 111 tons 653 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast. Calm or light airs from S.S.E.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Weather variable. Foggy at times. At others sky clearing. Blue overhead. Light breeze from S.S.E.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Overcast. Light breeze from S.E. At 8.30 the east end of Herald Island was visible for a few minutes and bore S. 3° E. (true). Run water from boilers into bilges and pumped ship out. At 12 sounded in 30 fathoms. Blue mud. Ship listed 5 ½° to starboard.

Bearing at meridian.

East end of Herald Island S. 4° 26' E. (true)

East end of Herald Island S. 3° 04' W. (true)

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast. Snow storm. Moderate S.E. wind.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Weather cloudy. Light fall of snow. Light breeze from S. by W.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Light airs from W.N.W. Weather cloudy and pleasant.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Overcast. Light breeze from S.S.W.

[signed] John Cole


Soundings

At 28 fathoms = 29 ½° – Salinometer 1.02580 at 33°

At 15 fathoms = 29 ½° – Salinometer 1.02480 at 34 ½°

At surface = 32°


Moon 3° S.

New moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd0001bd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_111_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001bf: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_111_1.jpg)


16 September 1879

Lat 71.82

Beset in the pack off Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon 71° 49' N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun observed at noon 22° 30' E.


Ice used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 280 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 111 tons 373 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from S. by W.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Light southerly airs. At 7 could see land bearing from W. by S. (true) to south (true) very distant.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian [Editor's note: log says 'Meridian to 4pm']

Clear and pleasant. Light S. wind. At 12 sounded in 32 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Line indicating drift to S.E. Ship heeling 5 ½° to starboard. At 12 east end of Herald Island bore S. 2 ½° E. (true) west end S. 4° 30' W. (true).

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy and pleasant. Light breeze from S., veered to S.E. and increased to gentle breeze at 2. Condemned for dog food 2lbs "Huckins" beef soup.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Overcast and hazy. Light breeze from S.E.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Overcast and hazy. Light breeze from E.S.E.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Weather overcast and misty. Light breeze from S.S.E.

[signed] William Nindemann

Soundings

At 31 ½ fathoms = 32° – Salinometer 1.02450 at 32°

At 17 ½ fathoms = 31.7° – Salinometer 1.02110 at 34°

At surface = 32°


Moon 9° S.

New moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd0001c1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_112_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001c3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_112_1.jpg)


17 September 1879

Lat 71.83, Long -175.42

Beset in the pack off Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon 71° 50' N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 175° 25' W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun observed at 9.10am 22° 36' E.

Variation of the compass by bearing Sun observed at noon 22° 30' E.


Ice used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 340 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 111 tons 33 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Weather thick and hazy. Light airs and calms.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from S.E.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from E. and N.E. At 12 took soundings in 35 ¾ fathoms. Blue mud. East end of island bore S. 0° 30' W. (true) west end S. 7° 30' W. (true) at meridian. Ship listed 5 ½° to starboard. Determined deviation for S.S.W. (per starboard compass) to be 1 pt. east.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from E. At 1 sent a party and three dog teams to bring in two bears that had been shot by Comd'g Officer and party at a distance of three miles from the ship.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from E. At 5.30 sledge parties returned.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Pleasant weather. Light breeze from E., freshening.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Thick misty weather. Fresh breezes from E.

[signed] William Dunbar


Soundings

At 34 ¾ fathoms = 30 ½° – Salinometer 1.02530 at 33°

At 20 ¾ fathoms = 32° – Salinometer 1.02410 at 32 ½°

At surface = 32°


Moon 15° S.

New moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd0001c5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_113_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001c7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_113_1.jpg)


18 September 1879

No position

Beset in pack off Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Ice used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 140 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 110 tons 2133 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Clear until 1 when the weather became overcast and misty. Fresh breezes from E.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Overcast and misty. Fresh breezes from S'd & E'd. Snow during last hour.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Thick, misty weather. Fresh breezes from E. by N. Rain after 10. At 12 sounded in 36 fathoms. Soft blue mud. Ship heeling 5 ½° to starboard.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and misty. Rain at times. Fresh breeze from E. Condemned 30 lbs flour, injured by salt water.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Foggy and misty. Strong breeze from E.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Thick and misty. Fresh breezes from S.E.

[signed] William Dunbar

8pm to midnight

Overcast and misty. Fresh E.S.E. wind.

[signed] John Cole


Soundings

At 35 fathoms = 32 ½° – Salinometer 1.02560 at 32 ½°

At 21 fathoms = 32 ½° – Salinometer 1.02320 at 34°

At surface = 33°


Moon 20° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 130):

The day opens with a fresh breeze from S.E. which gathers strength, and the temperature rises from 30° to 35°. The effect upon the surface of the ice is to make a great deal of sludge and several small pools and ponds. No perceptible change in our position, but I have no doubt the ice is moving to the N.W., and carrying us with it.



50a27fd87438ae05bd0001c9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_114_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001cb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_114_1.jpg)


19 September 1879

Lat 72.01

Beset in pack off Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon (altitude near noon) 72° 00' 29" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 0 tons 270 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 110 tons 1863 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Cloudy and misty. Strong breeze from S.E. by E. At 3 wind moderate.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Thick and misty weather. Fresh breezes from E.S.E. At 6 weather cleared up a little.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Overcast and hazy. Moderate breeze from E. by S. Several rain squalls during second hour. At 8.30 got bearings of Herald Island as follows; viz.

East end S. 25° E. (magnetic) = S. 2° 30' E. (true)

West end S. 23° E. (magnetic) = S. 0° 30 'E (true)

Island appearing very distant.

At 9.30 the loom of distant land was observed on S.S.W. (true) bearing. At 12 sounded in 38 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Line indicating drift to N.W. Herald Island obscured by mist.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Misty. Light E.S.E. breeze. Hauled dredge and obtained interesting specimens.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 6pm

Thick, misty weather. Light E.S.E. breeze.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Overcast and misty. Light E.S.E. wind.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Overcast and misty. Gentle breeze from E.

[signed] William Nindemann


Soundings

At 37 ½ fathoms = 29 ½° – Salinometer 1.02510 at 35°

At 23 ½ fathoms = - – Salinometer 1.02280 at 34 ½°

At surface = 33°


Moon 23° S.

New moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd0001cd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_115_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001cf: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_115_1.jpg)


20 September 1879

No position

Beset in pack off Herald Island


Snow and ice used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 0 tons 340 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 110 tons 1523 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Thick, misty weather. Light airs from E.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Heavy mist. Light E. wind.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Weather misty. Light snow first hour. Light airs from E'd. At 12 sounded in 40 fathoms. Blue mud. Herald Island obscured. Ship heeling 5°. Ice thawing rapidly.

[signed] William Nindemann


Meridian to 4pm

Foggy weather. Light airs from S.E. At 1 hauled in dredge.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Overcast and misty. Light airs from S.S.W.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Overcast. Light breeze from S.S.W. and freshening.

[signed] William Nindemann


8pm to midnight

Overcast and snowing at times. Fresh breeze from S.W.

[signed] William Dunbar


Soundings

At 39 fathoms = 29° – Salinometer 1.02690 at 34°

At 25 fathoms = 32.25° – Salinometer 1.02520 at 34°

At surface = 33°


Moon 25° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 132):

The result of the S.E. blow and the mild temperature has been to open lanes in our immediate neighborhood, but none of them are of any great extent, and the heavy pack shows across the openings which are not more than fifty feet wide. If we were not securely held between two floes, I would move into one of these leads, even if we advanced only half a mile. (We would have moved at all events and have broken the monotony.) But we are securely held as in a vice, and heeling 5° to starboard.



50a27fd87438ae05bd0001d1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_116_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001d3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_116_1.jpg)


21 September 1879

Lat 72.17, Long -175.44

Beset in pack off Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon 72° 10' 23" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 175° 26' 22" W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun observed at 9.30am 23° 33' 00 E.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 0 tons 310 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 110 tons 1213 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast. Fresh S.W. by W. breeze.

[signed] John Cole

4 to 8am

Pleasant weather. Gentle breeze from S.S.E.

[signed] William Nindemann


8am to meridian

Pleasant weather. Fresh breeze from S.S.W. At 11.55 sounded in 41 fathoms. Soft mud and stones. Hauled dredge and obtained a good number of specimens and stones. Ship listed 5° to starboard. At 12 Herald Island indistinctly visible and bearing south (true) (approximate). At 10 Comd'g Officer inspected the ship and then held divine service.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light S.W. by S. wind.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from S.W. by S.

[signed] William Nindemann


6 to 8pm

Snowing. Light breezes from S.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Overcast first hour. Clear and pleasant during remainder of watch. Light airs from S. by W. There was a fine aurora during latter part of watch.

[signed] John Cole


Soundings

At 40 fathoms = 29° – Salinometer 1.02520 at 34°

At 26 fathoms = 32 ¼° – Salinometer 1.02690 at 34°


Moon 26° S.

First quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd0001d5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_117_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001d7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_117_1.jpg)


22 September 1879

Lat 72.15, Long -175.69

Beset in pack off Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon 72° 09' 12" N.

Longitude by chronometer from (equal altitudes of Sun) 175° 41' 22" W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun observed at 9.15am 24° 08' E.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 100 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 110 tons 1113 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from S.S.W.

[signed] William Nindemann


4 to 8am

Light breeze from S.S.W. Clear and pleasant. Herald Island in sight bearing S.E. by S. (true) (approximate).

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from S.S.W. At 11.55 sounded in 46 fathoms. Blue mud. Hauled dredge. Ship heeling 5° to starboard.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant weather. Light S.S.W. wind. Condemned for dog food 14 lbs beef soup.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Light southerly airs.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Light S.W. breezes. Hauled dredge at 7 and obtained one starfish.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Clear and starlight. Light breeze from S.S.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Soundings 46 fathoms

At 45 fathoms = 30° – Salinometer 1.02560 at 32°

At 31 fathoms = 32 ½° – Salinometer 1.0270 at 34.2°


Moon 24° S.

First quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd0001d9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_118_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001db: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_118_1.jpg)


23 September 1879


No position

Beset in pack to northward of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 290 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 110 tons 823 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Weather generally clear and pleasant. Light snow fall. Light S.S.W. breeze.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 8am

Weather overcast and gloomy. Light snow falling. Gentle southerly airs. Sun rose at 6 and visible for a few minutes.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Weather overcast. Snowing. Light airs from W.S.W. At 11.55 got soundings in 42 fathoms. Blue mud. Hauled dredge. Ship heeling 5° to starboard.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast. Light snow falling. Light airs from W.S.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 6pm

Overcast and light snow. Light airs from W.S.W.

[signed] Ed Star


6 to 8pm

Calm. Overcast. Light fall of snow.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Snowing until 9 when a light breeze from W.S.W. sprang up and weather cleared.

[signed] William Dunbar


Soundings 43 fathoms

At 42 fathoms = 31 ½° – Salinometer 1.02550 at 30°

At 27 fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.0260 at 30°


Moon 22° S.

First quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd0001dd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_119_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001df: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_119_1.jpg)


24 September 1879

Long -175.36

Beset in pack to northward of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 175° 21' 21" W.


Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun observed at 9.20am 22° 42' E.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 190 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 110 tons 633 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Clear and cold. Light breeze from W.S.W. At 1.40 there was a splendid aurora.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from S.W. Light snow falling at times.

[signed] Ed Star


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Light S.W. wind. At 12 sounded in 42 ½ fathoms. Soft blue mud. Heeling 5° to starboard.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy. Snowing at times. Moderate breeze from S.W. weather cleared a little at 3.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Misty. Moderate breeze from S.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


6 to 8pm

Overcast. Moderate breeze from S.W.

[signed] Ed Star


8pm to midnight

Overcast. Light snow falling occasionally.

[signed] John Cole


Soundings 42 ½ fathoms

At 41 ½ fathoms = 29.7° – Salinometer 1.02410 at 51°

At 27 ½ fathoms = 30.5° – Salinometer 1.02470 at 49°


Moon 18° S.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 134 ff):

We seem to be held in the centre of a large floe, sufficiently strong to save a severe nip to the ship and to resist pressure on its edges. A mile from the ship in any direction new ice six inches thick is piled up in tables from six to twenty feet in height by the coming together of floes. One day we find large spaces of water, the next day we find the spaces narrowing, and the third day the spaces are closed and slabs of new ice six inches thick are piled up on end like a confused fence six, twelve, and eighteen feet high. We seem to move only in azimuth, remaining heeled over to starboard 5°. Our floe suffers no jar even, and immediately around the ship the conditions of ice do not change, except as snow-falls level all the projecting surfaces.



50a27fd87438ae05bd0001e1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_120_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001e3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_120_1.jpg)


25 September 1879

Lat 72.14, Long -174.91

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon 72° 08' 07" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 174° 54' 30" W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun at 2.52pm 23° 13' E.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 320 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 110 tons 313 lbs


Aneroid barometer was moved at 4.30 and fell to 29.51.

The aneroid was moved from the outside of the cabin bulkhead to a place on the fore and aft bulkhead in the cabin near the starboard door on account of the thermometer attached which is not graduated below 10°.


Com. and until 4am

Moderate breezes from S.S.W. and snowing at times. At 1.50 a meteor was seen about ¼ of a mile from the ship in the S.W. quarter of the horizon. It was very brilliant and remained in sight for about 7 minutes appearing like a ball of fire.* At 3 the weather cleared. There was a fine aurora during watch.

[signed] William Dunbar

*Editor's note: DeLong described the phenomenon in his own journal (see below)


4 to 8am

Overcast. Light breeze from S.S.W. Snowing at times.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8am to meridian

Overcast. Passing snow squalls. Light breeze from S.S.W. At 12 got soundings in 31 fathoms. Blue mud. Ship listed 5° to starboard.

[signed] Ed Star


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light southerly wind.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Moderate breezes from S. and pleasant weather. At 5.40 saw distant land bearing S. by W. ½ W. (true).

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Cloudy weather. Moderate breezes from S.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8pm to midnight

Pleasant weather with moderate breezes from S'd. At 9 a brilliant aurora extended in an arch about 60° in height from E.S.E. to N.N.E. (true). Moon set at about 9.30.

[signed] Ed Star


Soundings 31 fathoms

At 30 fathoms = 30.5° – Salinometer 1.02460 at 29.5°

At 16 fathoms = 30.5° – Salinometer 1.02580 at 29°


Moon 13° S.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 135):

At 1.50 a.m. a very curious electric phenomenon was observed. A ball of electric light formed about one quarter mile from the ship on the surface of the floe (in size about that of "a barrel", according to Mr. Dunbar), throwing out rays in all directions, and slowly rose and worked away from the ship, decreasing in size and brilliancy. When almost extinct it advanced again, increasing in brilliancy, and, descending to the floe, disappeared. This occurred twice in seven minutes. The appearance of the electric ball was preceded by a fine aurora. Unfortunately Mr. Dunbar, who had the watch, did not call me to see this extraordinary occurrence. Mr. Collins was called, but before he came on deck the display was over. The foregoing is made from Mr. Dunbar's description.



50a27fd87438ae05bd0001e5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_121_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001e7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_121_1.jpg)


26 September 1879

Lat 72.17, Long -174.35

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon 72° 10' 13" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations (Sun) at 2.30pm 174° 20' 50" W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth at 2.30 pm 23° 15' 40'' E.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 290 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 110 tons 123 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast. Light snow. Moderate gale.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Fresh breezes from S.S.E. to S.S.W. Snowing.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Fresh breeze and squalls from W. At 12 sounded in 35 fathoms. Blue mud. Ship heeling 5° to starboard.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and cold. Moderate breeze from W.S.W.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 6pm

Clear and cold. Moderate breeze from W. by S.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Pleasant weather. Moderate breezes from W. by S.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Overcast and hazy. Light fall of snow. Moderate breeze from W.S.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Soundings in 35 fathoms

At 34 fathoms = 30.5° – Salinometer 1.02470 at 45.5°

At 20 fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.02560 at 32°.

At surface temp 32°.


Moon 8° S.

First quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd0001e9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_122_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001eb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_122_1.jpg)


27 September 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 110 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 109 tons 2153 lbs


2pm: At 2 set aneroid to mercurial at temp 46°.

The barometer to which the aneroid is set at temperature of 46°, is made by Adie, London, No 1231 and hangs in state room of Commanding Officer.


Com. and until 4am

Clear and cold. Light breeze from W.S.W. Fine display of northern lights from 2 to 3 in different colored waves.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Light breezes.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Cold and pleasant. Light breeze from S.S.W. Snow dust in air. At 12 got soundings in 30 fathoms. Blue mud. Ship heeling 5° to starboard.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy. Light breezes from S.W. by W. At 1 hauled dredge.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 6pm

Overcast. Fine snow dust in the air. Light breeze from S.W. by W.

[signed] Ed Star


6 to 8pm

Overcast. Light S.S.W. breeze.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Overcast and hazy. Light S.W. breeze.

[signed] John Cole


Soundings at 30 fathoms

At 29 fathoms = 32.5°

At 15 fathoms = 26.5°


Moon 8° S.

First quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd0001ed: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_123_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001ef: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_123_1.jpg)


28 September 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 270 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 109 tons 1883 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Cloudy. Snowing. Light breeze from S.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant. Perfectly calm.

[signed] Ed Star


8am to meridian

Overcast and calm. Fine snow in air. At 10 Comd'g Officer inspected the ship and then held divine service. At 12 sounded in 29 fathoms. Blue mud. Ship heeling 5° to starboard.

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast. Light snow at times. Light variable wind. Hauled dredge. Condemned for dog food 3 lbs mutton (Liberty). Condemned 10 lbs flour injured by salt water.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Overcast. Snowing at times. Variable winds. Sent men and dog teams after two walrus that had been shot.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


6 to 8pm

Overcast. Light breeze from W. Party returned with one walrus. Sent out another party for the other walrus.

[signed] Ed Star


8pm to midnight

Moderate breeze from S.W. Overcast second hour. Latter part calm and pleasant.

[signed] William Dunbar


Soundings in 29 fathoms

At 28 fathoms = 33.5° – Salinometer 1.02610 at 32°

At 14 fathoms = 37° – Salinometer 1.02440 at 30°


Moon 2° N.

First quarter


50a27fd87438ae05bd0001f1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_124_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001f3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_124_1.jpg)


29 September 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 70 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 109 tons 1813 lbs


Com. and until 4am

First part clear and calm, then overcast and fresh easterly wind. Squally. Light snow.

[signed] John Cole

4 to 8am

Overcast. Air filled with fine snow. Stiff breeze from N.E. by E.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8am to meridian

Overcast and cloudy. Moderate breeze from N.E. by E. At 12 sounded in 32 fathoms. Blue mud. Trend of line indicates drift to S.W. by W. (mag.). Ship heeling 5° to starboard.

[signed] Ed Star


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Fresh breezes from E.N.E. Snow during last two hours. At 2 put over a drift lead.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Hazy. Fresh breeze from E.N.E.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Cloudy. Fresh breezes from N.N.W. Sky cleared during last hour.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from N.N.W. to N.W.

[signed] Ed Star


Soundings in 32 fathoms

At 31 fathoms = 31.5° – Salinometer 1.02480 at 51.5°

At 17 fathoms = 33° – Salinometer 1.02410 at 50°


Moon 8° N.

Full moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd0001f5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_125_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001fb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_126_1.jpg)


30 September 1879

Lat 72.12, Long -174.59

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon 72° 07' 29" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations 174° 35' 37" W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun observed at 10am 23° 43' E.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 310 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 109 tons 1503 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Fine weather. Light airs from E.N.E.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

First part overcast and light snow falling. Light airs from ~N.E. and calms.

[signed] John Cole

8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from E.N.E. At 12 sounded in 27 fathoms. Blue mud. Trend of line indicates drift to S.W. by W. (mag.). Ship heeling 5° to starboard.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy. Passing snow showers and light breeze from E.N.E.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 6pm

Pleasant. Light breezes from N.E.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Overcast. Light breezes from N.E.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Overcast. Fresh breezes from W.N.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Soundings in 27 fathoms

At 26 fathoms = 34.75° – Salinometer 1.02460 at 56°

At 12 fathoms = 35.5° – Salinometer 1.02320 at 58.5°


Moon 13° N.

Full moon


[Paper inserts:]


50a27fd87438ae05bd0001f9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_126_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001f7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_125_1.jpg)


List of Provisions condemned as unfit for use during quarter ending Sept. 30th, 1879


flour

40 lbs

roast beef

666 lbs

roast mutton

9 lbs

beef soup

152 lbs

mutton soup

8 lbs

turnips

1 ½ lbs

chutney

1 bottle

currant jelly

2 glasses



LOGS FOR OCTOBER 1879


50a27fd87438ae05bd0001fd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_127_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd0001ff: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_127_1.jpg)


1 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 70 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 109 tons 1433 lbs


Com. and until 4am

First part overcast and hazy. Snowing last hour with fresh breeze from N.N.W. to N.E.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 8am

Fresh breezes from N.E. and snowing. At 6.30 cleared some.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Moderate E. by N. wind. Sounded in 38 fathoms. Blue mud. Drift lead indicates drift to S.W. Ship heeling 5° to starboard.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

First part cloudy with moderate breezes from N.E. Latter part hazy. Air filled with drifting snow.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 6pm

Ugly weather and snowing. Stiff breezes from N.E.

[signed] Ed Star


6 to 8pm

Snowing. Fresh gale from N. by E. 28 miles per hour by anemometer.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Snowing. Fresh gale from N. by E.

[signed] John Cole


Soundings 38 fathoms

At 37 fathoms = 35° – Salinometer 1.0240 at 50°

At 23 fathoms = 35 ½° – Salinometer 1.02230 at 48°


Moon 17° N.

Full moon


50a27fd87438ae05bd000201: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_128_0.jpg)

50a27fd87438ae05bd000203: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_128_1.jpg)


2 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 240 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 109 tons 1193 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and snowing. Moderate gale from N.E.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 8am

Overcast and snowing. Fresh breeze from N.N.E.

[signed] Ed Star


8am to meridian

Misty weather. Moderate breeze from N.N.E. Sounded in 28 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Ship heeling 5° to starboard. Ship drifting S. by W. (mag.).

[signed] William Dunbar


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and cloudy. Light N.E. wind.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Overcast with light breeze from N.E. by E.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


6 to 8pm

Overcast and cloudy with gentle breeze from N.E.

[signed] Ed Star


8pm to midnight

Fresh breezes from N. by E. Cloudy weather.

[signed] William Dunbar


Soundings in 28 ½ fathoms

At 27 ½ fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.0250 at 45.5°

At 13 ½ fathoms = No record. – Salinometer 1.02390 at 43.3°


Moon 17° N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 148):

To the northward of us there was quite a space of open water, extending about three miles east and west and one half mile in width. Across the opening, ice could be seen in pack, and the floe, in which the ship was fast, seemed to be moving past it to the S.E. To the southward and eastward of us the same extent of open water was visible, and the surface of our floe was soft and mushy, making us sink frequently to the ankles.



50a27fd87438ae05bd000205: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_129_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000207: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_129_1.jpg)


3 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the northward of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 270 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 109 tons 923 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and cloudy. Fresh north-easterly wind.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Overcast and cloudy. Moderate breezes from N.E. by E.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8am to meridian

Cloudy weather with fresh breeze from N.E. by E. At 10.30 sighted Herald Island, east end bearing S. 23° E. (true) and from 30 to 40 miles distant. At 12 sounded in 24 ½ fathoms. Blue mud and dark gravel. Ship drifting to W.S.W. (true). Heeling 5° to starboard. At 12 Herald Island in sight, bearing unaltered since 10.30.

[signed] Ed Star


Meridian to 4pm

Moderate breezes from N.E. and fine weather. A bear came within 500 yards of ship. Hunter started out in chase. Lost sight of Herald Island during early part of watch. Hauled dredge.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 6pm

Overcast and cloudy. Light N.E. breezes.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Overcast and cloudy. Light E.N.E. breezes. Hunters returned with a female bear shot by Alexis.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8pm to midnight

Overcast and cloudy. Moderate breezes from E.N.E.

[signed] Ed Star


Soundings 24 ½ fathoms

At 23 ½ fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.02450 at 49°

At 9 ½ fathoms = 32° – Salinometer 1.02385 at 49°


Moon 23° N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 148):

Soundings at noon in 24 ½ fathoms blue mud and dark gravel. The dredge brought up some delicate white coral. This is a very interesting circumstance, for, unless this has been carried here by the warm waters of the Kurosiwo current, its presence can be accounted for only by natural growth, and I have never heard of coral forming in such cold waters as those we are now in.



50a27fd97438ae05bd000209: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_130_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00020b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_130_1.jpg)


4 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 70 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 109 tons 853 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Moderate breezes from N. to N.N.W. and hazy.

[signed] William Dunbar


4 to 8am

Overcast and cloudy. Light N.E. airs.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Overcast and cloudy. Light airs from N.E. At 12 sounded in 26 fathoms. Blue mud. Trend of line indicates drift to S.E. by S. (true). Ship heeling 5° to starboard.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and misty with light breeze from E.N.E.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 6pm

Light breeze from N.N.E. Sky overcast.

[signed] William Dunbar


6 to 8pm

Overcast and cloudy with light breeze from N.N.E.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Overcast and cloudy. Light airs from N.W. by W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Soundings in 26 fathoms

At 25 fathoms = 30.5° – Salinometer 1.0250 at 44°.

At 11 fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.02370 at 45.5°


Moon 25° N.

Full moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd00020d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_131_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00020f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_131_1.jpg)


5 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 290 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 109 tons 563 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and hazy. Light airs from N.W.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 8am

Overcast and hazy. Light airs from N.W. by N.

[signed] William Dunbar


8am to meridian

Overcast and cloudy. Light airs from N. At 10 held general muster and read articles for the better government of the Navy. Commanding Officer inspected the ship and held divine service. At 12 sounded in 25 fathoms. Blue mud. Ship drifting to S. by E. (true). Ship heeling 5° to starboard.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy weather. Light variable winds.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 6pm

Cloudy weather. Very light airs from N.E.

[signed] Ed Star


6 to 8pm

Light airs and calms with pleasant weather.

[signed] William Dunbar


8pm to midnight

Clear, calm and pleasant. Light S.W. airs at times.

[signed] John Cole


Soundings 25 fathoms

At 24 fathoms = 30.5° – Salinometer 1.02440 at 44°

At 10 fathoms = 31.5° – Salinometer 1.0240 at 47°


Moon 26° N.

Full moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd000211: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_132_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000213: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_132_1.jpg)


6 October 1879

Lat 71.85

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon 71° 51' 10" N.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 70 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 109 tons 493 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Cloudy weather and calm.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 8am

Overcast, calm, snowing. Light airs from eastward last hour.

[signed] Ed Star

8am to meridian

Overcast. Snowing at times. Light and variable airs from S.E. to N.W. At 12 sounded in 24 fathoms. Blue mud. Trend of line indicating small drift to S. by E. (true). Ship heeling 5° to starboard.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


Meridian to 4pm

First part overcast and cloudy then clear with light breeze from S.W. by S.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Cloudy weather and snowing at times. Light variable airs.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


6 to 8pm

First hour cloudy and pleasant. Second hour overcast and snowing. Light N.E. breeze.

[signed] Ed Star


8pm to midnight

Fine weather and rising wind until 11, then light fall of snow and variable winds from N.E. to E. by N.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


Soundings 24 fathoms

At 23 fathoms = 30° – Salinometer 1.023850 at 54.5° – Hydrometer reading = 1.02425 at 54.5°

At 9 fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.023650 at 53.3° – Hydrometer reading = 1.0240 at 53.3°


Moon 25° N.

Full moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd000215: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_133_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000217: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_133_1.jpg)


7 October 1879

Long -176.36

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations (Sun) 176° 21' 45" W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth at 1.30pm 22° 48' E.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 340 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 109 tons 153 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast. Moderate breeze from S.S.E.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Overcast and cloudy. Moderate breeze from S.E.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8am to meridian

Overcast and cloudy. Moderate breeze from S.E. At 12 sounded in 25 fathoms. Blue mud. Trend of line showing drift to S.S.E. (true). High land in sight, very distant and appearing like islands. The most prominent one bearing S. 54° W. (true).

[signed] Ed Star


Meridian to 4pm

Fine and pleasant weather with light winds from S.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Light S. by E. wind.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from S.E. by S.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8pm to midnight

First two hours cloudy and pleasant. Last two hours overcast and misty with moderate breeze from S.E. by S.

[signed] Ed Star


Soundings 25 fathoms

At 24 fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.03060 at 44° – Hydrometer reading 1.03050 at 44°

At 10 fathoms = 32° – Salinometer 1.02420 at 45° – Hydrometer reading 1.02330 at 45°


Moon 23° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd97438ae05bd000219: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_134_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00021b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_134_1.jpg)


8 October 1879


No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 280 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 108 tons 2113 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and cloudy during first hour. Bright and clear during last three hours. Moderate wind from S. by W.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


4 to 8am

Overcast. Light variable airs from S. by W. to E.S.E.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Overcast and cloudy. Snowing at times. Light E.N.E. breeze. At 12 sounded in 25 fathoms. Blue mud. Trend of line showing drift to W. by S. (true). Ship listing 5° to starboard.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and snowing. Stiff breeze from E.N.E. Hauled dredge at 1.

[signed] Ed Star

4 to 6pm

Overcast and snowing. Stiff breeze from E.N.E.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


6 to 8pm

Overcast. Light snow falling. Fresh breeze from E.N.E.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Overcast and misty. Snowing at times. Fresh breeze from E.N.E.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Soundings 25 fathoms

At 24 fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.02330 at 56° – Hydrometer reading 1.02330 at 56°

At 10 fathoms = 32° – Salinometer 1.02340 at 57° – Hydrometer reading 1.02340 at 57°


Moon 20° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd97438ae05bd00021d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_135_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00021f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_135_1.jpg)


9 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 70 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 108 tons 2043 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and hazy. Passing snow squalls. Strong E.N.E. wind.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 8am

Overcast. Snowing at intervals. Light E. by N. wind.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


8am to meridian

Overcast and misty. Snowing at times. Light breeze from E. until 10.30 when barometer commenced to rise and wind came fresh from the S.W. At 12 sounded in 23 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Ship drifting to eastward. Ship heeling 5° to starboard.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast. Snowing at times. Strong breeze from S.W. by W. Hauling dredge.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 6pm

First part overcast and hazy, then cloudy with moderate gale from S.W. by W.

[signed] Ed Star


6 to 8pm

Bright and clear with moderate gale from S.W. by W.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


8pm to midnight

First part overcast and cloudy, then clear with fresh S.E. wind.

[signed] John Cole


Soundings 23 ½ fathoms

At 22 ½ fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.02490 at 53° – Hydrometer reading 1.02490 at 53°

At 8 ½ fathoms = 32° – Salinometer 1.02320 at 56° – Hydrometer reading 1.02360 at 56°


Moon 16° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd97438ae05bd000221: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_136_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000223: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_136_1.jpg)


10 October 1879


Lat 71.73, Long -176.20

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: altitude of planet Mars 176° 12' 15" W.

Latitude by observation of moon near meridian 71° 43' 25" N.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 270 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 108 tons 1773 lbs

Com. and until 4am

First part clear and pleasant with stiff breeze from S.W. by W. Latter part clear and pleasant with moderate stiff breeze from S.W. by S.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 8am

Clear and pleasant with light breeze from S.W. by S. to south.

[signed] Ed Star


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from E.S.E. to E.N.E. At 12 sounded in 25 fathoms. Blue mud. Ship drifting to westward. Ship heeling 5° to starboard.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast. Moderate S.E. wind and light snow.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Overcast and hazy. Strong S.E. wind.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


6 to 8pm

Overcast and misty. Strong S.E. wind.

[signed] Ed Star


8pm to midnight

Overcast and hazy. Strong breeze from S.E.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


Soundings 25 fathoms

At 24 fathoms 31° – Salinometer 1.02590 at 56° – Hydrometer reading 1.02590 at 56°

At 10 fathoms 31 ½° – Salinometer 1.02310 at 58° – Hydrometer reading 1.0240 at 58°


Moon 11° N.

Last quarter


50a27fd97438ae05bd000225: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_137_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000227: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_137_1.jpg)


11 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 70 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 108 tons 1703 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and hazy. Fresh gale from eastward increasing.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Overcast and snowing at times. Fresh gale from E.N.E. Between 4 and 5 wind had 40 miles velocity.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8am to meridian

Overcast and misty. Strong wind from E. by N. At 12 sounded in 27 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Drift to the N.W. Ship heeling 5° to starboard.

[signed] Ed Star


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and cloudy. Light fall of snow at times. Fresh to moderate breeze from S.E. to E.S.E.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


4 to 6pm

Overcast and hazy. Moderate E.N.E. breeze.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Overcast. Light snow falling at times. Gentle breeze from E.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8pm to midnight

First part overcast and misty. Latter part cloudy. Light variable air. At 12 there was a moderate display of the aurora.

[signed] Ed Star


Soundings in 27 ½ fathoms

At 26 ½ fathoms = 30° – Salinometer 1.02350 at 63° – Hydrometer 1.02360 at 63°

At 12 ½ fathoms = 30.5° – Salinometer 1.02325 at 62° – Hydrometer 1.02325 at 62°


Moon 6° N.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 152 ff):

A stormy day with a southeasterly gale. At midnight light airs came up from the northward, and a faint radial display of the aurora in the N.W., from which I anticipate an increase of barometric pressure, and a fall of temperature tomorrow. During the day and until the wind went to the northward, snow fell. We have not had thus far any unusually heavy snow-storm, but these high winds blow the snow that does fall up into drifts, through which we unexpectedly flounder over knee deep. We do not seem to be affected, as far as the ship is concerned, by these high winds; she heels steadily 5° to starboard, and occasionally changes her head a point either way, but that is of course due to a motion of the entire floe in azimuth. Beyond an occasional trembling as a sudden gust strikes her, the ship is as steady as if she were in a dry dock, shored up; and whatever pressure may be exerted on the edges of our floe, it does not extend to our position within it. What were leads behind and ahead of us when we first pushed the ship in here have long since frozen over and have been covered with snow, and we detect them in high temperatures, say 30°, by sinking through the snow to the sludgy ice beneath and seeing water ooze up from its partially thawing surface.



50a27fd97438ae05bd000229: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_138_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00022b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_138_1.jpg)


12 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 360 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 108 tons 1343 lbs


1pm: drifting to S.E.

5pm: drifting to S.E.

9pm: drifting to E.S.E.

Midnight: drifting to E.S.E.


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and hazy. Light airs from N.W.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


4 to 8am

Overcast and hazy. Light breeze from W.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Overcast and snowing. Light variable winds. At 10 Commanding Officer inspected ship and crew. At 10.30 held divine service. At 12 sounded in 26 ½ fathoms. Drift to W.S.W. Blue mud bottom. Ship heeling 5° to starboard.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and snowing. Stiff breeze from W.S.W.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 6pm

Overcast and snowing. Strong breeze from W.S.W.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


6 to 8pm

Overcast, hazy and snowing. Blowing fresh from W. by S.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Overcast and stormy from W.S.W. Light fall of snow.

[signed] Hans Erichsen

Soundings 26 ½ fathoms

At 25 ½ fathoms = 30 ½° – Salinometer 1.02510 at 58° – Hydrometer 1.02510 at 58°

At 11 ½ fathoms = 30° – Salinometer 1.02320 at 59° – Hydrometer 1.02360 at 59°


Moon 2° S.

Last quarter


50a27fd97438ae05bd00022d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_139_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00022f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_139_1.jpg)


13 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 70 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 108 tons 1273 lbs


4am: drifting to E.S.E.

8am: drifting to E.S.E.

10am: drifting to E.S.E.

Noon: No drift


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and snowing. Moderate gale W.S.W. (squally at times).

[signed] Ed Star

4 to 8am

Overcast and light snow first two hours. Hazy last two hours. Moderate gale and strong squalls from W.S.W.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


8am to meridian

Overcast and hazy. Snowing at times. Strong breeze and squalls from W. by S. At 12 sound in 23 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. No drift at noon. Ship heeling 4 ¼ to starboard.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and hazy. Fresh breeze from W. by N. Hauled dredge at 1.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 6pm

Overcast and cloudy. Stiff breeze from W. by N. Air filled with driving snow.

[signed] Ed Star


6 to 8pm

Overcast and hazy. Stiff breeze from W. by N.

[signed] Luis P. Noros

8pm to midnight

Overcast and hazy with a fresh W. by S. wind.

[signed] John Cole


Soundings 23 ½ fathoms

At 22 ½ fathoms = 30.5° – Salinometer 1.02530 at 56.5° – Hydrometer 1.02530 at 56.5°

At 8 ½ fathoms = 30° – Salinometer 1.02330 at 57.5° – Hydrometer 1.0240 at 57.5°


Moon 6° S.

Last quarter


50a27fd97438ae05bd000231: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_140_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000233: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_140_1.jpg)


14 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 295 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 108 tons 978 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and hazy. Fresh breeze from W.S.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 8am

Overcast and misty. Passing snow squalls. Moderate breeze from W.S.W.

[signed] Ed Star

8am to meridian

Weather overcast. Light fall of snow first two hours. Gentle breeze from W. by S. Cleared a little during last two hours. At 12 sounded in 23 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. No drift apparent. Ship heeling 4 ½°.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and hazy. Moderate W. by S. breeze. At 1.30 the loom of high land was observed on S.S.W. (true) bearing.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Cloudy weather. Light breeze from W.S.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


6 to 8pm

Cloudy weather. Light breeze from S.W. to S.S.W.

[signed] Ed Star


8pm to midnight

Pleasant weather. Starlight. Air filled with a frosty haze. Light fall of snow at times. Light airs from S.W.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


Soundings 23 ½ fathoms

At 22 ½ fathoms = 30° – Salinometer 1.0260 at 49° – Hydrometer 1.0260 at 49°

At 8 ½ fathoms = 30.5° – Salinometer 1.0240 at 50.5° Hydrometer 1.0240 at 50.5°


Moon 12° S.

Last quarter


50a27fd97438ae05bd000235: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_141_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000237: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_141_1.jpg)


15 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 70 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 108 tons 908 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and hazy. Light airs from S.W. Brilliant aurora about 1.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Cloudy and hazy. Light airs from S.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8am to meridian

Overcast and cloudy. Hazy. Light fall of snow at times. Light airs from W.S.W. At 12 sounded in 24 fathoms. Blue mud. No drift of ship apparent. Ship heeling at 4 ½° to starboard.

[signed] Ed Star

Meridian to 4pm

Weather cloudy and pleasant. Light breeze from W.S.W.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


4 to 6pm

Cloudy and pleasant. Light airs from W.S.W.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Overcast and hazy. Light airs from W.S.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8pm to midnight

Overcast and hazy. Light air from W.S.W.

[signed] Ed Star


Soundings 24 fathoms

At 23 fathoms = no record – Salinometer 1.02 – Hydrometer reading 1.02

At 9 fathoms = no record – Salinometer 1.02 – Hydrometer reading 1.02


Moon 18° S.

New moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd000239: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_142_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00023b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_142_1.jpg)


16 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 315 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 108 tons 593 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and misty. Very light airs from S. by W.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


4 to 8am

Overcast and hazy. Light southerly airs or calms.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Overcast. Snowing at times. Light airs from E.S.E. At 12 sounded in 24 fathoms. Blue mud. No drift. Ship heeling 4 ½° to starboard.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and cloudy. Light snow at times. Light airs from eastward.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 6pm

Overcast and cloudy. Light airs from eastward.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


6 to 8pm

Overcast. Light airs from N.N.E.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Overcast and calm. Hazy. A few stars in sight at times.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Soundings 24 fathoms

At 23 fathoms = 30.5° – Salinometer 1.02340 at 56° – Hydrometer 1.02340 at 56°

At 9 fathoms = 31.5° – Salinometer 1.02340 at 57° – Hydrometer 1.02340 at 57°


Moon 22° S.

New moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd00023d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_143_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00023f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_143_1.jpg)


17 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 240 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 108 tons 353 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and hazy. Light snow at times. Calm. Very light and variable airs last hour.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 8am

Overcast and hazy first two hours and cloudy last two hours. Light airs from N'd & E'd.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


8am to meridian

Overcast and cloudy. Light easterly wind. At 12 sounded in 24 fathoms. Blue mud. Drifting slowly to N.N.E. (true). Ship heeling 4° to starboard.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy weather. Moderate breeze from E. to E.S.E.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 6pm

Overcast and hazy. Light breezes from the eastward.

[signed] Ed Star


6 to 8pm

Overcast and hazy. Light airs from E.N.E.

[signed] Luis P. Noros

8pm to midnight

Overcast and hazy. Light breeze from E.N.E.

[signed] John Cole

Soundings 24 fathoms

At 23 fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.02485 at 58.8° – Hydrometer 1.0250 at 58.8°

At 9 fathoms = 30.5° – Salinometer 1.02330 at 60° – Hydrometer 1.02370 at 60°


Moon 25° S.

New moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd000241: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_144_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000243: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_144_1.jpg)


18 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 70 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 108 tons 283 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and hazy. Light airs from E.S.E.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 8am

Overcast and cloudy. Light airs or calm.

[signed] Ed Star


8am to meridian

Cloudy and pleasant. Light airs from N.N.E. to N.N.W. At 12 sounded in 23 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Drift to S.S.W. (true). Ship listing 4° to starboard.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


Meridian to 4pm

Clear. Light N.N.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Cloudy. Light airs from N.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


6 to 8pm

Overcast and cloudy. Light airs from N.W.

[signed] Ed Star


8pm to midnight

Overcast and cloudy. Rising breeze from N.N.W. Hazy at times.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


Soundings 23 ½ fathoms

At 22 ½ fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.02445 at 56° – Hydrometer 1.02445 at 56°

At 8 ½ fathoms = 29.4° – Salinometer 1.02350 at 56.5° – Hydrometer 1.02370 at 56.5°


Moon 26° S.

New moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd000245: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_145_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000247: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_145_1.jpg)


19 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 270 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 108 tons 13 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast. Moderate breeze N.N.W.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Overcast cloudy. Light airs from N.N.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8am to meridian

Overcast and cloudy. Light airs from N.N.W. At 10 Comd'g Officer inspected the ship. At 10.30 held divine service. At 12 sounded in 23 fathoms. Blue mud. Drift to S.S.E. (true). Ship heeling 4° to starboard.

[signed] Ed Star


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and cloudy. Light airs from N.W. by N.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


4 to 6pm

Overcast and cloudy. Light airs from north.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Overcast and cloudy. Calm.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8pm to midnight

Overcast. Calm. Light snow falling. Light E.S.E. airs at times.

[signed] Ed Star

Soundings 23 fathoms

At 22 fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.02470 at 47° – Hydrometer 1.02450 at 47°

At 8 fathoms = 29° – Salinometer 1.02390 at 58° – Hydrometer 1.02390 at 48.5°


Moon 25° S.

New moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd000249: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_146_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00024b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_146_1.jpg)


20 October 1879

Lat 71.72, Long -178.73

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Longitude and Latitude by chronometer from observations of planet Mars & Capella (Sumner's method)

Long: 178° 44' 00" W.

Lat: 71° 43' 00" N.

[Editor's note: this position is probably wrong because it places the ship close to the northern coast of Wrangel Island, and according to the log they haven't sighted land on this day. On the next day, October 21st, the crew spotted Wrangel Island from approximately 50-60 nm away. See also https://archive.org/stream/voyageofjeannett01delo#page/156/mode/1up and https://archive.org/stream/voyageofjeannett01delo#page/n182/mode/1up]


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 70 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 107 tons 2183 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and cloudy first two hours. Last two hours hazy. Light snow. Sky clear and starlit at times.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


4 to 8am

Overcast and cloudy. Light E.S.E. wind.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Overcast and cloudy. Gentle breeze from W'd. At 12 sounded in 22 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Drift to the E'd. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and cloudy. Rising breeze from W.S.W.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 6pm

Overcast and cloudy with a light fall of snow and a rising breeze from W.S.W.

[signed] Luis P. Noros

6 to 8pm

Overcast and light snow first hour. Second hour clear and pleasant. Bright starlight. Moderate W.S.W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Overcast. Snowing at times. Fresh breeze from W.S.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Soundings 22 ½ fathoms

At 21 ½ fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.02520 at 50° – Hydrometer 1.0250 at 50°

At 7 ½ fathoms = 29.5° – Salinometer 1.02370 at 54° – Hydrometer 1.02340 at 54°


Moon 22° S.

New moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd00024d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_147_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00024f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_147_1.jpg)


21 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Variation of the compass by amplitude at 3.45pm 19° 00' 00" E.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 300 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 107 tons 1883 lbs


Com. and until 4am

First hour overcast, then clear with moderate breeze from the W. Faint display of aurora last hour.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 8am

Overcast and hazy first two hours, then cloudy. Light W.S.W. breeze.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


8am to meridian

Clear. Light breeze from W. by S. At 12 sounded in 23 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. No drift indicated by line. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from the W. During watch land was in sight to the southward and from deck it appeared like three islands. From aloft the land joining the apparent islands was distinctly seen and it was concluded that they were distant mountains. At 3.45 got bearing of the highest and best defined peak S. 9° W. (magnetic) = S. 28° W. (true). Estimated distance 50 to 60 miles. Sunset at 3.45.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from W. by S. At 4.30 the atmospheric refraction was very great and a high mountain having two peaks with a saddle between and bearing S. 5° W. (mag.) = S. 24° W. (true) was seen above a stratum of clouds about 1 degree above the horizon.

[signed] Ed Star


6 to 8pm

Bright blue sky and starlit overhead. Hazy in lower parts of atmosphere. At 7 the liquid compasses were found to be freezing. Removed them to cabin. Light airs from W. by S.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


8pm to midnight

Overcast and hazy. Light airs from N.W. and N.N.W.

[signed] John Cole


Soundings 23 ½ fathoms

At 22 ½ fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.0240 at 46.5° – Hydrometer 1.0240 at 46.5°

At 8 ½ fathoms = 29 ½° – Salinometer 1.02460 at 46.5° – Hydrometer 1.02430 at 46.5°


Moon 19° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 157):

At seven p.m., with the thermometer at eleven degrees below, our liquid steering compasses froze, and we removed them to the cabin, placing a boat compass in the deck house to keep a record by. The effect of this cold snap is to close up water spaces like magic. While out with the dogs this afternoon where had been open water, I could almost see it freeze harder and harder. Temperature, minus 8°.



50a27fd97438ae05bd000251: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_148_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000253: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_148_1.jpg)


22 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 270 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 107 tons 1613 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and hazy. Light airs from W.N.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 8am

Overcast and hazy. Light variable airs.

[signed] Ed Star


8am to meridian

Cloudy and hazy. Light snow at times. Weather cleared during last two hours and sun was visible at times. Light airs from N. by W. Sounded in 22 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Slight drift to W.S.W. (true). Ship heeling 4° to starboard.

[signed] Luis P. Noros

Meridian to 4pm

Blue sky and hazy. Light airs from N.N.W.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Overcast and hazy. Light airs from N.N.E.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


6 to 8pm

Blue sky. Light falls of snow. Light airs from N. by E. Moon set at 7.55. Pleasant weather.

[signed] Ed Star


8pm to midnight

Cloudy and hazy with light fall of fine snow. Light variable airs from N. by E. to W.N.W. From 8.30 to 11 there was a fine display of the aurora in an arch extending from E. by N. (true) to W.N.W. (true) with top of the arch being about 70° above horizon. Slight drift of ship to the eastward during last hour.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


Soundings 22 ½ fathoms

At 21 ½ fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.0240 at 50.2° – Hydrometer 1.0240 at 50.2°

At 7 ½ fathoms = 29.5° – Salinometer 1.02430 at 51° – Hydrometer 1.02350 at 51°


Moon 14° S.

First quarter


50a27fd97438ae05bd000255: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_149_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000257: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_149_1.jpg)


23 October 1879

Long -177.23

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from observations 8pm ✱Vega and Capella (mean) 177° 15' 30" W.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 260 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 107 tons 1353 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Blue sky and hazy. Light falls of fine snow. Light air from W.N.W.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Clear weather. Light airs from W.N.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8am to meridian

Clear sky. Light airs from W.N.W. Light snow falling at times. At 12 sounded in 22 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. No drift. Ship listing at 4° to starboard.

[signed] Ed Star


Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy and light falls of snow at times with a light air from N.W. Slight westerly drift.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


4 to 6pm

Clear. Light breeze from N.N.W.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Clear. Light airs from N.N.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breezes from N.N.W. to N. by W. From 8 until 9.30 there were three mock moons and a hazy arch about the moon.

[signed] Ed Star


Soundings 22 ½ fathoms

At 21 ½ fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.02490 at 45.8° – Hydrometer 1.02470 at 45.8°

At 7 ½ fathoms = 29.5° – Salinometer 1.02470 at 47.5° – Hydrometer 1.02450 at 47.5°


Moon 9° S.

First quarter


50a27fd97438ae05bd000259: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_150_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00025b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_150_1.jpg)


24 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 70 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 107 tons 1283 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Bright blue sky and hazy horizon first three hours, overcast with light snow falling last hour. Display of aurora at 3 and a fresh breeze from N.W. by W.

[signed] Luis P. Noros

4 to 8am

Overcast and hazy with moderate N.W. by N. wind.

[signed] John Cole

8am to meridian

Clear weather. Gentle breeze from N. Sounded at 12 in 23 fathoms. Blue mud. Slight drift to W'd. Ship heeling 4° to S.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant first three hours. Overcast and hazy last hour. Light breeze from N. by W.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 6pm

Weather cloudy and hazy first hour, overcast with haze last hour. Light breeze from N. by W.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


6 to 8pm

Blue sky and hazy. Light N. by W. wind.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Overcast with haze. Gentle breeze from N.W. by N.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Soundings 23 fathoms

At 22 fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.02650 at 49° – Hydrometer 1.02630 at 49°

At 8 fathoms = 30° – Salinometer 1.02410 at 45.7° – Hydrometer 1.0240 at 45.7°


Moon 4° S.

First quarter


50a27fd97438ae05bd00025d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_151_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00025f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_151_1.jpg)


25 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 270 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 107 tons 1013 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast with haze. Moderate breezes from N.W. by N.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 8am

Overcast with haze. Moderate breeze from N.W.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


8am to meridian

Overcast with haze until last two hours when sky partially cleared. Light breeze from N.W. Ship heeling 4° to starboard. Sounded in 23 fathoms. Blue mud. No drift.

[signed] John Cole

Meridian to 4pm

Cloudy. Light breezes from N.N.W. to N.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 6pm

Overcast and cloudy. Gentle breeze from N.W. by W.

[signed] Ed Star


6 to 8pm

Overcast and hazy. Moderate breeze from N.W. by W.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


8pm to midnight

Overcast and hazy. Moderate breeze from N.W. by W.

[signed] John Cole


Soundings 23 fathoms

At 22 fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.02450 at 45° – Hydrometer 1.0240 at 45°

At 8 fathoms = 30° – Salinometer 1.02440 at 45° – Hydrometer 1.02350 at 45°


Moon 1° N.

First quarter


50a27fd97438ae05bd000261: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_152_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000263: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_152_1.jpg)


26 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 225 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 107 tons 788 lbs


At 3 removed aneroid to deck house. Reading unchanged in moving.


Com. and until 4am

First part overcast and hazy. Latter part cloudy. Light breeze from W. by N.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 8am

Cloudy weather. Light breeze from W.

[signed] Ed Star


8am to meridian

Bright and clear. Light breeze from W. by N. Sounded in 23 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Drift to S.S.E. (true). Ship heeling 4° to starboard. At 10 Comd'g Officer inspected ship. Held divine service at 10.30.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and cold. Light breeze from W. During last hour the loom of high land was visible bearing S. 18° W. to S. 34° W. (true).

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

First hour clear and light breeze from W. Last hour overcast and hazy.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


6 to 8pm

Overcast and cloudy. Light air from W. by N.

[signed] Ed Star


8pm to midnight

Clear overhead. Hazy horizon. Light airs from W. and W.N.W.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


Soundings 23 ½ fathoms

At 22 ½ fathoms = 31° – Salinometer 1.02620 at 42.5° – Hydrometer 1.02530 at 42.5°

At 8 ½ fathoms = 30° – Salinometer 1.02450 at 48° – Hydrometer 1.02420 at 48°


Moon 6° N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 158 ff):

Weather clear and pleasant, and the low temperature is not cared for in contemplating a bright day. A movement has, however, taken place in the ice, but whether it is owing to a reduction of temperature or a reduction of pressure I cannot say. About five hundred yards ahead of the ship is a crack in the field a foot wide, and extending in a circular direction for half a mile, and five hundred yards ahead of that a crack six feet wide, and extending the same distance or more. In both cases the rent is a neat one; the water coming up within a foot and a half of the surface, but rapidly freezing in this temperature.



50a27fd97438ae05bd000265: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_153_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000267: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_153_1.jpg)


27 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 315 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 107 tons 473 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Clear. Light breeze from W.N.W.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Clear. Fine snow falling at times.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8am to meridian

Clear weather. Light variable airs or calms. Sounded in 23 fathoms. Blue mud. No drift. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.

[signed] Ed Star


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and hazy. Light airs from N'd & W'd.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


4 to 6pm

Hazy. Light snow and light airs from N.W.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Clear weather and calm. Hazy at times.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8pm to midnight

Blue sky and cloudy. Hazy at times. Light airs from W'd or calms.

[signed] Ed Star


Soundings 23 fathoms

At 22 fathoms = 30.75° – Salinometer reading 1.02 – Hydrometer reading 1.02

At 8 fathoms = 30° – Salinometer reading 1.02 – Hydrometer reading 1.02


Moon 11° N.

First quarter


50a27fd97438ae05bd000269: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_154_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00026b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_154_1.jpg)


28 October 1879


Lat 71.95, Long -177.83

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon 71° 57' 10" N.

Longitude by chronometer from 4am observations (Moon) 177° 50' W.

Longitude by chronometer from 4am observations (Mars) 177° 51' W.

Longitude (adopted) 177° 50' W.

Longitude by chronometer from observations (Moon) at 6pm 177° 33' 15" W.

Variation of the compass by azimuth Moon at 4am 23° 00' 00" E.

Variation of the compass by azimuth Moon at 6pm 23° 24' E.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 245 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 107 tons 228 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Bright and clear overhead with a hazy horizon. Light fall of fine snow at times. Light airs from S.W. occasionally.

[signed] Luis P. Noros

4 to 8am

Clear and calm. Hazy horizon.

[signed] John Cole


8am to meridian

Clear, calm and pleasant. Sun rose at 9. High land in sight to the S.S.W. (true). Bearings of extremes of land that is distinctly visible from deck as follows; viz, S. 16° 30' W. and S. 36° W. (true). The highest part bearing S. 32° W. (true). The land appears from 30 to 50 miles distant and is mountainous. At 12 sounded in 23 fathoms. Blue mud. No drift apparent. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Meridian to 4pm

Clear blue sky and pleasant weather. Calm. Very light airs from S.E. last hour. Moon rose about 2.30.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 6pm

Clear blue sky and fine weather. Light airs from S.E.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


6 to 8pm

Clear. Light airs from S.E.

[signed] John Cole


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from S.E.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


Moon 16° N.

First quarter


50a27fd97438ae05bd00026d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_155_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00026f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_155_1.jpg)


29 October 1879

Lat 71.95

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon 71° 57' 01" N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun at noon 23° 00' E.

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun at 2.30pm 22° 36' E.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 270 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 106 tons 2198 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Clear and pleasant. Bright moonshine. Light airs from S.E.

[signed] Ed Star


4 to 8am

Clear blue sky and pleasant weather. Light airs from S.E. Land in sight bearing from S.E. by S. (p.c.) to S.W. (p.c.).

[signed] Luis P. Noros


8am to meridian

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from S.E. by E. Sun rose at 9 and shone brightly all the watch. At 12 sounded in 23 ¾ fathoms. Blue mud. Ship heeling 4° to starboard. Slight drift of ice to the W. by S. (true) indicated by lead line. Took bearings of land that was distinctly visible at 12 as following; viz.

Eastern extreme S. 43° E. (mag.) = S. 20° E. (true)

Western extreme S. 23° W. (mag.) = S. 46° W. (true)

Bearings taken with azimuth compass 20 yards from ship, free from local influence.

Highest part S. 2° W. (mag.) = S. 25° W. (true) appears like a mountain with two peaks and a shallow saddle between them. Bearing of saddle taken.

[signed] John Cole


Meridian to 4pm

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from S.E.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 6pm

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from S.E.

[signed] Ed Star


6 to 8pm

Clear blue sky and pleasant weather. Light airs from E. by S.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


8pm to midnight

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from E. by N.

[signed] John Cole


Moon 20° N.

Full moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd000271: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_156_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000273: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_156_1.jpg)


30 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 70 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 106 tons 2128 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Clear and pleasant. Light airs from S.E. by E.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


4 to 8am

Overcast and hazy. Light drizzling snow at times. Light airs from eastward.

[signed] Ed Star


8am to meridian

Overcast and misty. Light airs from N.E. until last hour when it became calm. Sounded in 24 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Small drift to W'd. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and foggy. Calm.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 6pm

Overcast and foggy. Calm.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


6 to 8pm

Overcast and hazy. Drizzling snow. Calm, mild weather.

[signed] Ed Star


8pm to midnight

Overcast and hazy. Light fall of snow. Light airs from S.E. by S.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


Moon 22° N.

Full moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd000275: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_157_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000277: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_157_1.jpg)


31 October 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 270 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 106 tons 1858 lbs


Com. and until 4am

Overcast and hazy. Light snow and light airs from W.N.W.

[signed] John Cole


4 to 8am

Overcast and hazy. Light airs from W.N.W.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8am to meridian

Overcast and cloudy. Light fall of snow. Light airs from N.W. by W. Sounded in 24 ½ fathoms at 12. Blue mud. Slight drift to W'd. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.

[signed] Ed Star


Meridian to 4pm

Overcast and cloudy. Light falls of snow. Light airs from W.N.W.

[signed] Luis P. Noros


4 to 6pm

Overcast. Light snow and light airs from W.N.W.

[signed] John Cole


6 to 8pm

Overcast. Light falls of snow. Light airs from N.W. by N.

[signed] Hans Erichsen


8pm to midnight

Overcast and hazy. Snowing. Light breeze from N.W. by N.

[signed] Ed Star


Moon 24° N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 164):

The open water streaks are again closing up, the ice piling up to a height of some ten feet as the floes come together. Chipp has observed that these openings occur at full and change of the moon, and disappear at the time of neap tides. There may be a tidal action here, but as we are drifting around with the floe there is no chance for tidal observations.




LOGS FOR NOVEMBER 1879


50a27fd97438ae05bd000279: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_158_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00027b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_158_1.jpg)


1 November 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 270 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 106 tons 1858 lbs


5am: Dip circle in plane of mag. Merid~

[Editor's note: logbook column 'State of the Sea' now used for 'Dip of Needle']


AM

Winter routine commenced at 0 hours. The data for the columns of opposite page is obtained from the meteorological journal which is made from hourly observation by the officers of the ship.

Weather overcast and snow falling almost continuously. Dim moonlight until 7. Light breeze from N.N.W.

At 1am Commanding Officer inspected the ship. At 1pm divine service was read in the cabin. At 11.55 sounded in 24 fathoms. Blue mud. No drift indicated by lead line. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.


PM

Weather cloudy and hazy. Gentle N.W. breeze. Moonlight.


Moon 25° N.

Full moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd00027d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_159_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00027f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_159_1.jpg)


2 November 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 260 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 106 tons 1528 lbs


AM

Weather cloudy and misty. Gentle breeze from N.N.W. Aurora occasionally visible from 2 to 3. At 12 sounded in 22 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. No drift observable. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.


PM

Overcast and misty weather. At 1 held general muster and read articles for the better government of the Navy. Commanding Officer inspected the ship. Held divine service at 1.30. Faint moonlight about 6.


Moon 25° N.

Full moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd000281: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_160_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000283: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_160_1.jpg)


3 November 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 70 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 106 tons 1458 lbs


AM

Weather overcast and misty. Faint moonlight. Broken clouds at times. A large crack in the ice about 200 yards to the N.W. of the ship. Opening about 20 feet across. Sounded in 23 fathoms. No drift. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.


PM

Weather generally overcast. Air filled with driving snow. Moon and stars visible at times. In accordance with a written order from the Commanding Officer directing the Medical Officer to make an examination of the officers and men of the this vessel on the first day of each month or as soon thereafter as practicable for the purpose of ascertaining the physical condition of each person, the first of such examinations was commenced today.


Moon 24° N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 164 ff):

Discovered this morning a crack in the ice two hundred yards N.W. of the ship. It ran in an irregular direction for about one quarter of a mile, and was in places nearly twenty feet in width. The surface of the sides of the opening was but two feet above the surface of the water, which had of course become ice. This is bringing these cracks too near home to be pleasant, and I sincerely hope no nearer openings will cause us to be uneasy in our now comfortable berth, where we seem as steady as in a dry-dock. A faint trembling of the ship in high wind, such as is now blowing (at midnight), is the only unsteadiness which we have.



50a27fd97438ae05bd000285: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_161_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000287: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_161_1.jpg)


4 November 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 245 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 106 tons 1213 lbs


AM

Weather overcast and hazy. Strong breeze from N. by E. Air filled with driving snow. Moonlight through clouds.

Sounded in 23 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. No drift. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.


PM

Overcast and misty. Fresh breeze and drifting snow. Moon shining dimly through haze. The physical examination of the officers and men was concluded today. Aired bedding of crew in deck house.


Moon 23° N.

Full moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd000289: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_162_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00028b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_162_1.jpg)


5 November 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 95 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 106 tons 1118 lbs


AM

Weather overcast and hazy. Gentle breeze from N.W. Faint moonlight. Snow falling at times and snow drifting. At 11.55 sounded in 23 fathoms. Blue mud. No drift. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.


PM

Overcast and hazy. Snowing occasionally. Gentle breeze from N.W. to W.N.W.


Moon 4° N.

Full moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd00028d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_163_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00028f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_163_1.jpg)


6 November 1879

Weeks of severe ice pressures

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 255 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 106 tons 863 lbs


AM

Cloudy and cold. Snowing at times. Dim moonlight. Fresh breeze from N.W. hauled to the S.S.W. and fell to a light breeze. At 11 sounded in 18 fathoms. Blue mud. Ship heeling 4° to starboard. No drift observable. A large and long crack was made in the ice about 60 yards astern and a narrow one about 45 yards ahead was made during the night.


PM

Weather cloudy. Light breeze from S.S.W. Ice cracking in various places. At 4.30 ice opened near the observatory. Removed anemometer and other instruments to the ship. At 6 sounded in 18 fathoms. Ship drifting to N.E. (mag.). Ice in motion.


Moon 4° N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 165 ff):

A day of extraordinary interest and some anxiety. At nine a.m. we were disagreeably surprised at finding a large crack in the ice on the starboard quarter about two hundred yards distant, a small crack under and right across the stern, and a small crack leading from the stern for a hundred yards ahead. Although I could not account for them, I saw no reason to be uneasy, for we have had no high winds this month, and no pressure had occurred in our vicinity. At four p.m., however, Collins, who had gone on the usual hourly visit to the observatory and anemometer, came running back announcing that an opening had occurred in the ice between the observatory and tripod. We all hurried out and found a large rent, already four feet wide and widening, extending parallel with the ship's length to her starboard quarter, and thence across her stern, averaging one hundred yards in distance. We promptly removed the instruments (anemometer, thermometers, rain-gauge, barometer, and dip-circle, etc.) to the ship, setting them up there. The opening kept on widening, new ice forming immediately on the surface, and by midnight it was some twenty yards in width. Some premonitory crashes and groans of the ice added to my anxiety lest some fissures should occur in our floe and make our position serious. But we did not move an inch, either in our angle of heel (4°) or in azimuth, and at midnight we have nothing worse to contemplate than an opening one hundred yards off.



50a27fd97438ae05bd000291: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_164_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000293: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_164_1.jpg)


7 November 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 125 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 106 tons 738 lbs


AM

Cloudy and hazy. Light breezes from S.S.W. to W.S.W. Ice in motion. Sharp noises frequent. Moonlight at times. Sounded at 12 in 18 fathoms. Blue mud. No drift. Ship heeling 4° to starboard. Sun visible at times.


PM

Weather calm. Foggy at times. Steam rising from cracks in the ice. Very little movement to ice.


Moon 8° N.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 167 ff):

During the night the opening closed under seeming great pressure, for at day-break, say eight a.m., the ice was piled up in great heaps on the edge of our floe, which was of sufficient strength evidently to bear the brunt. The pressure came from S.S.E., the line of the crack being N.N.E. and S.S.W. true, and since our floe was the stronger, the pressing floe rode up on top of it, breaking off, and leaving its own edges in a muddled pile. The thickness of these edges was by actual measurement 7 feet 10 inches, 6 inches being snow on the surface. Some of the pieces were pea green, or sea green rather, and some light blue, and in several places showed a muddy and dirty side as if they had been in the mud or had stranded on a beach.


Not knowing very well what was going to happen, I watched this ridge with considerable interest. We had had since midnight a decreasing S.W. wind, but at ten a.m. it became perfectly calm. About eleven a.m., to our surprise, the pressing floe receded, leaving a space about ten yards in width from floe to floe, and through this the ice began to set to W. and N. as through a gorge, with a velocity of about half a mile an hour. The pressure became very great. The smaller pieces passed on readily enough, but the large hummocks or broken floe pieces would occasionally jam against our floe, and being pressed from behind by the confused mass would exert an influence on our floe that made it groan and crack and move under our feet. This mass was flowing not over fifty yards from the ship, then heading east northeast, and as it crushed and groaned along, and our floe throbbed and shook with the strain brought upon it, I almost momentarily expected to see the ice split in all directions around the ship, and the ship herself be carried along with the tumbling heap. Nothing of the kind happened, however, thank God, and about four p.m. the motion ceased. The ship had not moved an inch. Five sledges stood packed on the poop, with forty days provisions for men and dogs, but these might have availed but little. In fact, I doubt if they would have stood the racket of being dragged over rough ice with their weights. Suspending, therefore, other work, we commenced the construction of two strong sleds to carry our dingys.


Our floe must have moved; for to-day we are in twenty-three fathoms. The openings in the ice exposed so much water to the action of the cold air that we have had all day a thick fog, highest temperature plus 3°, lowest minus 10°.



50a27fd97438ae05bd000295: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_165_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000297: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_165_1.jpg)


8 November 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 375 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 106 tons 363 lbs


AM

Weather overcast and calm. Very little motion to ice. Ship lying in the eastern part of a large floe that extents to the W.N.W. (true) and is apparently aground. The ice in the vicinity of this floe is broken up and seems to be moved by conflicting currents.

At 9.30 high land was visible from aloft bearing from S. (true) to S.S.E. (true). At 11.30 sounded in 23 fathoms. Blue mud. No drift. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.


PM

Weather overcast and cloudy. Calms or light airs from S.E. to E. Between 5 and 6 there was a slight movement in the ice to the S'd of ship.


Moon 2° N.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 168):

A quiet day and a relief to the anxiety of yesterday. Still I cannot help feeling more or less uneasy. The line of broken ice is so near us that I fear we may have some trouble at the next gale of wind. All the commotion of yesterday occurred with calms or light airs. Had it been at regular periods, it might have been considered due to tidal action; but as it occurred only once in the twenty-four hours that idea must be abandoned. Some resisting field of ice has given way, and the rush was the result.



50a27fd97438ae05bd000299: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_166_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00029b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_166_1.jpg)


9 November 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 95 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 106 tons 268 lbs


AM

Weather overcast and misty. Foggy at times. Lead astern of ship opened during the night and was covered with young ice by daylight. At 11 sounded in 18 fathoms. Blue mud. No drift. Ice at rest. Ship heeling 4° to starboard. At 11 Commanding Officer inspected the ship.


PM

Divine Service was held at 1. Comd'g Officer officiating. Weather overcast and cloudy. Light breezes from S'd and E'd or calms. The long lead to the southward opened a little between 5 and 6.


Moon 4° S.

Last quarter


50a27fd97438ae05bd00029d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_167_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00029f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_167_1.jpg)


10 November 1879

Long -177.72

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from observations of planet Mars 177° 43' 52" W.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 230 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 106 tons 38 lbs


AM

Weather overcast and hazy. Light variable winds or calms. Between 7 and 8 wind shifted to S.S.W. and temperature to -8°. Vapor rising from a large polynia to the E.S.E. (true). At 11 sounded in 17 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Floe drifting to the E.N.E. (true). Land to the southward visible from aloft all the forenoon. About 12 there was a streak of clear sky above the horizon to the southward of ship and the tops of mountains bearing from south (true) to S.W. (true). The highest part bearing S. 2° W. (mag.) = S. 25° W. (true), and was recognized as the land seen on that bearing October 29th, 1879. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.


PM

Weather cloudy and hazy until 6 when it became clear and almost cloudless. Very brilliant aurora. Gentle breezes from W'd. About 3 there was a heavy pressure on the floe edge to the S'd of ship but it soon subsided.


Moon 10° S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 169):

A large water hole to the E.S.E. giving off vapor upon coming in contact with colder air.

At three p.m. grinding and pressure began again, our floe this time cracking and breaking up to within one hundred feet of our starboard beam and quarter.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002a1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_168_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002a3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_168_1.jpg)


11 November 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 120 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 105 tons 2158 lbs


9pm to midnight: Thermometer on cabin bulkhead under housed awning


AM

Weather clear and cold. Light airs from W'd or calm. Brilliant aurora until 7.30. Heavy pressure on drift-ice on floe edge about 60 yards to the S. of the ship from 6.10 to 6.25. Ice quiet after 6.30. Sounded in 18 fathoms at 11. Blue mud. Lead line indicating current to the S.W. (mag.). Floe in which ship is beset is stationary. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.


PM

Weather overcast and hazy. Light wind from W.S.W. to S.W. or calms. At 4.30 the ice in lead to southward of ship commenced a movement to the W.N.W. (true). Floe subjected to very heavy pressure and cracking in many places. Removed anemometer and other instruments from site to the ship. Pressure and movement of ice continued until 8.30pm when it subsided.


Moon 15° S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 169 ff):

A day of great anxiety. At 6.10 a.m. I was awakened by the trembling and creaking of the ship, and almost immediately the man on watch came in my room to inform me that the ice was again in motion. Hastily tumbling out and dressing I went out on the ice. The grinding and crushing flow of ice to the westward had again commenced, and the jamming of large pieces from time to time, splintering our floe, caused breaks and upheavals to within about seventy-five feet of the ship. The ship groaned and creaked at every pressure until I thought the next would break her adrift. The pressure was tremendous, and the noise was not calculated to calm one's mind. I know of no sound on shore that can be compared to it. A rumble, a shriek, a groan, and a crash of a falling house all combined might serve to convey an idea of the noise with which this motion of ice-floes is accompanied. Great masses, from fifteen to twenty-five feet in height when up-ended, are sliding along at various angles of elevation and jam, and between and among them are large and confused masses of debris, like a marble yard adrift. Occasionally, a stoppage occurs; some piece has caught against or under our floe; then occurs a groaning and cracking; our floe bends and humps up in places like domes. Crash ! the dome splits, another yard of floe edge breaks off, the pressure is relieved, and on goes again the flowing mass of rumbles, shrieks, groans, etc., for another spell.


Our performance lasted only for half an hour this time. At its conclusion I was startled to find that a break had occurred in the floe across the bows of the ship running towards the southwest, and that a projecting floeberg was plowing its way like a wedge to break up the floe ahead of us and make a junction with the old stream. In this case we should be in the centre of an island, small at that, whose edges would be worn away on all sides until we were left alone to be hurried along in the race. At 4.20 p.m. the excitement began again, and this time we had it heavily for four hours. I fully made up my mind that we must go adrift. Hurriedly we broke up our temporary observatory near the ship and took the instruments on board, suspending our meteorological record while graver matters required our attention. Everything movable was brought in, and finally the dogs were with great difficulty collected and brought on board ship, a proceeding which they did not like, and which they resented by jumping over the rail on the ice again, until we boarded it up so high they could not clear it, and then they relieved their minds by fights among themselves.


This movement of the ice begins to make me believe it is a tidal action of some kind, although it flows in but one way — to the westward. Fearing another rush during the night, I ordered everybody to hold himself in readiness for immediate action, sleeping myself with my clothes on and knapsack handy in case of accident.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002a5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_169_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002a7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_169_1.jpg)


12 November 1879

Lat 71.9

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Latitude by observation planet Venus at meridian passage 71° 54' N.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 125 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 105 tons 2033 lbs


AM: Thermometer under awning


AM

Clear and cold. Calms and light airs from S'd. The ice commenced a movement to the W.N.W. (true) at 4.15. Heavy pressure on floe in various places. Pressure continued until 6.35 when it slacked up. At 10 land in sight to the S.S.W. (true) and greatly distorted at times by refraction. Took bearing of highest part S. 5° W. (mag.)= S. 28° W. (true) and recognized as the same land that was seen Oct. 29th and Nov. 10th inst. Condemned for dog food 68 lbs of beef soup marked "Huckins". At 11 sounded in 18 fathoms. Blue mud. No drift of floe apparent. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.


PM

Cloudy and cold. Light airs from S'd & W'd. Faint aurora and bright starlight from 10 to 12.


Note

The pressure between 5.30 and 6.25am took place right ahead of the ship and piled the ice up to within 40 feet of the stem.


Moon 20° S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 171 ff):

At 4.15 a.m. Mr. Newcomb, who sat up until this hour, roused me with the information that the ice was again in motion. Rushed out on deck and found that we were in for a lively time. The pressure was greater than ever before in our experience. To the ice rushing and growling alongside of us I did not pay much attention, for though our floe humped badly, and cracked and split in all directions, there was not much obstruction to the flow of ice. But the break in the floe across the bows gave me serious concern, for I saw the piled-up ice advancing toward us seemingly as fast as a man could walk. Abandoning the line of union which it yesterday tried to make diagonally across the bow to the flowing stream on the port quarter, it bore down directly upon us. At each grind of the advancing mass it piled up floebergs in front of it, and the ship shook and trembled like a reed. From my post on top of the deck-house the view was magnificent though awful. I fully expected we should be swept away into the grinding stream, and as the approaching ice made one more startling advance than usual, I grasped the mainstay to keep ray place when the final crash should come. All hands had been called and stood ready, although there was really nothing to be done. When at 6.25 the advancing wall was twenty-five feet from the stem, the pressure suddenly ceased, and everything was quiet again. At seven the first signs of dawn made their appearance, and as the increasing daylight made objects evident to our eyes, it was a startling spectacle to see the confused wreck that had been made of our once smooth floe.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002a9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_170_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002ab: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_170_1.jpg)


13 November 1879

Lat 71.85, Long -177.33

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Longitude by chronometer observations at 6.30pm of ✱ α Aurigae & α Lyrae 177° 20 W.

Latitude by Sumner's method with ✱ α Aurigae & α Lyrae 71° 51' N.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 230 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 105 tons 1803 lbs


AM

Clear until 9am when weather became overcast and cloudy. Moderate breeze from S'd and W'd. Faint aurora at 6. No movement of ice. Large lead of open water to the eastward of ship about 500 yards distant. At 12 sounded in 20 fathoms. Blue mud. Drift to east (true). Ship heeling 4° to starboard.


PM

Weather clear and cloudy after 4. Bright starlight. Brilliant aurora about 10. Ice quiet until 11 when it suddenly split in the direction of the ship's keel and opened out in a broad lead to the E. by S. (true) and W. by N. (true). Brought in instruments, implements, dogs &c from the ice. The entire port side of the ship free from ice and snow and in open water. Young ice forming in lead and drifting to E. by S. (true).


Moon 24° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 172 ff):

Aroused at two a.m. by a loud crack under the ship. Collins, who ran out to examine, reported that he saw no signs of trouble, except a number of small cracks across the bow, and the fact that the rent leading out from the stem had opened to an inch in width. I concluded this would prove a forerunner to a morning's excitement, but again I was pleasantly disappointed. Not a thing disturbed us for the remainder of the night, and the day wore on, afternoon came, and still no trouble. The meteorological instruments were put out on a temporary observatory hill near the ship, and I began to hope that we might have a few days' peace. At eleven p.m. I went out to record the temperatures and anemometer, and stood on the hill a few moments regarding a beautiful auroral arch extending from E. by S. to W. by N., the crown being 70° in elevation and bearing north. Hearing a few little crackles, like a dog walking over snow, I looked around to see which dog had followed me, when I descried two men running over the gangway and racing for the stem. I ran there at once, and to my amazement saw the ice float away to the northward along our whole length, leaving nothing but water on our port side. In twenty minutes we had one hundred and fifty feet width water on our port side, — the split occurring in as neat a line with the keel as if the keel had cut it, the ship remaining fast to the floe along her starboard side, not even a crack being made in her snow wall. The whole port side, snow wall intact, just slid away without noise or excitement. Four of our dogs which lay asleep on the floe were not awakened by the movement until the ice was nearly one hundred feet away, and then they could not get back, our hands being too full in getting our things aboard to send for them.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002ad: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_171_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002af: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_171_1.jpg)


14 November 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 330 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 105 tons 1473 lbs


AM

Clear and cold. Light airs from S.S.E. to S.W. All hands engaged in securing boats and implements brought in from the ice. Piped down at 1.30. Ice in motion. Water smooth. Young ice forming over lead. Sun rose at 10.30. Land in sight bearing from S. 17° W. to S. 15° E. (mag.) = S. 40° W. (true) and S. 6° W. (true). Herald Island in sight and bearing S. 49° E. (true). At 9 sounded in 17 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Sounded at 12 in 21 fathoms. Blue mud. Apparently drifting to E.N.E. (true). Long lead of open water extending E.S.E. to W.N.W. (true). Water sky from N. by E. to W. (true). Numerous ponds in sight from which steam rises. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.


PM

Clear and cold. Light breeze from S.S.W. broken ice moving to eastward in lead. Faint aurora from 8 to 12.


Moon 25° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 174):

Daylight this morning showed us that our port floe with its snow wall was five hundred yards to the northward. It first moved to the eastward, then to the westward, and finally came to a stand opposite its proper place alongside the ship, and five hundred yards distant. Ice formed four inches in thickness in the fire-hole during the night.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002b1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_172_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002b3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_172_1.jpg)


15 November 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 130 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 105 tons 1343 lbs


AM

Weather generally cloudy and pleasant. Light westerly breezes. Lead on port side of ship covered with young ice. Condemned for dog food 16 lbs beef soup marked "Huckins" and 6 lbs roast beef marked "Cutting Packing Co. San Francisco, Cal". At 12 sounded in 20 fathoms. Blue mud. Floe drifting to E'd. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.


PM

Weather cloudy and hazy. Calm or gentle breeze from S.E. growing fresh. Ice quiet. Faint aurora.


Moon 25° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 175):

A day of complete quiet as far as ice is concerned. The open water on our port side has frozen over sufficiently to bear walking upon it.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002b5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_173_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002b7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_173_1.jpg)


16 November 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 350 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 105 tons 993 lbs


AM

Weather cloudy and foggy at times. Fresh breeze and strong squalls from S.E. At 11 Commanding Officer inspected the ship. Sounded in 22 ½ fathoms. Floe drifting to N.W. Lead on port side of ship about half open. Ship heeling 4° to starboard.


PM

At 1 divine service was held, Comd'g Officer officiating. At 2.30 the lead on port side was freed by the young ice drifting to N.W. Between 2.30 and 6 the lead was filled with broken pieces of young ice that drifted from the S.E.


Moon 23° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 176):

At 2.30 p.m. the young ice alongside of us commences to split, and immediately the floebergs commence to make down on us. Jumping on the deck-house I view the procession with some anxiety. By great good fortune a projecting piece of our starboard floe holds on and fends off the floating pieces, and this push, aided by the wind, carries all dangerous masses just clear of our port side. Just astern of us there happens to be a bight in the floe, into which the drifting ice goes quietly and comfortably, and the open spaces being soon filled up the movement ceases about three.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002b9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_174_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002bb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_174_1.jpg)


17 November 1879

Lat 71.95, Long -176.90

Drifting in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Latitude (sun) (Sumner's method) 71° 57' 00" W.

Longitude by chronometer from observations (4.45pm) ✱ Arcturus and planet Mars 176° 54' 00" W.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 280 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 105 tons 713 lbs


AM

Weather generally overcast and pleasant. Light breeze from S.E. by E. and strong squalls from that quarter. Ship drifting with ice to the N.W. by N. (true). At 8.30 sounded in 26 ½ fathoms. At 12 sounded in 23 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Ship heeling 4° to starboard. Very little open water seen from aloft. At 12 distant land appearing like an island or mountain top in sight and bearing S. 2° E. (mag.) = S. 21° W. (true). A small hummock of land about 2° to the eastward of the land before mentioned. Bright reflection of sun to the S. Disc not visible.


PM

Weather generally clear and pleasant. Between 2.30 and 4.00 there was a slight movement in the ice. Wind veering to S.W. Bright and clear from 8 to 12. Brilliant aurora.

Moon 20° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 176):

Ice quiet during the day.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002bd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_175_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002bf: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_175_1.jpg)


18 November 1879

No position

Drifting in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 130 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 105 tons 583 lbs


AM

Weather overcast and hazy. Snow falling at times. Calm or light northerly winds. Between 6 and 8 there was considerable pressure from the ice ahead of the ship and on the port side. The ice was piled up close to the ship which was slightly raised by the pressure and heeled to starboard. The ice slacked up about 12. Sounded at 12 in 27 fathoms. Mud. Ship drifting to S. (true). Heeling 4 ¾° to starboard.


PM

Overcast and cloudy. Foggy at times. Fresh breeze from N.W. Ice quiet. Ship drifting to S. (true).


Moon 15° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 176):

At six a.m., with a light northern wind, the ice got under way again and jammed along to the N.W. The pressure across the bows was very great, and this time the grinding mass fairly reached the stem. I surely expected the ship to be carried along with it, but a heavy beam pressure held us up against our floe, and the barricade was switched off at an angle. The pressure lasted until noon, the ship creaking considerably, rising a little, and heeling over 4 ½° to starboard.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002c1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_176_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002c3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_176_1.jpg)


19 November 1879

No position

Drifting in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 435 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 105 tons 148 lbs


AM

Overcast and hazy. Light breezes from N.W. Between 6 and 11 there were several heavy pressures on port quarter. No perceptible motion to the ice. No open water in sight. Ship heeling 5° to starboard. Moderate pressure on port quarter at intervals from 11 to 12. Sounded in 22 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Ship drifting to S.S.W. (mag.).


PM

Overcast and hazy. Snow falling at times. Moderate breeze from N.E. by E. Between 6 and 7 considerable pressure from ice on port side.


Moon 10° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 176):

From six a.m. to noon heavy ice pressure on port quarter and beam, increasing our heel to 5°. From six to seven p.m. heavy beam pressure.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002c5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_177_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002c7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_177_1.jpg)


20 November 1879

No position

Drifting in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 125 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 105 tons 23 lbs


AM

Overcast and hazy. Fresh breeze from N.E. by E. Occasional pressure of ice on port side but slight. At 12 sounded in 22 fathoms. Blue mud. Drifting to S.S.W. (mag.). Ship heeling 6° to starboard.


PM

Overcast and hazy. Gentle to moderate breezes from N'd and E'd. Slight pressures from ice on port side occasionally felt.


Moon 5° S.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 176 ff):

Beyond occasional slight pressure, which increased our heel to starboard to 6°, we have a day of no uneasiness. That is to say, we are not momentarily expecting to be turned away from our floe and sent grinding along with a stream of drifting floe lumps, or looking for a breaking in of our side by immense pressure. But as I cannot help realizing that we are in an exposed and dangerous position, and that either of the foregoing catastrophes may occur at any moment, I cannot be said to enjoy quiet or peace of mind. Sleeping with all my clothes on, and starting up anxiously at every snap or crack in the ice outside or the ship's frame inside, most effectually prevents my getting a proper kind or amount of rest, and yet I do not see anything else in store for me for some time to come. This pack is likely to have some motion all winter I suppose. So long as there may be water down by Behring Strait there will be space for relieving the pressure. But when the outlets close up and pressure continues, whether by wind or tidal action, the humping and piling up will go on around us and keep us in a constant state of turmoil for months to come. Truly this is no pleasant predicament. Wintering in the pack may be a thrilling thing to read about alongside a warm fire in a comfortable home, but the actual thing is sufficient to make any man prematurely old.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002c9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_178_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002cb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_178_1.jpg)


21 November 1879

Lat 71.93, Long -178.07

Drifting in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from observations at 7pm of planet Mars 178° 04' W.

Latitude by meridian altitude of Moon 71° 55' 34" N.

Variation of the compass by time azimuth of Moon at 7.15pm 21° 45' E.


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 325 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 104 tons 1938 lbs


AM

Overcast and hazy until 4 after which the sky partially cleared and the stars were visible. Light breeze from N.E. by E. Slight pressure occasionally felt. Lead of port side opening. Ship heeling 6° to starboard. At 12 sounded in 22 ½ fathoms. Mud. Ship drifting to S.W. (mag.).


PM

Sky to the S.E. and S.W. clear between 12 and 1. Land distinctly visible and recognized as that seen on previous occasions and on similar bearings. Saddle between highest peaks bears S. 9° W. (mag.) = S. 32° W. (true). Volcanic peak bears S. 5° W. (mag.) = S. 28° W. (true). A peculiar island or mountain in sight bearing S. 23° W. (mag.) = S. 46° W. (true) and having a rugged hill on its eastern part. Weather clearing and temperature falling. Bright moon and stars. Halo about moon. Display of aurora between 10 and 12.


Moon 0°

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 178):

Slight pressure in the forenoon, after which the ice recedes, leaving a line of open water on our port side.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002cd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_179_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002cf: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_179_1.jpg)


22 November 1879

Lat 71.93, Long -178.07

Drifting in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from observations at 7pm Nov. 21st of planet Mars 178° 04' 00" W.

Latitude by meridian altitude of Moon at 7pm Nov. 21st 71° 55' 34" N.

Variation of the compass by time azimuth of Moon at 7pm Nov. 21st 21° 45' E


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 125 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 104 tons 1813 lbs


AM

Weather generally cloudy and pleasant. Light breezes from N'd and E'd. Very slight movement to ice. Auroral arch to the N'd. At 12 sounded in 23 fathoms. Mud. Ship drifting to W'd. Heeling 6° to starboard.


PM

Overcast and hazy. Light breeze from N'd and E'd. Snowing during first watch. Between 9 and 11 the young ice ahead of ship drifted down and exerted a moderate pressure on the stem. Moon visible through clouds at times.


Moon 5° N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 179):

We experience a slight pressure under stern from floes which have advanced from the southward to cover up the vast expanse of open water which has been on our port beam.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002d1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_180_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002d3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_180_1.jpg)


23 November 1879

No position

Drifting in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 325 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 104 tons 1488 lbs


AM

Overcast, cloudy and hazy. Light breezes from N'd & E'd veering to S.E. Slight pressure felt on port quarter between 6 and 7. Ship heeling 6° to starboard. At 11 sounded in 22 fathoms. Mud. Drift to W'd. Comd'g Officer inspected ship at 11.


PM

Overcast and hazy. Water clouds to N'd and E'd and to S'd and E'd. At 1.30 divine service was held, Commanding Officer officiating. Very slight pressures felt during evening. Auroral arch from 10 to 12. At 9 wind veered to S.W. and thermometer fell rapidly.


Moon 10° N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 179 ff):

A few pressures during the day are the only things which disturb us. At one p.m. the advancing floes pile up the ice under the bows, and I have no doubt that this will serve as an entering wedge which, aided by the wind on our starboard beam, will, before this southwester is over, break us out of the bed where we have so snugly lain for over two and a half months. Nindemann and Alexey started off in pursuit of the bear shot yesterday. But owing to the opening of the ice in the mean time they were unable to reach the place of the conflict.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002d5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_181_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002d7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_181_1.jpg)


24 November 1879

No position

Drifting in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 125 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 104 tons 1363 lbs


AM

Weather stormy. Air filled with driving snow. Fresh S.W. gale. At 5 a moderate pressure commenced on the stem which lifted the ship bows and made a wall of young ice ahead of the ship. Strong pressure on port beam and young ice piling up alongside. At 6 the ice from ahead wedged in under the starboard bow and forced the ship to port out of the cradle in the floe on the starboard side. Ship righted to 1 ½°. Ship trims by the head and is apparently lifted by ice under the quarters, the forward part of ship being afloat. Ice slacked up at 7. Sounded in 22 fathoms at 12. Drifting N'd & E'd. Ship heeling 1° to starboard.


PM

Overcast and stormy. Air filled with driving snow. Gale from S.W. Ice on port side slack.


Moon 15° N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 180 ff):

It has come at last; we are broken adrift from our floe! Suspecting what the continued action of this S.W. wind would be, I made sure to have all the dogs securely housed on board ship before I went to bed last night, i.e., before I lay down in my clothes to get some sleep. At five p.m. I was aroused by a preliminary pressure under the bow. Turning out I reached the deck-house top in time to see a very severe nip which started our port bulwark planking, the ice being already piled higher than our port rail in some places. The ice under the bow was piled up as high as our figure-head, and the pressure in this direction was increasing. A floe piece with a wedge shape had pierced "our" floe, and was exerting its force bravely. The ship creaked and groaned. Something had to give, for the pressure from ahead and abeam was very great. Suddenly the ship lifted by the stern, the wedge advanced, and our floe was split, and the port pressure decreasing we were afloat on an even keel once more. The port floe moved slowly to the N.E., and we followed it, our snug cradle of two and a half months being split and shattered, and no longer our refuge and our strength. All our effects being long since removed we had nothing to bring in but our gangplank, which was soon accomplished. Throughout the day we remained nearly in the same place, resting at one time against one floe, and at other times against another.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002d9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_182_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002db: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_182_1.jpg)


25 November 1879

No position

Drifting in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 310 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 104 tons 1053 lbs


AM

Weather cloudy and stormy. Moderate gale from W.S.W'd. Slight pressure on port-bow at 6. At 9.15 heavy pressure on port side and ship was listed 3° to port. About 10 the ice slacked up and the ship righted. Drifted clear of floe on starboard side and into the lead. Ship water borne. Heeling 2 ½° to starboard. At 12 sounded in 18 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. Drifting to the N'd and E'd. Weather clearing and wind decreasing.


PM

Weather clear and cold. Moderate breeze from W.S.W. Between 5 and 6 ship was subjected to tremendous pressures. The first pressure was from right astern and was exerted in a fore and aft direction. The others were athwart-ships and were heavy. Ship stood them very well and drifted to the E.N.E. (true) as soon as ice slacked. Large sheets of open water in sight. Bright moonlight. Ship swung all the way around the compass and about 7 brought up in a large sheet of open water with her bows in the young ice on the south side of the open place. Young ice forming over open water. Auroral arch between 10 and 12. Brilliant reflections under the moon.

Moon 19° N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 181 ff):

To-day has been one of the most anxious and exciting days we have yet had. At 6.15 a slight pressure on the port bow commenced hostilities. At 9.15 a very heavy squeezing on port side started our bulwark planking, and pinching down under us heeled the ship 3° to port. At ten a.m. the pressure ceased, and we were left floating upright in a small lead of open water, and adrift as far as any floe ice was concerned. For a time I was undecided what to do. There was no floe near us large enough to anchor to securely, and the chance of another pressure coming while the ship was tied up and unable to give to it was too unsatisfactory. If the ship were free when the ice moved she would go along with it; if she were tied up she might have to stand the brunt in a very unfavorable position. As it was, she lay in a kind of canal a little wider than her own length, and ready for action ahead or astern. I concluded to let her remain so, and watch for results. At five p.m. I noticed that she commenced floating stern first through the canal. About a mile astern (E.) was a large patch of open water, and from ahead (W.) the broken floe pieces were gathering away and coming down upon us. At a little bend in the canal her stern took the floe and held fast, while her bow payed around as prettily as if we were casting under jibs. No sooner had she got stern to the wind than the advancing ice was upon us, and we were pushed, forced, squeezed, driven through this mile of a canal amid a grinding and groaning of timbers and a crashing and tumbling of ice that was fearful to look at. Still we sailed on, and in a half hour or so were sent out into the opening beyond where our speed decreased, and drifting over toward a thin floe we ran our bows into the young ice and held fast heading S. Though we moved at no time with greater speed than say two knots an hour, our passage through that sluiceway of running ice was enough to make one's hair stand on end, and each of us heaved a sigh of relief when it was over. If we had in the morning planted an ice-anchor to a small floe, I am convinced this pressure would have torn us away from it, and the stream of flowing ice might have jammed us across this canal and given us some injury, even if it had not climbed on board.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002dd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_183_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002df: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_183_1.jpg)


26 November 1879

No position

Drifting in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 320 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 104 tons 733 lbs


AM

Clear and calm. Young ice forming rapidly. Ship lying quietly. At a light breeze sprung up from E.S.E. and increased to a strong breeze by noon. Land in sight from 10 to 12 and recognized as land previously seen on similar bearings.

Approximate bearings as follows; viz. From S. ¼ E. (true) to S.S.W. ¾ W. (true). At 12 sounded in 21 fathoms. Soft bottom. Slight drift to N. by W. (true). Heeling 1° to starboard.


PM

Weather overcast and stormy. Heavy squalls at times. Several ponds of open water in sight. Ship lying quietly in a large sheet of young ice. A pond of open water about 500 yards astern.


Moon 22° N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 183):

The ship held fast in the young ice in which she ran last night, but shook from truck to keelson as the heavy gusts took her. A few water holes were in our neighborhood, and the main solid pack could be seen in all directions. This bay will no doubt close as soon as the ice takes up its motion again, which I have observed occurs when there is little or no wind. The heavy winds pack up the large masses, and in the calms and light winds, the pressure being removed, everything struggles to get back again to its old condition, and openings and races occur.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002e1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_184_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002e3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_184_1.jpg)


27 November 1879

No position

Drifting in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 125 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 104 tons 608 lbs


AM

Overcast, cloudy and squall. Strong gale from E.S.E. Ship lying quietly. Pond astern of the ship gradually working nearer. (?)

At 12 sounded in 26 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. Slight drift to N'd & W'd. Ship heeling 2° to starboard.


PM

Overcast and squally. Strong gale from S.E. Considerable pressure was felt between 3 and 4 from the young ice. At 6 the ship sagged down to leeward and opened a narrow belt of water on her port side. Aired crew's bedding in deck house.


Moon 24° N.

First quarter


50a27fd97438ae05bd0002e5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_185_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002e7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_185_1.jpg)


28 November 1879

No position

Drifting in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Snow used for water

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 325 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 104 tons 283 lbs


AM

Weather overcast and stormy from S.E. Very strong squalls. Slight pressure of young ice on starboard side. Belt of water on port side widened to about 30 feet. At 12 sounded in 28 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. Drifting to N.N.W. (true). Ship heeling 2° to S.


PM

Weather generally overcast and hazy with a little clear sky at times. At 1 sounded in 28 fathoms using water cups and deep sea thermometers. Blue mud. Moderate breeze from S.E. to E. by S. Ship lying quietly and belt of water on port side is freezing over. Commenced distilling with Baxter boiler at 3.


Moon 25° N.

Full moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd0002e9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_186_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002eb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_186_1.jpg)


29 November 1879

No position

Drifting in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


No snow in vicinity. Distilling.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 38 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 325 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 103 tons 2198 lbs


AM

Weather overcast and hazy. Halo about moon. Fresh breeze from S.E. to E. Wind commenced hauling at 6. Between 7 and 8 there were heavy pressures on port side and under stem. The young ice was forced down upon the port beam probably by the change in the wind. At 12 sounded in 29 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Floe drifting to the westward. Ship heeling 1 ½° to starboard. Distilling. Sky above the sun very brilliant.


PM

Overcast and hazy. Fresh breeze from E.S.E. Ship sustained a heavy nip between 1 and 3. Young ice piled against her sides. Heeled 2 ½° to starboard. Ice quiet after 9. During afternoon at about 2 distant land was seen bearing S. to S.S.W. (true) and appearing like islands or mountain tops on the horizon. Distilling.


Moon 25° N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 185 ff):

A day of wearing anxiety. The gale continued, varying between E. by S. and S.E. At seven a.m. the ice commenced to move, and seemingly to windward, as if the pressure were forced back on itself. As we lay broadside to the movement we had the full force of it on our frame. The ice on our port side (the weather side) seemed tougher and more unyielding than heretofore, and the whole mass made our ship snap and creak with the squeezing worse than ever before. Several times the pressure became so great that the ship ceased to creak, and the deck seemed ready to burst open. To leeward of us one large sheet of ice would ride over another large sheet, and the two come down against us; the port floe would decline to yield; the two sheets to leeward would break edges and pile up blocks against our starboard side, and then begin pressing against these; the ship would groan and squirm and then seem dead, while the deck trembled. This might last half an hour, and when it seemed as if wood and iron must give, the port floe would hump up and split, and we would be pushed on for another nip. This sort of thing lasted until three p.m., and then the nip seemed to be hardest of all, and remained so. We could not tell whether it let up or not, for we were jammed tight, heeling 2 ½° to starboard. The ship could not rise, for the ice was only a foot thick, and took the ship's side above the bends only; it was simply a question of its going through her, or of her being strong enough to stand it. She was strong enough, and that is all we can say. If she had not been strong enough she would have been cut in two. Eight hours of this mental tension is enough for one day.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002ed: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_187_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002ef: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_187_1.jpg)


30 November 1879

Lat 72.60, Long -178.13

Drifting in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Position by two lines of bearing by observation of Moon and planet Mars:

Lat 72° 36' N.

Long 178° 08' W.


No snow in vicinity. Distilling.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 42 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 535 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 103 tons 1663 lbs


AM

Weather cloudy and pleasant until 6 when it cleared off beautifully. Fresh breeze from S.E. by E. decreasing towards noon. Ship lying quietly. Heeling 2 ½° to starboard. Evidences of heavy ice pressure in the vicinity of ship. A raven was shot by the Indian Aniguin. Sounded at 12 in 32 fathoms. Blue mud. Floe drifting to N'd and W'd. Loom of land in sight to the S.S.W. (mag.). Commanding Officer inspected the ship.


PM

Clear and pleasant. At 1 held divine service. Comd'g Officer officiating. Clear and beautiful during evening. Ice quiet until 11.30 when a slight movement took place.


Moon 24° N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 186 ff):

A day of peace and quiet doubly acceptable after the strain of yesterday. The gale blew itself out at six a.m., and we had a bright moonlight and starlight until the struggling daylight came into play at nine. Of course, we do not see the sun at all, and our noon is but the twilight of ordinary latitudes. Occasionally it is beautiful indeed, as, for instance, to-day, when we had a few golden and red streaks in the S., a clear blue sky to about 20° in arc, and the remainder of the heavens dark blue, illuminated by a full moon. Venus was visible at noon. The ice around us made a picture in its lights and shadows. The broken pack surrounded us in all directions, while, as if in the centre of a frozen lake, the Jeannette lay squeezed by slabs of ice eight and one half inches thick, with humped up and splintered floes, showing where she had proved her strength.


Attempts to be poetical in the Arctic are praiseworthy, but I think I shall give them up. My sensations of being in critical situations are too keen to allow me to write in cold blood about the beauties of ice scenery. I will simply remark that the pack is no place for a ship, and however beautiful it may be from an aesthetic point of view, I wish with all my heart that we were out of it.




LOGS FOR DECEMBER 1879


50a27fd97438ae05bd0002f1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_188_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002f3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_188_1.jpg)


1 December 1879

No position

Drifting in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using water as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 38 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 315 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 103 tons 1348 lbs


AM

Clear, beautiful weather. Gentle breeze from E'd. Halo about moon. Sounded in 30 ½ fathoms at 12. Blue mud. No drift. Loom of land on S.W. by S. (true) bearing. Very distant. Mirage of open water to the S'd. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Clear and beautiful weather. The usual monthly physical examination of the officers and men was commenced by the surgeon. Large halo about the moon. Occasional auroral gleams to N'd. Ship lying quietly in the ice.


Moon 22° N.

Full moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd0002f5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_189_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002f7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_189_1.jpg)


2 December 1879

Lat 72.50, Long -177.97

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Latitude by observation of ✱ Aldebaran at meridian passage 72° 30' N.

Longitude by chronometer from observation of Moon at 11.55pm 177° 58' 15" W.


No snow in vicinity. Distilling.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 40 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 435 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 103 tons 913 lbs


AM

Misty weather. Thick at noon. Light breeze from N'd. Very high barometer. The physical examination by the surgeon was continued and finished. At 12 sounded in 30 fathoms. Blue mud. Drifting to S.S.E. (mag.) = S. (true) Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Weather misty until 7 when it cleared off. Very beautiful night. Moon and stars very bright. Lunar haloes showing prismatic colors at times. Lunar rainbow in the S. at 10.30. Auroral arch (34° in altitude) from N.N.E. to N.N.W. (mag.) which at 11.50 flashed into a magnificent auroral curtain.


Moon 18° N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 189):

A quiet day. We had, in addition to one of the most beautiful moonlight effects on the ice I had ever seen, and a sky perfectly free from clouds, a fine chance to witness auroral and other effects. At ten p.m. a lunar rainbow was visible, showing faintly the prismatic colors. Towards eleven p.m. this was succeeded by a lunar halo in which the prismatic colors were clearly visible. Then flared up an auroral arch, extending from N. to N.E., whose crown was 34° in altitude, and this arch, as if by magic, absorbed the lunar halo, or caused it to disappear. Then suddenly the lunar rainbow reappeared and arched alongside the auroral arch; and finally, at 11.50, the auroral arch became an auroral curtain, floating sheets of trembling flame down to the horizon. Not a sound was heard during all this display. Add to this picture the ship thrown by the bright moonlight against a clear, dark blue background, every rope and spar white with frost, and a level floe surrounded with a fringe of fantastically shaped hummocks, and it would make a study for an artist. I have remarked heretofore that these wonderful auroral displays are forerunners of cold weather, and I shall watch with interest the result of this very high barometer and extraordinary atmospheric phenomena. Very probably we are lulled by a false sense of security while the ice is so quiet, but I shall undress before retiring to-night, a thing I have done but once since November 13th.



50a27fd97438ae05bd0002f9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_190_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002fb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_190_1.jpg)


3 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Variation of the compass by azimuth at 7pm of Moon 21° 30' E.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 36 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 335 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 103 tons 578 lbs


AM

Clear and beautiful weather. Light breezes from E. Ice quiet in vicinity of ship but distant noises of pressures are heard. At 12 sounded in 29 ¾ fathoms. Blue mud. Slight drift to W'd. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard. Loom of distant mountain tops bearing S. 15° E. (mag.) = S. 7° W. (true).


PM

Clear, beautiful weather. Light airs from S'd and E'd. Ice quiet. Auroral arch and streamers during the evening.


Moon 14° N.

Full moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd0002fd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_191_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd0002ff: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_191_1.jpg)


4 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Variation of the compass by azimuth at 0hrs 30min pm of Moon 21° 54' E.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 42 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 190 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 103 tons 368 lbs


AM

Clear, beautiful weather. Light variable airs. Ice quiet. At 12 sounded in 29 ¾ fathoms. Blue mud. No drift. Loom of land bearing S. ¾ W. (true). Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Clear and beautiful weather. Light airs and calms. Ice quiet.


Moon 9° N.

Full moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd000301: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_192_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000303: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_192_1.jpg)


5 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using water as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 39 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 390 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 102 tons 2238 lbs


AM

Clear and beautiful weather. Light breezes from S'd and W'd. Hazy at times. Weather became overcast at 10. At 12 sounded in 30 fathoms. Blue mud. Small drift to S.S.E. (mag.) Heeling 2 ½ to starboard.


PM

Weather cleared about 3. Bright starlight. Auroral display during the evening and two meteors fell. Ice quiet.


Moon 4° N.

Full moon


50a27fd97438ae05bd000305: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_193_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000307: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_193_1.jpg)


6 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 42 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 170 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 102 tons 2068 lbs


AM

Fine weather. Slight haze at times. Auroral displays frequent. Moderate breeze from W. by S. to W. by N. At 12 sounded in 29 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. Very slight drift to S'd & E'd. Heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Clear and cold. Gentle westerly wind. Ice quiet. Auroral display during evening. Finished wind guards and served them out.


Moon 2° S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 190 ff):

A cold spell has arrived, but as the wonderful auroral display was on the 2d, I fear it is stretching it too much to make a connection with the cold weather. The highest temperature to-day is minus 11°, and the lowest minus 24° (at end of day with N. W. wind). Its effect on the ship was to keep up a cracking at night up to midnight, caused by the contraction of the metal fastenings and consequent snapping of the wood. We have noticed heretofore considerable hair sticking to the ice, where the dogs in lying down had frozen fast, and had to tear themselves away; but this afternoon a dog stuck so fast that he had actually to be dug out with a shovel. Pretty cold weather!



50a27fd97438ae05bd000309: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_194_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00030b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_194_1.jpg)


7 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 45 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 335 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 102 tons 1733 lbs


AM

Clear, bright and cold. Light winds from N'd veering to the E'd. Comd'g Officer inspected the ship. At 12 sounded in 28 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Slight drift to S.W. (mag.). Heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

At 1.15 held general muster and read articles for the better government of the Navy. Held divine service. Commanding Officer officiating. Weather clear and cold. Gentle breezes from N'd & E'd. Very brilliant aurora. Distilling.


Moon 8° S.

Last quarter


50a27fd97438ae05bd00030d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_195_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00030f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_195_1.jpg)


8 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 40 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 187 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 102 tons 1546 lbs


AM

Clear and cold. Gentle breeze from N'd & E'd. Very brilliant aurora. At 12 sounded in 29 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Slight drift to the N.W. (mag.). Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard. Heavy pressure on young ice to the N.E. of ship about ½ mile distant. Loud noises from that quarter.


PM

Clear and cold. Hazy about horizon. Gentle breezes from S.E. quarter. Ice to N.E. of ship moving and crushing with violence. Washed clothes. Distilling.


Moon 13° S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 193 ff):

I am afraid we are on the verge of another ice disturbance, for at times during the day the ice to the N.E. of us, and distant half a mile, began to move with its usual accompaniment of groans and shrieks while under pressure.



50a27fd97438ae05bd000311: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_196_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000313: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_196_1.jpg)


9 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 36 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 435 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 102 tons 1111 lbs


AM

Weather hazy; clear overhead. Gale from the S.E. Strong squalls. Wind moderating towards noon. At 12 sounded in 30 fathoms. Blue mud. Slight drift to NW. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Clear overhead and hazy about horizon. Strong breeze and squalls from S.E. Slight auroral display. Distilling.


Moon 18° S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 194):

A south-southeast gale all day. No movement to the ice.

Melville has made a complete success of the distiller, and now we get our water pure. But it takes two pounds of coal for every gallon of water, and that expenditure will ruin us if we have to keep it up. Snow, snow is what we want.



50a27fd97438ae05bd000315: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_197_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd000317: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_197_1.jpg)


10 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 40 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 195 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 102 tons 916 lbs


AM

Generally clear and pleasant. Light S.E. wind. At 12 sounded in 30 ½ fathoms. Very slight drift to N'd & W'd. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Cloudy and pleasant. Light breeze from S'd and E'd. Misty at times. Aired bedding. Distilling. Carpenter engaged in felting berth deck.


Moon 22° S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 195):

I had placed to-day a series of thermometers in different parts of the ship, and commenced keeping a record of the temperatures; showing the temperatures of the living quarters, of the reservoirs from which air is received in them, and of the open air. For instance, the temperature of the berth deck at ten p.m. was 68°, the old galley-room 45°, the deck-house 49°, the cabin porch 14°, the cabin 51°, the open air 7°.



50a27fd97438ae05bd000319: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_198_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00031b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_198_1.jpg)


11 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 39 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 375 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 102 tons 541 lbs


AM

Weather overcast and hazy. Light breezes from S'd and E'd. At 5 there were sounds of heavy pressure to the S.W. of ship. At 8.40 a momentary shock was felt on board the ship and on investigation it was found that the ice had split in an E. and W. direction. The opening was about 60 feet ahead of the ship. During the forenoon the young ice which measured 20 inches in thickness was split in various directions. The ship is now in a floe of young ice which is about 500 yards wide and 1200 yards long. Ship heading S. ¾ W. (mag.) and her bows at the S. edge of the floe. Heavy floe pieces of old ice gradually encroaching upon the young ice. All the dogs were brought on board also the men's outhouse. Sounded in 32 ½ fathoms. Mud. Ice drifting to N.E. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Wind shifted to S'd and W'd at 12.20 and storm clouds drove over from that quarter. Strong breeze and squalls during afternoon and evening. Ice quiet. Rapid fall of temperature after 3. Very brilliant auroral arch to N'd having wave like motions.


Moon 24° S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 195 ff):

The situation this morning seemed to promise a repetition of our exciting times. Daylight showed a crack in the ice ahead of and nearly alongside the ship, extending from S.W. to N.E. The opening was made so quietly that the watch did not hear any movement beyond a light shock at 8.40. At ten a.m. there it was however, and by eleven it had opened out to a width of six feet, affording us an opportunity of measuring the growth of the ice since November 25th, the time at which we were squeezed out into what was then open water. By actual measurement to-day we find the thickness of the ice to be twenty inches, and that is direct freezing. For some reason the ice immediately surrounding the ship was not broken adrift, nor even badly cracked on the starboard side of us (ship heading S.S.W. true). At eleven movement commenced. The floe in which the ship lay moved to the northward where it was broken on its edges by coming in contact with heavier floes, and remained comparatively motionless, after shortening our two hundred and forty yard walk by some forty yards. The ice on our port hand then got under way and moved along slowly, like a panorama, until it had proceeded about two hundred yards to N.E., and then it stopped; the opening six feet wide began to close, and in a few hours everything was quiet again, except an occasional suppressed shriek indicating pressure. The ship was not affected in the slightest degree.

At eleven p.m. we had a very fine auroral display. A wave of light crossed the zenith from the E. to the W. horizon which pulsed regularly in its transit, waving about, however, in its pulsations, like a long streamer of bunting let go in a fresh wind. It is very difficult to give a satisfactory description of these things, and impossible to make a fair picture of them, for no picture can show pulsations of waving light. It requires actual sight to realize their appearance. I have not been able thus far to connect their appearance or non-appearance with any meteorological phenomenon, or with any other unusual occurrence.



50a27fd97438ae05bd00031d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_199_0.jpg)

50a27fd97438ae05bd00031f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_199_1.jpg)


12 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 36 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 200 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 102 tons 341 lbs


AM

Clear and cold. Strong breeze and squalls from W'd. Ice quiet. At 11.15 sounded in 31 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. Drift to the eastward. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard. Appearance of land on S. by E. (true) bearing.


PM

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze from S'd, decreasing. Engaged in felting berth deck and in making canvas covers for water closets. Distilling. Evening hazy. Faint auroral gleams.


Moon 25° S.

New moon


50a27fda7438ae05bd000321: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_200_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000323: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_200_1.jpg)


13 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using water as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 34 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 374 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 101 tons 2207 lbs


AM

Weather clear and pleasant until 6 when a sudden change took place in the sky, wind, temperature and barometer. Strong breeze and squalls from eastward, barometer falling, temperature rising and nimbus clouds driving over from the eastward. Wind decreasing toward noon. At 12 sounded in 33 fathoms. Blue mud. Ship drifting to W'd. Heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Overcast and stormy from E.S.E. Strong squalls. Crew engaged in felting berth deck and in making covers for water closets. Wind decreasing toward midnight. Air filled with fine snow.


Moon 24° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 197):

We have been trying regularly to get sights to determine our position, but are prevented by the almost perpetual haze that intervenes, making a reflection in the mercury of the artificial horizon impossible. In the absence of the moon we have to fall back upon Sumners by stars. Latitude by Polaris is out of our reach on account of its great altitude and the impossibility of getting it with sextant and artificial horizon.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000325: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_201_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000327: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_201_1.jpg)


14 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 32 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 210 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 101 tons 1997 lbs


AM

Cloudy and pleasant. Hazy at times. Moderate breeze from S'd and W'd veering to N'd. At 11 Commanding Officer inspected the ship. At 11.15 sounded in 31 ½ fathoms. Blue mud. Drift to eastward. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Cloudy and pleasant. Hazy during evening. At 1.30 held divine service. Commanding Officer officiating. After 5 the sky became hazy. Faint auroral arch and gleams. Wind veering to eastward.


Moon 21° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 198 ff):

If life within the Arctic Circle were perfect comfort, everybody would be coming here. We must be thankful that our discomforts are no greater. Everybody is in good health and in good spirits. There are individual cases of feeling the time hang heavily, and of being mentally "out of sorts", but this arises, I fancy, from the non-realization of an impossible scheme of Arctic cruising and life rather than from any effect on the general health. Excepting Mr. Dunbar and Nindemann no one has passed a winter in the Arctic before. Mr. Dunbar's experience has been limited to a winter in Cumberland Gulf, where his ship was in a snug harbor, and communication could be had and was had with the natives. Nindemann's experience covers one winter in the Polaris in Thank God Harbor, and his terrible winter-drift on the ice-floe and miraculous rescue. For the rest of us it is our first experience; and when we add to our wintering in the pack, with all its uncertainties and terrors, the knowledge that we attained no high latitude our first season, made no discoveries, so far as we know have made no useful additions to scientific knowledge, we cannot help feeling that we are doing nothing toward the object of the expedition, and are consuming provisions, wearing out clothing, and burning coal to no purpose. However we cannot tell what may be in store for us, and in our ignorance it is better to hope for good results than to pass our lives in fearing bad ones.

New ice has formed twenty inches in thickness around us, and salt has been deposited on its surface by crystallization. What the certain thickness may be at which the ice is almost free from salt I know not, and Weyprecht does not say. But with a saw we cut from a thickness of sixteen inches of ice four pieces, each four inches thick, in regular succession, melted the ice, and the resulting water was so salt as to be unfit for use. I will try this experiment with an eight foot floe in a few days, and inscribe the result in this record. Without evaporating the water, and weighing the remaining salt, I could not say what the exact degrees of difference were, if any, between the several four inch layers; but by the nitrate of silver test the water turned white in each case to the same degree, and the bottom layer made water as unfit to drink as did the surface layer containing the crystallized salt.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000329: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_202_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00032b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_202_1.jpg)


15 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 34 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 400 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 101 tons 1597 lbs


AM

Weather overcast and cloudy. Snowing. Stormy from N.E. and veering to E'd. Strong squalls at times. Wind decreased toward noon. At 11 sounded in 31 fathoms. Blue mud. Slight drift to W'd. Heeling 2 ½° to starboard. Crew engaged in washing clothes and in making water closet covers also in felting berth deck.


PM

Weather variable. Clear at times. Hazy or light snow falling at other times. Wind veered gradually to W.S.W. Barometer rising. Temperature falling.


Moon 17° S.

New moon


50a27fda7438ae05bd00032d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_203_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00032f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_203_1.jpg)


16 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 39 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 245 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 101 tons 1352 lbs


AM

Day opened hazy. Fresh breeze from S'd and W'd. Faint auroral arch to the northward. Temperature falling. Sounded at 11.30 in 31 fathoms. Blue mud. Slight drift to eastward. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Clear and pleasant. Light breeze W. by N. Moon visible at 3. Crew engaged in felting berth deck and in making water closet covers. Auroral display. Calm at times.


Moon 12° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 200):

As far as it is possible to do so, we are beginning to have some confidence in the stability of our position. We have had such a quiet time with the ice lately that we feel quite confident and reassured. So much so that we contemplate neither a breaking up of the ice nor any treachery while we are walking over it. As if to show us, however, how particularly deceitful our surroundings are, Collins and two men broke through the ice to-day at different times and places within a radius of three hundred yards from the ship. No harm resulted beyond a ducking, from thus involuntarily taking the temperature of the surface water. Highest temperature, minus 11°, lowest minus 26° (our lowest thus far).



50a27fda7438ae05bd000331: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_204_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000333: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_204_1.jpg)


17 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled 29 gallons.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 29 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 450 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 101 tons 902 lbs


AM

Day opened clear and cold. Bright starlight and brilliant auroral arch to S'd of zenith. Hazy about horizon. Overcast and stormy towards noon. At 11 sounded in 31 fathoms. Mud. Slight drift to W.S.W. Ship's head 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Cloudy and stormy from eastward. Crew engaged in felting berth deck and in making water closet covers. Fine snow falling during evening.


Moon 7° S.

New moon


50a27fda7438ae05bd000335: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_205_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000337: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_205_1.jpg)


18 December 1879


Lat 72.45, Long -178.38

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Latitude by meridian altitude Moon at 5pm 72° 27' N.

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations planet Mars 178° 23' W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 36 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 175 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 101 tons 727 lbs


AM

Day opened overcast and hazy. Fine snow falling. Wind fresh and squalls from W. by N. Auroral gleams at times. Sounded in 31 fathoms at 11. Grey mud. Drifting to eastward. Aired bedding. Moon rose at 11.50. During the night an opening about ¼ mile wide and extending in an E. and W. direction was made in the young ice about 500 yards to the northward of the ship. The opening is at the edge of the old floe. At noon it was covered with young ice. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breeze from W'd. Bright starlight. Crew engaged in felting berth deck and in making water closet covers.


Moon 1° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 200):

This morning we discover a large opening in the ice about five hundred yards to the northward of the ship, about one quarter of a mile in width and extending east and west. This is bringing the uneasiness close home.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000339: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_206_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00033b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_206_1.jpg)


19 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 32 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 160 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 101 tons 567 lbs


AM

Day opened clear and pleasant. About 6 wind came out of the N.E. Bright starlight and auroral arches. At 11 sounded in 31 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. No drift. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard. Moon rose at 11.15.


PM

Clear and pleasant. Gentle breeze from the E'd. Crew engaged building water closets and covers, also in felting berth deck. Moon set at 11.40.


Moon 4° N.

First quarter


50a27fda7438ae05bd00033d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_207_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00033f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_207_1.jpg)


20 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 27 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 400 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 101 tons 167 lbs


AM

Day opened hazy. Light breeze from E. by S. Temperature rising rapidly. Weather became misty at 5. At 11 sounded in 31 fathoms. Muddy bottom. Drift to W'd. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Overcast and misty. Snowing after 5. Wind hauling to N'd and falling light. Crew engaged in felting berth deck and in making water closets and covers.


Moon 9° N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 201):

Measured the thickness of the ice again to-day. The growth of the new formation, from November 25th to December 11th, was twenty inches; to-day the same ice measured in the fire-hole is thirty inches, showing an increase of ten inches in ten days.

This afternoon we had a slight crashing and moving of ice to the northward of us, but it did not last very long and gave us no concern.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000341: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_208_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000343: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_208_1.jpg)


21 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 28 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 145 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 101 tons 22 lbs


AM

Weather overcast and haze. Moderate and increasing wind from N'd & W'd. Snow falling and drifting. At 11 Commanding Officer inspected ship. Sounded in 31 fathoms. Muddy bottom. Ship drifting to E.S.E. Heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Overcast and stormy from W.N.W. Snow falling and drifting. At 1.30 held divine service. Commanding Officer officiating. Sky cleared during evening.


Moon 14° N.

First quarter


50a27fda7438ae05bd000345: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_209_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000347: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_209_1.jpg)


22 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 28 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 385 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 100 tons 1877 lbs


AM

Day opened clear overhead and hazy in lower parts of atmosphere. Fresh breeze from W'd. At 11.15 sounded in 31 fathoms. Muddy bottom. Drifting to E'd. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard. First sign of daylight at 8.40am. Air filled with drifting snow from surface of floe ice.


PM

Clear. Fresh breeze from W'd. Scrubbed clothes. Bright moonlight and starlight. At 4.30pm an auroral arch of streamers in N. by E. magnetic, the crown of the arch having an altitude of 20°. At 7 faint aurora to N'd. At 8 brilliant aurora in an arch from E. to W. (both magnetic) passing through zenith, with bright bows shooting up occasionally from northern horizon. At 9 double auroral arch from W. to N.E. x E. (both magnetic), crown at north (magnetic) 60° in altitude. Faint auroral patches under moon S. x E. (mag.). At 11 auroral streamers beginning at N.W. (mag.) arching to 30° altitude at N. (mag.) and returning at NNE (mag.) in an ellipse to beginning.


Moon 18° N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 202):

As an electrical celebration of the shortest day in the year, we had a display of auroras far exceeding in quantity, and, perhaps, also in quality any previous efforts in that line.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000349: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_210_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00034b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_210_1.jpg)


23 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: using as distilled.

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours:

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 185 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 100 tons 1692 lbs


AM

Very faint auroral arch through zenith at 1am from W. to N.E. x E. (mag.). At 2 auroral streamers in N.W. Auroral arches until 4. At 3 an auroral ellipse from W. to E. centering in zenith having converging rays with brilliant colors. Moonlight and starlight. Moon at 7 much distorted by refraction. At 11.15 sounded in 31 fathoms. Muddy bottom. Drift to E.S.E. (mag.). Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Crew engaged in banking up snow against ship's side.


Moon 21° N.

First quarter


50a27fda7438ae05bd00034d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_211_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00034f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_211_1.jpg)


24 December 1879

Christmas

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 29 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 29 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 405 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 100 tons 1287 lbs


AM

Overcast and cloudy with occasional light snow. Strong N.E. and E.N.E. winds. At 11.15 sounded in 31 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. Slight drift to S.W. magnetic. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Crew engaged in banking up snow against ships side.


Moon 23° N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 202 ff):

Christmas Eve. Our surroundings are not of the most cheerful character, and our ship is not large enough to make any effort at theatricals possible. A feeble attempt at minstrels was in contemplation during the past week, but it has not yet matured. In order that some little conviviality and good feeling might be occasioned or encouraged, I served out three quarts of whiskey among the men in the evening, which seemed acceptable, and Melville mixed a fine compound from Irish whiskey presented by Paymaster Cochran before we left, and with one exception we joined aft in drinking to a merry Christmas to absent ones and to the health of Cochran. Danenhower proposed and we drank to the health and success of "our old shipmates" (Mrs. De Long and Sylvie), and so in the interchange of yarns and recollections we welcomed in the Christmas Day with the hope that at its next coming we should be at least no worse off.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000351: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_212_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000353: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_212_1.jpg)


25 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 30 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 30 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 125 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 100 tons 1172 lbs


AM

Overcast and cloudy, with light snow until 6am. At 11.15 sounded in 31 fathoms. Muddy bottom. Slight drift to S.W. magnetic. Strong winds from N.E. and eastward. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Overcast and cloudy, wind veering and freshening. At midnight clouds working up from S.S.W. (mag.).

All hands making holiday and engaged in various amusements.


Moon 25° N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 203 ff):

Christmas Day! This is the dreariest day I have ever experienced in my life, and it is certainly passed in the dreariest part of the world. And yet we (or rather I) ought not to complain, for it is something to have had no serious mishap up to this time. We tried to be jolly, but did not make any grand success of it until dinner time, when fore and aft we had such a grand banquet that we were for a time lifted out of and beyond the contemplation of our surroundings. We should have been comparatively happy were it not that one of our mess did not appear at the dinner table. At four p.m. the crew, headed by Boatswain Cole, came aft into the cabin to wish us all a merry Christmas, and to invite us into the deck-house to hear a little music. We thanked them for their courtesy and went to the deck-house, where they played music, sang songs, and Alexey gave us a native dance. At all events the crew seemed to have a merry Christmas.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000355: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_213_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000357: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_213_1.jpg)


26 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 34 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 34 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 315 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 100 tons 857 lbs


AM

Crew engaged in banking up snow against ships sides. At 11.15 sounded in 31 fathoms. Muddy bottom. No drift indicated by lead line. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard.

Day begins with strong winds from E. by S. (mag.) which veered to S.E. x E. by noon and die out. Falling barometer and rising temperature.


PM

Aired bedding in deck house. At 10.15 the ice opened, opening curving from ahead to and along the port beam, and about 300 yards distant. A slight pressure on our starboard side accompanied the ice movement. The width of the opening was about 12 feet.


Moon 25° N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 204):

At 10.15 p.m. a sharp crack was heard on our starboard side, and on going on deck to look for a cause open water was discerned ahead and on our port side to the eastward about three hundred yards distant. I went out to it and found that the ice had opened into a channel about twelve feet wide, extending for about a mile north and south, and curving around our bow to some new ice made over an opening of yesterday. I must now believe that this ocean is subject to tidal action, for as all our pressures have been at or about the times of full and new moon (full moon, October 29th; new, November 13th; full, November 28th; new, December 12th; full, December 28th), they can be traced to the greater movement due to the spring tides, as suggested by Chipp, on October 31st.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000359: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_214_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00035b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_214_1.jpg)


27 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 39 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 39 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 400 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 100 tons 457 lbs


AM

Strong winds from between W. by S. and W. by N. Slowly falling barometer and rapidly falling temperature. At 11.15 sounded in 30 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom, with an indicated drift to E'd. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard. At 11.30 a slight movement was observed in the ice beyond the opening 300 yards east of ship. At 5 a light halo was observed around the moon showing prismatic colors. At 6 lunar circle; at 7 a faint aurora to N.E. At 8 a halo.


PM

Continued strong winds from west with slowly rising barometer, and rapidly falling thermometer. Weather clear and pleasant. Bright moonlight and starlight.


Moon 24° N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 205):

At 11.30 a.m. there was a slight movement to the ice beyond and along the opening of yesterday.



50a27fda7438ae05bd00035d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_215_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00035f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_215_1.jpg)


28 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 33 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 33 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 145 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 100 tons 312 lbs


AM

Clear and beautiful weather. Bright moon and stars. Steady breeze from W. by N. veered to S.W. by W. during last hour and fell. Commanding Officer inspected ship at 11. At 11.30 sounded in 31 fathoms. Muddy bottom. Drift to the eastward. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard. From 5.10 to 5.25 there was an eclipse of a small portion of the moons lower limb.


PM

Clear and beautiful weather. Gentle breeze from S'd & W'd. Bright moonlight with reflection from ice beneath. Lunar circle at 3 and a column of light under the moon. Lunar circles observed during evening. At 1.30 divine service was held and the Commanding Officer officiated.


Moon 22° N.

Full moon


50a27fda7438ae05bd000361: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_216_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000363: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_216_1.jpg)


29 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation

Line of position Dec. 29th 9pm by observation of the Moon.

Assumed Lat 72° 20' N., Long obtained 177° 31' W.

Assumed Lat 72° 40' N., Long obtained 177° 11' W.


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 33 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 33 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 190 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 100 tons 112 lbs


AM

Clear and cold. Bright moon and stars. Light breezes from S'd & W'd. Frost dust in the air. Moon dog on horizon to S.W. (mag.). Sky almost cloudless. Slight haze above horizon at times. At 11.15 sounded in 30 fathoms. Slight drift to N'd. Muddy bottom. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard. At 12 there was an appearance of land bearing S. by W. ½ W. (true) to S.W. ½ W. (true).


PM

Clear and pleasant. Calms or light airs from S'd and W'd. Crew engaged in washing clothes and in banking up ship with snow. Slight movement in the ice about 300 yards to the eastward of ship at 10.10.


Moon 19° N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 205):

A slight grinding movement in the neighborhood of the late opening of the ice to the eastward at 10.10 p.m.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000365: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_217_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000367: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_217_1.jpg)


30 December 1879

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon: no observation

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations: no observation


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 32 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 32 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 435 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 99 tons 1917 lbs


AM

Day opens calm and pleasant, and continues so during forenoon with light southerly airs. At 3am an auroral curtain from W. to N.N.W., 60° in center of same. At 4 a faint auroral arch. At noon the moon setting below northern horizon. Sounded in 30 fathoms.

Crew engaged in breaking out fore hold (a little water having been discovered there) and in packing snow on forward part spar deck, over berth deck, to endeavor to reduce condensation of moisture below.


PM

Moon rising at 4. At 6 lunar arch with a column of light from moon to northern horizon. During the afternoon and evening water clouds to the S'd indicating openings in the ice. From 10 to midnight lunar circle. At 10 and 11 the ice was grinding to the S'd.

Light S.S.W. breezes with steady barometer and slightly varying temperature.

The fore hold having been broken out the water was found to be of no importance, being due perhaps to a melting of a portion of the ice in the bilge.


Moon 15° N.

Full moon


50a27fda7438ae05bd000369: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_218_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00036b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_218_1.jpg)


31 December 1879

Lat 72.50, Long -177.44

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation of meridian altitude ✱ Arcturus 7.30am N. 72° 30' 21"

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations Moon 7.30am W. 177° 26' 20"


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 25 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 25 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 290 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 99 tons 1627 lbs


AM

Light southerly and westerly breezes with slightly falling barometer and varying temperature. Ice grinding to S.E. from 1 to 4 o'clock. Light driving snow at 3 – 4 and noon. Water sky to S.E.

Daybreak at 8.15. Sounded at noon in 31 fathoms. No indicated drift. Crew engaged in restoring fore hold.

Weather generally overcast and gloomy.


Provisions condemned during December

2 lbs canned tomatoes

4 ½ lbs canned mutton


PM

Winds get to W. by midnight and increases in strength. Rising barometer and falling temperature. Light driving snow at intervals. Faint auroral arch to N.W. from 11pm. Lunar circle.


Moon 10° N.

Full moon



LOGS FOR JANUARY 1880

Minstrel Show


50a27fda7438ae05bd00036d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_219_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00036f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_219_1.jpg)


1 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 32 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 32 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 190 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 99 tons 1437 lbs


AM

The New Year was ushered in by the rapid ringing of the ship's bell at midnight and with three cheers given by the crew for the "Jeannette".

Strong westerly winds with rapidly rising barometer. At 3am the temperature began to fall suddenly. Weather clear and pleasant. Early daylight at 8.13.

At 3, a lunar circle was observed showing faint mock moons on the cardinal points of the circumference, the lower mock moon being very bright. A very faint curved line passed through real and lateral mock moons toward horizon.

Sounded at noon in 30 ½ fathoms. No drift indicated.


PM

Fresh westerly winds moderating toward midnight. A rapidly rising barometer, and uniformly very low temperatures.

From 8.30 to 11 the crew gave a minstrel entertainment in the deck house. At 9 a blood red halo around the moon. At midnight an auroral arch to north extending from N.E. to N.W. and having a curtain from its eastern end.


Moon 5° N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 206 ff):

The birth of the New Year was announced by the rapid ringing of the ship's bell by the man on watch, and the crew, all assembled on the quarter deck, gave three cheers for the "Jeannette", and sent a deputation of two men into the cabin to wish us all a happy New Year. The year opened clear and pleasant. The temperature began at minus 24°, but at four a.m. it dropped suddenly to minus 30°, and by eleven a.m. it had reached minus 39°, running along at that steadily until midnight, when it reached minus 39.5°. The temperature was probably lower, but the mercurial thermometers began to freeze, and the spirit thermometers did not record accurately at this point.


At three a.m. we had a lunar circle showing faint mock moons, the lowest mock moon very bright. Through the real and two lateral mock moons a curved line passed toward the horizon. At nine p.m. a blood-red halo around the moon.

At three p.m. everybody sat down to a capital dinner, and afterward we got ready for the minstrel performance in the evening. Our men had rallied from their failure to get up one for Christmas, and seemed determined to make this entertainment good enough for both occasions. During the day invitations were sent aft, accompanied by programmes. At 8.30 one of the men came to the cabin and invited us into the deck-house. Entering, we found a nice little stage erected with drop-curtain, footlights, etc., and tastily decorated with flags. The performance commenced with a minstrel variety, jokes and conundrums sandwiching in with the songs. One conundrum was excellent (pointing to one of the stanchions of the deck-house): ''Why is that stanchion like Mr. James Gordon Bennett? Because it supports the house." Sweetman's songs were very good, and Kuehne's violin solo was fine indeed, especially when one takes into consideration the fact that a seaman's life does not serve to render the fingers supple and delicate. Mr. Cole gave us a jig with all the gravity of a judge. One of the features of the evening was the reading of a prologue composed by Mr. Collins, in which each one of the crew was made the subject of a rhyme in turn. Alexey and Aniguin gave us native dances, and the latter an imitation of a song sung by our Chinamen. The Chinamen gave us their native song, and a sham fight with knives and a pole, winding up by imitating with much contempt Alexey's and Aniguin's manner of singing and dancing.


Instead of shadow pictures we had tableaux vivants, "Neptune" (Cole turning a wheel, our broken spare one, mounted on a camp stool); "Sailors mourning over a dead marine" (two sailors mute with grief over an empty brandy bottle); "A glimpse at Vulcan" (our prize blacksmith, Dressier); "Queen Anne" (Aniguin — Anne Gwyne — Queen Anne); "Is that a bear I see?" (Alexey with dog, aiming at some unseen object); "Mars" (man on crutches); "Taking an observation" (man drinking out of uplifted bottle), were all capital. When, the performance over, we broke up at eleven o'clock, we all felt satisfied alike with the ship, the minstrels, ourselves, and the manner in which we had celebrated the first day of the year of our Lord 1880.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000371: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_220_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000373: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_220_1.jpg)


2 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 36 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 36 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 145 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 99 tons 1292 lbs


AM

Day opens clear and pleasant with bright moonlight. Light steady breeze from W. by N. with rising barometer and uniformly low temperature. The few clouds marked in log cumulus were about the horizon.

Sounded at noon in 31 fathoms. Slight drift indicated to W.S.W. (mag.). Auroral arch 70° in altitude south of zenith, in N. & N.W. from N. to N.W. 1 to 4, and lunar halo at 3. Early daylight at 8.20.


PM

Wind veers to northward and dies out at midnight. Extraordinary rise of barometer, steady low temperature.

Auroral arch at 11, crown passing through ✱ Polaris, and having radiation from easterly end. Arch extending from N.W. to N.E.

Ice in motion to S.W. the sound travelling to the west, and resembling the paddle wheels of a steamer beating the water with varying speed, sometimes full speed, sometimes half speed.


Moon 0° 29' S.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 209):

At daylight numerous water clouds were observed around ns, but they disappeared during the forenoon as the ice closed. At ten p.m. the ice commenced grinding near us in the S.W., the motion, judging by the sound, being transmitted along a line running to the northward. What I mean by that is, that when the ice moved first it was in the S.W.; then the next sound was from S.W. by W., while in the S.W. it was quiet ; so on to W. and along, the sound retreating to the northward. No motion was communicated to the ship or to the ice surrounding her. The noise was exactly like the paddle-wheels of a steamer beating the water, sometimes at full speed, and sometimes at half speed — even as it may be heard on a still night on the North River at home.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000375: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_221_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000377: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol001of004/vol001_221_1.jpg)


3 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 33 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 33 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 357 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 99 tons 935 lbs


AM

Weather clear and pleasant with moderate northerly and easterly winds. Barometer reaches its maximum at 6am and commences to descend. Temperature slowly rising.

Ice in motion to S'd. An auroral arch 20° in altitude was observed at 1 in N. and N.W.; a faint aurora 15° in altitude, N. at 2; and faint auroral streamers in N.N.E. at 4.

Early daylight at 8. Sounded at noon in 31 fathoms. Slight westerly drift. At noon clear daylight, the surface of the ice floe being illuminated, and the cirrus clouds in the southern horizon being tinged with a red glow.

Aired bedding in deck house. The surgeon commenced his usual monthly examination of the officers and men.


PM

Weather continues clear and pleasant with occasional haze. Winds veer to S.E.'ward, barometer still falls and temperature rises.

At 6pm faint auroral gleam in N.; at 7 the same to N.N.W.; at 9 an auroral arch to N. which became very brilliant at 10, and at 11 became a faint broken arch 10° in altitude.

Loom of land visible at noon to S.S.W. true.


Moon 6° S.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 210):

At one a.m. the ice was again in motion to southward.



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4 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 31 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 31 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 180 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 99 tons 755 lbs


AM

Strong winds from the S'd of east, veering to S.E. and moderating at noon. Barometer falling rapidly and temperature as rapidly rising. Hazy.

At 12.30 a meteor, very brilliant, fell in a curved line from S. to S.E., and in exploding showed red, yellow, and blue colors like a rocket.

Early daylight at 8.25.

At 11 Commanding Officer inspected the ship. Sounded in 31 ½ fathoms, muddy bottom, no drift indicated.


PM

Wind veering to S'd and, going on, reaches W.N.W. at midnight. Barometer slowly falling until 3 when it slowly rises again. Continued increasing temperature. Light snow fell nearly all the time.

At 1pm read the articles for the government of the Navy and mustered the crew. At 1.30 divine service was performed in the cabin.


Moon 11° S.

Last quarter


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5 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 33 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 33 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 395 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 99 tons 360 lbs


AM

Day opened overcast with very light snow. At 3am auroral arch 40° in altitude in N. extending from W. by N. to N.E. Early daylight at 7.50.

Sounded at noon in 30 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. No indicated drift. Washed clothes. Surgeon examined the crew. George W. Boyd, 2nd class fireman, was found to have ruptured himself since the physical examination of last month.


PM

At 10.30 remarkable meteoric light to S'd illuminating the floe with a brilliant green flash. At 11.15 a slight movement of the ice to the S'd. Sky perfectly cloudless after 6.


Moon 17° S.

Last quarter


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6 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 31 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 31 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 226 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 99 tons 134 lbs


AM

Day opened clear and pleasant, a perfect cloudless sky, with light breezes from N'd & E'd. Steady barometer and slightly rising temperature.

Faint auroral arches were observed until 6am; a meteor in S'd falling to S.W., and another meteor in east falling to S.E. Moon just above S.E. horizon at 7.

During forenoon land was seen between S.S.E. and S.S.W. (magnetic) and recognized as the same land as was sighted on October 29th et seq. The land was much raised by refraction, and an inverted image presented over the real one. The outline of the real land much obscured. Appearance of land in direction of the bearing of Herald Island.

Sounded at noon in 30 ½ fathoms, muddy bottom. No indicated drift.


PM

At 2pm the land outline was much plainer. A meteor was observed at 4 and another at 9. Auroral arches from 5 to midnight the remarkable one being a bright curtain at 9 forming an ellipse; two arches at 11, starting from a point in N.E. and ending respectively in N.N.W. and W. Coronas being 20° and 90° in altitude; and a four arch fan at midnight from the same point. Coronas 30°, 60°, 75° and 90° in altitude, ending at N.N.W., N.W., N.W. x W. and W.N.W. Twilight arch 10° at 4pm.

A perfectly cloudless sky from 5 to midnight. Barometer rising until 10pm, and temperature continues to rise at midnight.


Moon 21° S.

Last quarter


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7 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 34 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 34 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 368 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 98 tons 2006 lbs


AM

Day begins clear and pleasant with light starlight, steady temperature and barometer. Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms, no indicated drift. Early daylight at 7.30.

At 1 auroral arches, 25° N. and 35° S., with diffused light between them; at 2 auroral arch through 80° N. from N.E. to S.W. x W; also arch 15° in S; at 3 auroral arches in N. and S. 15°, streamers and curved lines around the horizon with their center in zenith; at 4 auroral arch in S. 25°, extending from N.E. to W., fading upward; at 5 aurora in all parts of the heavens, but brightest at S., continuing until 8 at which time very faint.

Land was sighted on the same bearings as yesterday, and also a very strange appearance of land bearing W.S.W. magnetic.


PM

Weather continues clear and pleasant, with haze around horizon most of the time.

Faint auroral gleam in S.W. at 5; at 10 auroral arch to N., the same continuing at 11 and accompanied by another, both broken, the one 20° in alt the other passing through zenith. Under the lower and depended a black curtain through which stars could not be seen. The arches extended from N.W. to N.E. and were dim at midnight.


Moon 24° S.

Last quarter


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8 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 36 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 36 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 168 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 98 tons 1838 lbs


AM

Day opened pleasant with a little cloudiness and N.E. winds which [veered] to eastward by noon. Steady barometer and slightly falling temperature. Auroral arches with diffused light until 7am. Early daylight 7.25.

Sounded at noon in 29 ¾ fathoms. Dark green mud. Thickness of ice by direct freezing since Nov 28th 39 inches.

Ice moving to S'd & W'd at 4.

The land was again seen on bearings of yesterday and same appearance of land to W.S.W.


PM

Weather clear and pleasant until 10 when it became overcast. Wind veering to S'd falls calm. Slightly falling barometer and rising temperature.


Moon 25° S.

Last quarter


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9 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 418 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 98 tons 1420 lbs


AM

Day opened gloomy and almost overcast. Water clouds to S. and S.W. Falling barometer. Rising temperature until 6, when it fell. Very light snow at noon. Sounded at noon in 29 ¾ fathoms. Dark green mud. No indicated drift. Aired bedding in deck house. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


PM

Weather overcast and cloudy nearly all the time with occasional very light snow. Barometer falling until 2pm when it began to rise. Nearly even temperature.


Moon 25° S.

Last quarter



LOG BOOK – 10 JANUARY 1880 TO 28 JULY 1880


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Title Page

Commencing January 10th, 1880 at Lat. N. 72° 25', Long W. 177° 26', Arctic Ocean, at which point the "Jeannette" is still beset and drifting in the pack ice, and ending July 27th (July 28th), 1880, at Lat 73° 0' 45" N. Longitude 179° 17' 45" E., at which point the "Jeannette" is still fast and drifting in the pack ice of the Arctic Ocean.


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List of officers and others

List of officers and others attached to and on board of the U.S: Arctic Steamer "Jeannette", commanded by Lieut. George W. DeLong, U.S.N., the 10th day of January 1880 in the Arctic Ocean.


George W. DeLong

Lieutenant

Charles W. Chipp

Lieutenant

John W. Danenhower

Master

George W. Melville

P.A. Engineer

James M. Ambler

P.A. Surgeon

Mr. Jerome J. Collins, Meteorologist

Seaman

Mr. Raymond L. Newcomb, Naturalist

Seaman

Mr. William Dunbar, Ice Pilot

Seaman

John Cole

Seaman

Alfred Sweetman

Seaman

W.F.C. Nindemann

Seaman

Walter Lee

Machinist

James H. Bartlett

1st class Fireman

George W. Boyd

2nd class Fireman

Walter Sharvell

Coal Heaver

Nelse Iverson

Coal Heaver

John Lauterbach

Coal Heaver

Louis P. Noros

Seaman

H.W. Leach

Seaman

Henry Wilson

Seaman

C.A. Görtz

Seaman

P.E. Johnson

Seaman

Edward Star

Seaman

H.D. Warren

Seaman

H.H. Kaack

Seaman

A.G. Kuehne

Seaman

F.E. Manson

Seaman

H.H. Erickson

Seaman

Adolph Dressler

Seaman

Charles Tong Sing

Seaman

Ah Sam

Seaman

Alexey

Hunter & dog driver

Aniguin

Hunter & dog driver



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Armament Page

1 Steam Cutter

2 Whale Boats

2 Cutters

2 Dinghies

1 Folding Canvas Boat


Small Arms


12

Remington BL Rifles

7000 Rifle Cartridges

From Bureau of Ordnance through Mare Island Yard

6

Remington BL Revolvers

3000 Revolver Cartridges

3

Winchester Repeating Rifles

2500 Winchester Cartridges

Private purchase

4

Remington RB Shot Guns

and 6000 Cartridges

2

Remington RB with extra Rifle band

and 2000 Cartridges

10

English BL Rifles

and 500 Cartridges

10

English ML Rifles

and 500 Cartridges

6

English self-cocking Revolvers

and 500 Cartridges


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Description of the instruments

[Paper insert:]

Description of the instruments used in making the meteorological observations recorded in the columns of the logbook


Barometer

The standard was a mercurial barometer made by Adie, London, No 1231, and was placed in the cabin. The entries in the logbook are from reading of aneroid barometer N. 28051 which had been set by comparison with mercurial standard to a reading reduced to 32° Fahrenheit and placed in the port chart room.


Temperature.

The "Air Dry Bulb" was recorded from readings of standard mercurial thermometer No 4313 made by Green, New York, so long as the temperature was above the freezing point of the mercury of that instrument. At other times the temperature was recorded from readings of spirit thermometers, uncolored or colored as marked "clear" or "purple" &c &c, and indicated by their numbers. All these thermometers were made by Green, New York.


The "Water at Surface" was recorded from readings of a thermometer attached to a hydrometer cup made by G. Tagliabue, New York, (without number) and which thermometer agrees with standard mercurial thermometer No 4313.


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10 January 1880

AM

Light breezes from W. by N. with generally gloomy and cloudy weather. Very light snow at 5. Rising barometer and falling temperature. Early daylight at 7.15. Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms. Green mud. No indicated drift.


PM

Weather clearing, so as to show stars after 4. Variable light winds until 7, from which time forward the wind remained steady at W.N.W.


Moon 23° S.

Last quarter


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[Paper insert:]

Deep Sea Temperatures

The depth of water not being great, but one Casella-~ thermometer was used. The numbers of the thermometer ~ are written in red ~ abreast of the sounding. ~ were found upon comparison to agree with standard mercurial thermometer No 4313.

The temperature at a depth of two fathoms was obtained ~ water drawn from one of the sea cocks in the bottom ~ the ship which was quite uniformly 12 feet below ~ surface of the water. The readings were made from ~ thermometer attached to the hydrometer cup made by ~ Tagliabue, New York before mentioned.


Specific Gravities

Water was brought up by a Sigsbee water cup from ~ greatest depth obtained. Water at 2 fathoms was obtained ~ a sea-cock as mentioned above. The "surface" water was obtained from about one foot below the surface.

The specific gravities were read from a hydrometer marked "Tagliabue, New York. Specific gravity 60° F." ~ 1.020 to 1.031, for the greatest depth. Surface water ~ water at 2 fathoms had their specific gravity recorded ~ readings of a more delicate hydrometer marked "Reinmann Baetz, 96 Fulton St., N.Y. specific gravity 60° F" Scale ~ to 1.040.


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[paper insert]

[Editor's note: The left half of the page is cut off at the image border]


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11 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 29 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 29 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 173 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 98 tons 1094 lbs


AM

Day begins with an almost entirely overcast sky and light westerly winds. A very faint auroral arch in N. by W. at 1 extending through zenith. Light snow at intervals. Water sky and clouds to N.W. and N.E. indicating water holes in those directions. Early daylight at 7.40.

Commanding Officer inspected ship at 11. At noon sounded in 30 ¼ fathoms. Muddy bottom. No indicated drift.


PM

Weather continues gloomy and overcast with W.N.W. winds until 6, from which time until midnight there is a perfect calm. Rising barometer and increased temperature. Very light snow at intervals. Ice moving to W'd at 5.

At 1.30 divine service was read in the cabin by the Commanding Officer.


Moon 19° S.

New moon


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12 January 1880

More ice pressures

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 32 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 32 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 383 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 98 tons 711 lbs


AM

Day opened calm and overcast. Very nearly steady barometer and temperature to noon.

Faint auroral gleam to N. & N.W. at 1. At 2 a sound of ice moving in the distance to W'd. Early daylight at 7.55.

Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms. Dark green mud. No indicated drift. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard.

Crew engaged in washing clothes in deck-house.


PM

At 1.15 there was a sharp shock to the ship like a sudden nip, occasioning no other movement than ¼ of a point in azimuth. The ice in the immediate neighborhood of the ship remained intact, but a slight movement was observed about 800 yards to the S. and S.W. of our position.

Overcast and gloomy until 11 when it cleared before a light N.W. breeze, occasioning a sudden great fall in temperature.


Moon 14° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 212):

At two a.m. a slight ice movement to westward. At 1.15 p.m. a sudden sharp crack made the ship jump one quarter of a point in azimuth. Supposing that we were in for a time, I ran out on deck, but found everything surrounding the ship in its usual quiet. About eight hundred yards to the southward, however, there was the sound of grinding and crushing, and this movement no doubt was the cause of our getting a sudden nip and consequent scare. Knowing that all our trouble came at new and full moon, and that we had a new moon yesterday, I stood by anxiously all the afternoon and evening for some further demonstrations, but nothing occurred, and we were able to go to bed in peace and quiet.



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13 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 34 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 34 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 213 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 98 tons 498 lbs


AM

The day opened partly cloudy with very light breeze from N.N.W. At 3 the sky became very nearly overcast but cleared by noon, leaving a mist around southern horizon.

At 1 auroral arch to W'd passing through zenith and having a curved curtain 15° in alt in the North with radiations toward the zenith. At 2 auroral arch 25° in altitude from N.W. to N.E., and a faint arch from east to zenith. At 4 faint auroral arch from E. to W. through zenith. At 6 faint diffused aurora. Early daylight at 7.40. At 12 a mist arose from the ice same distance ahead of ship, and water clouds were visible in N.N.E. horizon.

Sounded at noon in 30 ¼ fathoms. Dark green mud. No indicated drift.


PM

Light airs from W'd and calms. Falling barometer and temperature. Faint auroras in N. at 5 and 6. At 10.30 auroral arch 15° in alt to north from N.E. to N.W.; at 11 this second arch had a curtain depending from its eastern end to the horizon; and at midnight the same arch consisted of irregular motionless bands of white light, resembling the light thrown by the moon on stratus clouds.

Carpenter engaged in building boat sleds. At 9.15 loud noises from the ice about 1000 yards ahead of the ship with great pressures. At 11 the noises had passed off to the eastward and were becoming faint in the distance.


Moon 9° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 213 ff):

The weather to-day was remarkably clear and beautiful. From six p.m. to midnight the sky was absolutely cloudless, and the southern horizon seemed as clearly defined as a knife edge. The delicate new moon a little above it, the stars bright and cold, the absolute calm, made a picture such as one was forced to linger over in spite of danger of freezing nose and face. Turning about, an equally beautiful picture, but of a different kind, met the eye, — the ship. For the last two days there was considerable moisture in the air, which was deposited on our rigging in rime and light fluffy masses like down. Freezing there immediately, of course, every rope and spar seemed made twice its usual size; and this evening, after gazing at the perfect picture which nature gave us of a midwinter night, to turn around and look at the ship was to feel that she had dropped out of fairy-land in her pure whiteness, and was too — Well, I can't say what I want to. These outbursts are too much for me; I commence them, and cannot finish them; I seem to know the tune, but can never remember the words. Occasionally I go out on the ice on these beautiful evenings, and try to make words express my feelings suitably; but a lot of dogs wrangling over an empty meat-can, trying to find a meal in it, surround me, and drag me down to plain matter of fact. So I take my half-frozen nose tenderly in my hand, and lead myself back on board ship.

At 9.15 p.m. the quartermaster came in to report heavy grinding and movement ahead of the ship to the S.S.W. Seizing a lantern I rushed out upon the floe, accompanied by Alexey, and from the horrid din and screeching of the ice I thought the commotion could not be fifty feet from us. Alternate the howling of a gale around the rigging of a ship with the beat of the paddle-wheels of a hundred steamers, and you will have a good idea of what this noise sounded like. Not feeling any trembling to our floe, I concluded to look further for the disturbance, and so went on. After going about one thousand yards and crossing two cracks my lantern went out. We were not up to the disturbance yet, and the noise was quite as great. After floundering and stumbling around for a while, I decided to return and await events nearer home. Alexey and myself, after rolling over and over a dozen times or more in the darkness, made our way back, and finding no disturbance at the ship, we dismissed the subject contemptuously as "plenty noise, small move." At eleven the noise and movement had passed off to the eastward and were growing faint in the distance.



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14 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 32 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 32 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 373 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 98 tons 125 lbs


AM

The day opened and continued clear and pleasant with light westerly winds, falling barometer and increasing cold. At 1 an auroral arch 30° in alt from N.E. to N.W., and also a faint arch through the zenith; at 1.30 the two arches formed an arch through zenith from N.E. to W. and a quickly brightened from a dull striped into a curtain form, and was succeeded by an undulating movement with upward radiations. At 2, one arch to N'd, 15° in altitude and one to S'd 40° in alt with pale diffused light between; southern arch very faint, northern arch broken by dark segment beneath working upward.

Early daylight at 7. Sounded at noon in 30 ¼ fathoms, green mud. Slight drift to W.N.W. mag.


PM

Weather continues clear and pleasant with freshening breeze from W. x N., continued falling barometer and increasing temperature. From noon to 4 a slight movement of the ice to the S'd & W'd.

At 9 an auroral arch to N'd 15° alt from N.E. to N.W., which at 10 had become an irregular broken curtain. At 11 two arches from N.E. to N.W. and 15° in alt the other 25°, the lower one having fitful radiations toward the upper one. Suddenly the two became one brilliant arch 20° in altitude which at midnight had faded and become broken.


Moon 3° S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 215):

Excepting a little additional movement in the distance to the S.W., the ice gave us no alarms. But at its best, it is so treacherous that we never feel safe. I went with a dog sled several miles around the floe and saw a few openings, already frozen over, but these are the only signs of recent movement. The big piles of slab ice heaped up here and there are the results of the great November confusion which broke us adrift and floated us to our present insecure berth.



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15 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 29 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 29 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 178 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 97 tons 2187 lbs


AM

The day opened very hazy, with starlight and faint aurora to N'd. Fresh westerly breezes with falling barometer and steady low temperatures. At 2.30 sky cleared.

At 2 a faint auroral arch, striped, passing through zenith; also two curtain arches in North, 10° and 20° in altitude respectively with irregular upward radiations, extending from N.E. to west; at 3 faint auroral arch 5° S. of zenith, and a broken auroral curtain to N. 20° in altitude, with diffused light between them; at 4 a striped arch through zenith from N.E. to W., and a faint curtain arch to N. with diffused light between them; and at 5 brilliant auroral arch from E. to W. through zenith. Early daylight at 6.55.

Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms, dark green mud. Slight indicated drift to S.E.


PM

At noon the ice cracked within 20 feet of the starboard side of the ship, causing her to move one eighth of a point in azimuth. The opening increased to two feet in width, and extended around the bow and ahead of the ship in one direction, and in the other around the stem at the distance of 100 yards. By 3pm the opening was eight feet in width on the starboard side, with a crack on the port side indicating an opening which occurred at 6pm. General direction of ice movement to east and south. Fresh W.N.W. wind blowing, with rising barometer and falling temperature after 5.

Faint aurora in N.E. at 10, springing to N.W. with streamers. At 11 auroral arch 15° in altitude to N'd growing faint; and at 12 this same arch was broken but bright with dark curtain underneath and streamers downward from western end.

Crew engaged in breaking out and restoring fore peak. Ship heeling 2 ½° to starboard.


Moon 2° N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 215 ff):

We have had considerable anxiety to-day on account of the ice. At noon a slight shock was experienced, and on going out on the floe I found that it had cracked and opened about twenty feet from our starboard side (ship heading S.S.W. and a half W.), the crack rounding the bow and going ahead in the prolongation of the stem in one direction, and in the other, passing along, it went across the stern at a distance of about one hundred yards. This crack widened, until at three it had become eight feet in width, and at the same time a fissure appeared on our port side about one hundred feet distant, which became an opening at six. As far as could be observed, the general direction of the ice movement was to the E. and S. We were not disturbed beyond an occasional snap, as some fracture took place in the ice, but this horrible uncertainty grows wearisome. Living over a powder manufactory may be exciting, but it is not healthy excitement; and our constant state of anxiety may well be compared to it. As the daylight left us, at four, our position was within a small floe with water all around us. Of course, the ice will close up again, and then it is a question of strength. If the small floe is squeezed on two sides it will collapse, and then the ship gets the pressure; if squeezed on one side it will go to the main floe on the other, and the edges will break up and pile up until the broken masses reach the ship's side. In any case, the ship comes in for some unpleasantness, so there is not much choice. Ice forty inches thick is a powerful enemy but a weak defender.



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50a27fda7438ae05bd0003cb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_015_1.jpg)


16 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 31 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 31 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 398 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 97 tons 1789 lbs


AM

At 2.30 the opening in the floe on the starboard side of the ship began to close, the newly formed ice breaking with crashes, and the usual grinding noise as the two floe edges came together. No movement to the ship except repeated jars and tremblings as the pressure caught her under water body. At 3 the ice was again in motion; and frequent shocks were experienced during the forenoon.

The day opened clear and pleasant with rapidly freshening westerly winds, falling barometer and rising temperature. Early daylight at 8, later than usual on account of cloudy horizon. Light flurries of driving snow at times. Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms, muddy bottom, and slight S.E. drift indicated.

At 1 auroral arch through zenith with radiating center, also an arch to the N. 20° in altitude with elliptical cloud-like form and undulating movement, extending from N.E. to W. x N. At 2 an auroral form in N. with broken semi-circle from E. to W. enclosing faint diffused light; and at 2.30 an arch passing through zenith from E. to W., simultaneously with ice movement.


PM

Fresh winds from W. by N. with rising barometer after 1 and falling temperature. Several shocks to ship up to 7 o'clock from ice movement and pressure, but she retained the same heel, 2 ½° to starboard. At 10 an auroral arch was visible to the S.S.W. At 11 there were four auroral arches: one 15° in altitude with its crown in the N., one 25° in alt with its crown in N.W. x W., one 15° in altitude with its arch in S.W., and one 10° in altitude with its crown in south. The amount of sky included by these arches was from N.E. around by N. to S.E. The beginning of the second arch was alongside of its ending of the first, and so on. From these intermediate points streamers ran upward toward the zenith. At midnight there were three arches to the S'd, 12°, 15° and 18° respectively in altitude, and extending from E.S.E. to W.N.W. Through the middle one there were continued pulsations of light from E. to W., and at intervals of a few seconds only, globes of light showing prismatic colors (red and green principally) rolled across from E. to W. against the wind*, and ended at about 5° from the horizon. Three of these globes in transit were in sight at one time. This display lasted five minutes when the pulsations of light recommenced. Two arches were also visible in the N. 15° and 20° in altitude respectively with bands of light crossing them horizontally like chords. Northern and southern sets both originated in the E.S.E. and ended in W.N.W. while from both sets there radiated faint arches through zenith.


Moon 7° 30' N.

New moon


*Editor's note: Evidently the aurora borealis was deemed a weather phenomenon, as George W. Melville, Chief Engineer of the Jeannette, wrote is his own book "In the Lena Delta":

"Thunder and lightning are entirely unknown in the Arctic Ocean. Towards the pole the aurora is the only form in which the presence of electricity in the atmosphere is displayed; and the question arises, why the aurora, instead of the discharges of light, attended by thunder-claps, seen at the equator?

To bring about the usual atmospheric phenomena heat must be applied or extracted. Perhaps, then, the want of heat in the polar regions may account for the absence of thunder and lightning, or can it be that the immense blanket or non-conductor of ice and snow prevents the discharge of the electric current? So that, if a certain degree of heat were introduced, the aurora would burst forth into vivid flashes?"

https://archive.org/stream/inthelenadelta002487mbp#page/n347/mode/2up



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 216):

At 12.30 a.m. the familiar grinding and groaning made itself heard on our starboard side. Examination showed that the floes which separated yesterday were coming together again, and breaking up the new ice which had already formed in the crack. Beyond an occasional jar and shock, the ship did not move. At three the ice again began its movement, and this continued at intervals all day until seven p.m. Jars and shocks were frequent, but the ship did not move, keeping the same heel 2 ½° to starboard, although she was receiving considerable pressure on her underwater body. We had, therefore, nothing to worry us but a constant state of tension and anxiety.



50a27fda7438ae05bd0003cd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_016_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd0003cf: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_016_1.jpg)


17 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 32 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 32 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 331 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 97 tons 1458 lbs


AM

These twenty four hours begin clear and pleasant with fresh W.N.W. and N.W. winds. Rising barometer and rapidly falling temperature. Sky almost entirely free from clouds until noon. At 7 there was a slight movement to the ice ahead of the ship. Early daylight at 6.55am. Measurements of portions of the ice floe broken off and turned up in the last pressure gave a thickness of 46 inches and this is the result of direct freezing since November 28th, 1879.

Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms, green mud. No drift indicated by lead line.

At 1 there were visible six auroral arches, two crossing the zenith, and two north of zenith and two south of zenith. Altitude of lowest north 15°, of lowest south 10°. Northern arches of curtain form, southern arches dull. Diffused light between; at 2 an arch to S. 15° in alt, and an arch to N. 8° in alt; also an arch through zenith from W. x N. to N.E. Diffused light. At 3 auroral arch to S. 20° in altitude with bands through and north of zenith, radiating to a circular space at zenith, all faint. At 4 auroral arch to S. 20° in alt, brightest in S.W. x W. Streaks through zenith and radiations to it from all points in the North. At 5 diffused aurora.


PM

Moderating breezes from W.N.W. with clear and pleasant weather, rising barometer and steadily falling temperature. Mercury freezes at 5pm in mercurial thermometer No. 4313 (Green, NY) at a temperature of -42°.

Slight ice movement at 2. At 6 an auroral arch 10° in alt in N. x E.; at 7 auroral arch 20° in altitude in N. x E. (extending from N.E. to N. x W.) curving to northward at the ends; at 8 faint arch to N; at 10 a brilliant aurora to S'd; at 11 four auroral arches radiating from E.N.E. in ellipses ending in W.S.W. passing N. and S. of zenith; at 12 the same had grown faint.


Moon 12° N.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 216 ff):

The day opened pleasant and clear with a N.W. wind. The barometer rose steadily from 29.62 to 30. The temperature ran down rapidly, giving us our coldest experience thus far, — beginning at minus 21.5°, it ran steadily down to minus 42° by five p.m., at which temperature our mercurial thermometer. No. 4,313, froze solid, and declined to go down any further. Mercurial thermometer No. 4,274 kept on, however, and accommodated us at midnight with a reading of minus 44.5°. The two spirit thermometers were slow to realize how cold it was, for No. 4,402 had got only to minus 42° at midnight, and 4,397 to minus 41°; but they may do better hereafter. The weather has been beautiful all day, scarcely a cloud and but little haze preventing the sky from being perfectly clear. Excepting a slight movement ahead of the ship at seven a.m. the ice let us alone, giving us calm minds to enjoy the cold and the auroral display.

A careful measurement of a portion of the turned up floe broken off in the late squeeze gave us a thickness of forty-six inches, the result of direct freezing since November 28th.



50a27fda7438ae05bd0003d1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_017_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd0003d3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_017_1.jpg)


18 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 31 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 31 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 196 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 97 tons 1262 lbs


AM

The day opened clear and pleasant with a light haze, and continued so with a barometer rising to moderate northerly and westerly winds. Temperature steadily falling, one mercurial remaining frozen at -42°, the mercury of another having gone down into the bulb below any graduation, and the two spirit thermometers registering irregularly.

Commanding Officer inspected ship at noon. Sounded in 30 fathoms. Dark green mud. No indicated drift. Early daylight at 7.

At 1am a faint auroral arch through zenith and one to N'd 5° in altitude. Diffused light over sky N. and S. At 2 auroral ellipses at N.E. Streamers in N. and N.W. Two arches one to S. 30° in altitude and one through zenith. At 3 auroral arch to S'd 30° in altitude, streaks through zenith. Streamers in N. & N.E. At 4 arch in S. 30° in altitude with diffused light towards zenith.


PM

Weather continues clear and pleasant, with rising barometer and falling temperature.

At 1 Commanding Officer read divine service in cabin.

Faint auroral arches at 9 and 10. At 11 a lunar halo 2° in diameter, and two arches from N.E. x E. to W.N.W. ends curving to N'd. Altitudes respectively 50° and 60°. At midnight, the lunar halo continued, with auroral gleams from N.E. to N.W.


Moon 17° N.

First quarter


50a27fda7438ae05bd0003d5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_018_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd0003d7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_018_1.jpg)


19 January 1880

The leak

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 30 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 30 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 394 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 97 tons 868 lbs


At 1.30am there was a loud noise as of the cracking of the ship's frame by great ice pressure. The noise was very loud in two places, abreast the mizzen mast on the starboard side and forward of the foremast. Examination of the ice surrounding the ship showed no movement to have occasioned it, and it was supposed by the Commanding Officer that the noise might have been caused by the drawing of some of the ship's fastenings on account of the intense cold. At 7.45am the wind having shifted from N.N.W. to west, the pack commenced to move with its usual grinding noise. The greatest pressure was on the line of an old break running across the ship's bows from W. to E. The floe on the port side of the ship (to the E'd) was bulged up and broken in many places and the floe on the edge of the old break was piled up against the ship's stem, causing a great longitudinal pressure.

At 10.30am water was discovered in the fire room flowing from forward. An immediate examination showed two streams of water about 1 inch in diameter entering the fore peak through the solid filling placed in the bows at the Mare Island Navy Yard.

The forward deck pumps were immediately rigged and manned, and steam raised in the port boiler to work the steam pump. There was a depth of 18 inches of water in the fore peak, 24 inches of water in the store rooms next abaft it, and 36 inches in the fore hold.

While one watch worked the bilge pump, the other watch broke out the fore peak, the flour room, and the fore hold; being able to hold their own with the water by steady pumping. Difficulty was found in filling the boiler, the sea cocks being frozen fast; but it was done by pouring water from the bilge (then 15 inches deep) through the man hole plates in the top of the boiler. The temperature of the engine room being -25° F. a long time was required to get the pump in condition to take water. At 3pm the pump being ready, the flood gates in the forward water tight bulkhead were opened and a flow of water permitted. The limbers under the coal bunkers seemed to be frozen, or choked in some other way for but little water would pass through. Such as did came through was pumped out through the fire hose on the spar deck to the outside floe. As the steam pump suction was on the port side, and the ship had a heel of 2 ½° to starboard. The steam pump would take water only when it flowed over the main Kelson; and sufficient water to do this came aft only once or twice in the course of an hour. Kept all hands on deck working the pump until midnight when one watch was permitted to go below. Oakum was driven in at every space in the solid 1.27 bow filling through which water came, but as the lower part would be filled, water would come through above, and when finally the after side of the filling was stuffed so full of oakum and tallow that but a little water dripped through, the water was forced out through the ceiling, seeming to come up from the space between the planking and ceiling. Men were engaged in digging away the ice under the bow to get at the injury if possible, but upon removing the piled up floe pieces, water flowed and froze over the main floe to such a depth as prevented continuance of the work. Until the injury can be seen and determined, nothing more than an opinion can be expressed as to its nature. But from the steady flow of water, its locality, and in view of the great pressure experienced, it may be taken for granted that the fore foot is broken and bent aside springing off the garboard strakes with it. Sufficient pressures have been exerted under and against the stem to lift the ship 2 inches forward.

Early daylight at 6.50am. No soundings taken at noon. Considerable ice movement from time to time during the day, and an almost continuous heavy pressure against the ship on all sides.


Depth of water in ship at midnight

Fore peak

Flour room

Fore hold

Engine room


Moon 20° N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 218 ff):

A day of great anxiety and trouble. At 1.30 a.m. there was a loud noise as of the cracking of the ship's frame from some great pressure. I was sitting in my room at the time, and the sound seemed to come right abreast of me. I subsequently learned that a similar sound had been heard on the berth deck about abreast of the foremast. I ran out to look for a cause for this noise, but could see nothing. The ice was perfectly quiet, and no evidence of anything wrong could be found about the ship. After waiting an hour for further developments, nothing occurring, I turned in, supposing it might have been a bolt drawing by reason of the extreme cold. At 7.45 the wind suddenly shifted from N. to W.N.W., the ice began to move, and, amid the groaning and grinding of the floes, the ship was felt to receive tremendous pressure. The line of ice movement appeared to be at the break across the bows which occurred December 11th and closed up the same day. But the ice, while moving along slightly to the eastward, came down toward the stem, broke off large pieces of floe at the old fracture, and, piling up these masses under the stem, brought a tremendous longitudinal pressure on the ship. The ship being firmly imbedded in the floe, and held firmly on all sides, could not, of course, go astern, nor could she rise, although her curving bow was in her favor, and in consequence it became a question of her fore and aft strength. As she had stood an equally severe pressure on her sides (much weaker places, of course), I had no particular fear; and when I saw the floe on her port side buckle up and break in long thwartship cracks, and then the movement and pressure both seem to cease, I believed that we had weathered one more nip.


At 10.30 a.m. when the men went down in the fire room at the daily serving out of coal, Sharvell heard the running of water in the bilges, and promptly reported it. An examination was made at once, and we discovered that water was flowing from forward. Following it up we found to our dismay that there were two streams of water an inch in diameter, flowing through the filling which had been put in below the berth deck at the Mare Island Yard; and that the water stood at a depth of eighteen inches in the forepeak, at twenty-four inches in the store-room, next abaft it, and thirty-six inches in the fore hold, while in the fire-room it was over the floor-plates on the starboard side. The deck-pumps were at once rigged and manned, and I ordered steam to be raised on the port boiler to run the steam-pump. While one watch worked the pumps, the other watch were put at work breaking out the fore peak, hoisting the flour out of the storeroom next abaft it, and breaking out the fore hold. To my great relief the pumps seemed to hold their own. The forward bilge-pump (the only one worked) being in the deck-house, the men were sheltered from the intense cold, and were able to work to advantage. We had great difficulty in getting the use of the steam-pump. In the first place, the sea cocks being frozen we could not run up the boiler from the sea, and hence had to resort to pouring water from buckets through the man-hole plates. The temperature of the fire-room was then minus 29°, and we were a long time in getting the pump in a condition fit for use. But by Melville's indomitable energy it was ready by three p.m. Up to this time we had carefully kept the gates of the forward water-tight bulkhead closed to keep the water in one compartment, but when steam was ready we opened them. The water did not flow aft readily, however, the limber holes under the coal bunkers being frozen or otherwise choked up. Such water as did come aft was pumped out by steam through the fire hose connection on deck, and by hose through a scupper; our steam-pump suction was on the port side, and the ship being heeled 22° to starboard, the greatest amount of water came aft on the starboard side. Hence the steam-pump could work only when the water rose above the keelson, and washed over to port. I kept all hands on deck until midnight, and then sent one watch below; and, in view of the hard work everybody had been called on to perform, I served out two ounces of brandy to each man. Nindemann stood down in the fore peak up to his knees in water, stuffing in oakum and tallow into every place from which water came. As fast as he stuffed it in below the water came out above; and when finally he got so far that but a little, water trickled out from the bow-filling, it forced its way out through the ceiling. We put Alexey and Aniguin to work digging out the ice under the bow, to try to find out where the injury was and of what nature. But after they had dug away some of the pieces which had been piled up, the water flowed over the ice beneath and froze, and effectually stopped work. No sign of injury could be seen outside, and nothing inside but the flowing of the water, and, as far as may be judged from appearances, it would seem that the ship's forefoot has been broken off or twisted, starting the garboard strakes. Until we can free the .ship from water we can do nothing towards building a water-tight bulkhead across the fore peak, and thus keeping the water leak under control of the hand-pumps. As the water will not come aft readily to the steam-pump, we must get a steam-pump forward to it, for men cannot stand pumping from now till spring. Fortunately we have a pump in the engine-room which we can move forward to the old galley-room and connect by a long series of pipes to the main boiler, and that is suggested by Melville and commenced to be put into execution at midnight.


Everything was carried on regularly, quietly, and systematically. There was no excitement and no confusion. If we had to leave the ship, our sledges were ready on the poop packed with forty days' provisions, our boats were ready to lower, and we had the two dingys mounted on their sleds. Everybody had his knapsack and sleeping-bag ready, and our records and papers were in condition to seal up in a box, but thank God we had no occasion to experience that emergency. Temperature slowly rises to minus 44°. Early daylight at 6.50. Clear and pleasant. Bright moonlight and starlight. Considerable ice movement during day, and continuous heavy pressure.



50a27fda7438ae05bd0003d9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_019_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd0003db: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_019_1.jpg)


20 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1 ton 394 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 96 tons 508 lbs


As the limber holes under the coal bunkers remained frozen or otherwise choked to such an extend as to prevent the ready flow of water aft to the steam pump, it was decided at the beginning of these twenty four hours to remove an auxiliary steam pump from the engine room to the old galley room, over the chain lockers, and by running a line of piping from the main boiler to it, and attaching a suction pipe leading into the flour room, pump out sufficient water to enable us to build a bulkhead across the fore peak which would control the flow of water to such an extent as to permit the occasional using of the bilge pump keeping the ship free. Work was immediately commenced on this auxiliary pump, and it was placed in the old galley room, and necessary repairs were made to it. After it was in place an attempt was made to run it by the Baxter boiler, but it was found that the pump was too large for the capacity of the boiler, exhausting it almost immediately, and the plan was abandoned. Engineer's force was then employed to fit and run the line of steam piping to get steam from the main boiler through the steam whistle pipe. The work is not complete at midnight. While this work was going on the remainder of the crew were kept at work by watches in pumping the water out by the forward bilge pump on deck, being able to keep the water under control, and even occasionally getting the water down to 12 inches. Such water as flowed aft to the engine room was at once pumped out by the steam pump there, and towards the close of the day the flow was freer, enabling us to use the steam pump in engine room for 15 minutes in every half hour. All the sea cocks being frozen fast in their seats the boiler is blown as occasion requires into the bilge, and is fed from the bilge.

Broke out the starboard chain locker, and moved a lot of provisions aft on quarter deck. Discontinued using Baxter boiler to distil water, being able to distil below in the engine room, and requiring all the pipe connections of the Baxter boiler to lead steam from steam whistle pipe to auxiliary pump forward.

Considerable ice movement and pressure during the day. The ship is heeled 3° to starboard and the floe in which she is embedded has swung one and a quarter points in azimuth. Light breezes from between S. & W. all day with slowly falling barometer and slightly rising temperature. The movement of the ice seems to be to the E'd. Then are numerous ridges in sight where the floes have been broken and piled up upon coming in contact. The floe around the ship remains the same as yesterday but when pressed yields in heavy surges which causes the ship to crack and scrape. A careful examination shows no signs of anything having given away below, and every reason for the opinion of yesterday that the fore foot has been sprung off starting the garboard strakes.


Moon 23° N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 222 ff):

We do not gain much on the water, but then the water does not gain on us. The auxiliary steam-pump has been moved from the engine-room to the old galley-room, and secured in place against the berth deck bulkhead. Several repairs were made to it, such as fitting new valves, etc., but we had not finished running the line of piping to it from the main boiler by the time the day closed. A connection will be had with the main boiler through the steam-whistle pipe. As soon as we got the auxiliary pump in place we attempted to run it by the Baxter boiler, but the pump was too much for it, taking away all its steam almost immediately. The forward bilge-pump is worked by the watch, and at times we get the water down so low that ten minutes' pumping and ten minutes' spell keep the water in check. The flow of water aft to the engine-room is freer, enabling the steam-pump to be run fifteen minutes in every half hour, giving a breathing spell to the men. The boiler-pump exhausts into the bilge, and the feed water is taken from the bilge, all the sea cocks being frozen fast in their seats.


We cannot expect to free the ship by the hand-pumps alone, and are waiting for the aid of the auxiliary steam-pump. It may seem strange that so long a time is required to get this in operation, but our difficulties are enormous. To take a steam-pump down, move it, and put it together is a long job alone, without speaking of running steam-piping, all of which has to be fitted. Every man has been worked up to the top notch of his strength, whether in engine work, at the pumps, or carrying provisions aft; and though there seems but little described on this page, the day has been spent in harder work than falls to the lot of most men. Still everything is done quietly and with precision, and aided by Chipp and Melville, whose superiors the navy cannot show, with their untiring energy, splendid judgment, and fertility of device, I am confident of being able to do all that man can do to carry on the expedition to a safe termination.

Considerable ice movement and pressure during the day. The ship has increased her heel to three degrees to starboard, and floe and ship have swung to south by west one and one fourth points. Light breezes between S. and W. all day, and temperature struggling up from minus 44° to minus 37°. The movement of the ice seems to be to the eastward. There are numerous ridges in sight where the floes have been broken and piled up upon coming in contact. The floe around the ship remains as yesterday, but when pressed yields in heavy surges which cause the ship to snap and crack.



50a27fda7438ae05bd0003dd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_020_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd0003df: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_020_1.jpg)


21 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1800 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 95 tons 940 lbs


By 1am the work of running steam piping to the auxiliary pump forward from the main boiler by way of the whistle pipe was completed and an attempt was made to send steam through it, but the steam whistle pipe being frozen none would pass. Took down and thawed pipe and tried again getting the pump to work. Found the suction pipe too small, and substituted the main engine bilge suction pipe for it. This was completed at 7am and the auxiliary steam pump set to work performing well, keeping the water in check. As the water flowed more freely to the engine room pump that was run about half the time also; and the fore peak was thus kept free enough to build a small bulkhead resting on the cant frames fast abaft the bow filling constructed at Mare Island and checking the flow of water in that places. As at times the suction pipe of the auxiliary pump got the water down to the sucking point, plugs were driven in the forward bulkhead of the fore hold to keep the water from flowing aft to the engine pump. This kept the auxiliary pump man steadily at work, and permitted the watch in the engine room to proceed to make the necessary forgings and fittings for connecting the forward spar deck hand bilge pump to the Baxter boiler and 2 FP. engine.

Light breeze from W'd all day freshening toward midnight. Barometer falls slightly until 7pm when it commences to rise. Very little change in temperature. During the afternoon little spits of driving snow. Early daylight at 6.47am.

The sky at the beginning of the day was nearly clear of clouds with auroral bands or broken arches curving away from N. x E. to N.W. chiefly the N.W. Also streamers in N. x E. Later in the AM the aurora passed to S. as a pale arch having an altitude of 25°, with streamers radiating from N.E. to N.W. at intervals.

Considerable ice movement from noon to 10pm with heavy pressures causing severe shocks to the ship. No gain in the leak is observed as a result of the shocks. Ship heeling 3° to starboard.


Moon 24° 43' N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 223 ff):

The work of running the line of steam-piping to the auxiliary steam-pump in the galley-room was completed by one a.m. The steam-pipe was, as I have before said, led to the steam-whistle pipe, which of course communicated with the main boiler. Upon turning on the steam the pipe was found to be frozen, and steam would not pass. We had, therefore, to take down the pipe and thaw it out. This done, we tried again and got the pump to work, but found the suction pipe too small. We then removed the bilge suction pipe from the main engine and attached it to the auxiliary pump, and then the pump worked all right to my great satisfaction, for I was able to give our tired men a rest.

It was seven a.m. when we got the auxiliary pump running, but we immediately succeeded in keeping the water in check. By four p.m. we had got so much ahead of the water that the fore peak was dry enough to commence building a small bulkhead abaft of the bow-filling to stop the leak there to some extent. The water seemed to flow aft to the engine-pump more readily to-day, and by pumping fifteen minutes in every half hour in the engine-room, they kept that part of the ship free. Occasionally we would even get the auxiliary pump to suck, and we then drove plugs in the holes which we had bored in the forward bulkhead of the fore hold, and thus blocked up water enough to keep the auxiliary going all the time. This gave a spell to the men in the engine-room, and Melville (who will not sleep or rest) set them to work to make the necessary forgings for his proposed connection of the Baxter boiler to the forward spar deck bilge-pump.

There was considerable ice movement during the day, and tremendous pressure. The ship received many severe shocks, but these did not seem to increase the leak. I am rather inclined to think that a broken piece of floe has been shoved under her, and that she has been lifted above some of the pressure. She has risen two inches above her old line of flotation, which we have determined by marks made where her snow embankment came originally.



50a27fda7438ae05bd0003e1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_021_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd0003e3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_021_1.jpg)


22 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 2000 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 94 tons 1180 lbs


As the water was becoming low enough to work beneficially in the fore peak commenced cutting and fitting planking for the erection of a water tight bulkhead across the fore peak 1 2/3 feet forward of the foremast, but holes in the ceiling above berth deck on each side and packed down in the spaces between frames as much ashes and picked felt as they would take with seeming good effect towards the close of the day. The steam auxiliary pump was kept going almost continuously. Found a break in the suction pipe and repaired it. Added two lengths of pipe to it so as have a piece of suction pipe laying horizontally in the bilge, and we found the pump to draw more water than before. Up to noon the steam pump in engine room was run about half the time. Sufficient thawing or other clearing in the limbers under coal bunkers having taken place to permit the water accumulating there to flow aft. After noon only sufficient water came aft to after pump to supply the boiler and blow it. In addition to tending the boiler and steam pumps the engineer's force was employed in making forgings for the prepared connections to Baxter engine, and in making a boring bar and band and a pulley to fit the shaft of the Edison electro dynamic machine to be used as a counter shaft to run the hand bilge pump when the connections are made to the Baxter engine.


Upon attempting to resume the daily soundings it was found that a solid floe piece had shoved under the fire hole at a depth of four feet, completely closing it from below so that no lead could be got through. This would be a proof that the floe, which in its advance had caused so much longitudinal pressure and strain on the ship, had passed under the floe in which the ship is embedded, breaking perhaps the fore foot in passing.

The depth of water in the ship to day is as follows.


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At step of foremast

22 inches

18 ¼ inches

19 inches

At auxiliary pump suction. Just forward of chain lockers

24 inches

21 ¼ inches

19 inches

At after bulkhead fore hold

26 inches

27 inches

19 inches

At fire room bilge

16 inches

20 inches

19 ½ inches


Ship heeling 3° to starboard.

The day opened clear excepting a bank of cumulo-stratus and stratus clouds to W. & S.W. Rising barometer and falling temperature. At 2am the air became filled with fine snow dust. Rising temperature after noon. Early daylight at 7.30. High dawn. Rosy flush in sky to S'd at noon very strongly marking sun position.


Moon 25° 21' N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 225 ff):

As the water was becoming low enough in the fore peak to work to advantage, commenced cutting and fitting planking for the erection of water-tight bulkhead across the fore peak twenty inches forward of the foremost side of the fore-mast, at the step. We also cut holes in the ceiling above the berth deck on each side, and shoved down between the frames as much ashes and picked felt as the spaces would hold. These things filled up all spaces down to the filling between the cant frames, say two feet from the keelson, and towards the close of the day they seemed to have the effect of diminishing the leak. We had to keep the auxiliary steam-pump, in the old galley-room, going all the time, however, and in the afternoon discovered a crack in its suction pipe. Repaired it, and at the same time Melville added two lengths to it, so as to make the end piece lie horizontally in the bilge. This seemed to add to the efficiency of the pump, and we materially reduced the water. The limber holes under the coal bunkers seemed to have become more thawed or otherwise cleared, for the accumulated water flowed aft more freely, and was pumped out by the engine-room pump running one half the time. After noon only water enough came aft to engine-room to feed the boiler. The engineer's force are having plenty of work; for in addition to tending the boiler and steam-pumps, Melville keeps them at work making forgings and other fittings for our proposed connection of the Baxter boiler to the deck bilge-pump. Edison's electro-dynamic machine comes in handy, for we have taken its shaft to fit as a counter-shaft for the pumping.


Upon digging out the fire-hole to-day, preparatory to recommencing soundings, we struck hard, solid ice at a depth of four feet, which so completely closed the fire-hole from below that we could not get a lead down. I believe now that when we sustained the severe longitudinal pressure the advancing floe slid under the floe in which the ship is imbedded (for she lifted forward two inches), and now lies under her as far aft as her mainmast. No doubt it was this advancing floe which broke the forefoot.



50a27fda7438ae05bd0003e5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_022_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd0003e7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_022_1.jpg)


23 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 2195 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 93 tons 1163 lbs


The auxiliary pump is kept going all the time, and the steam pump in the engine room is working about one half the time. Work progressing on the bulkhead across the fore peak and at midnight all but one upright plank is in place. Left this one plank out in order to secure a passage way while stringers and braces are bolted in place abaft the bulkhead to enable it to withstand pressure. Early in the morning shoved down plaster of Paris in the spaces between frames forward of the bulkhead, hoping that the action of the water on it will turn it into a kind of cement. Also poured in ashes and picked felt. The construction of the gearing for connecting hand bilge pump with Baxter boiler and engine is completed, but cannot be used until the completion of the bulkhead and the successful choking of the spaces between frames make it possible to keep the ship free by the deck bilge pump alone.

A careful calculation of the performance of the auxiliary steam pump and the main steam pump gives the following result:

Amount of water pumped by auxiliary pump her hour = 1608 gallons.

Running one half time amount of water pumped by main pump her hour = 2055 gallons.

As we hold the water in check the leak per hour = 3663 gallons.

The depth of water in the ship to day is as follows:


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At step of foremast

21 ½ inches

19 ½ inches

19 inches

At auxiliary pump suction. Just forward of chain lockers

23 ½ inches

21 ½ inches

18 inches

At after bulkhead fore hold

24 inches

26 ½ inches

18 inches

At fire room bilge

10 inches

14 inches

20 inches


The day opened partly cloudy with rising barometer and falling temperature. Early daylight at 7.40am. Very rosy flush to S'd at noon very strongly marking sun's position.


Moon 24° 48' N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 227 ff):

A continuance of the same story: a leaky ship requiring all our endeavors to keep her free. The auxiliary steam-pump in the old galley-room is going all the time, and the steam-pump in the engine-room about one half the time. Nindemann and Sweetman (the only two men who can be trusted not to break tools in this cold weather) stand watch and watch day and night in the fore peak building the bulkhead. By midnight all but the last upright plank is in place, and stringers and braces are being fitted abaft of it to resist pressure when the water comes against it. Early in the morning we broke out a barrel of plaster of Paris, which had been provided for the naturalist's use, and we shoved that down between the frames, hoping it would mix with the water there and harden to a cement. We also rammed down another lot of ashes and picked felt.



50a27fda7438ae05bd0003e9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_023_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd0003eb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_023_1.jpg)


24 January 1880

Lat 72.28, Long -176.73

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at about 7pm meridian altitude Mars ✱ N. 72° 16' 57"

Longitude by chronometer from time sight of Moon W. 176° 43' 45"


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 2100 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 92 tons 1303 lbs


The auxiliary pump is kept going all the time and the engine room pump about one half the time, keeping the water in check and occasionally gaining a little on it. Finished the construction of the bulkhead by midnight, ready for caulking. The cinders and ashes, and plaster of Paris not seeming to get down sufficiently low to check up all spaces between frames it is decided to cut away the ceiling above and below the bilge strakes to give easier access to the spaces. Work progresses slowly because of our having but two men able to properly handle tools and fit materials.

Cut through the floe in two places to get soundings but at a depth of four feet came to another floe which has shoved under it. Water flowing up prevents cutting through this second floe.

Depth of water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At step of foremast

16 ½ inches

19 inches

19 inches

At auxiliary pump suction.

17 ¼ inches

18 inches

18 inches

At after bulkhead fore hold

27 ½ inches

26 inches

24 inches

At fire room bilge

18 inches

12 inches

12 inches


Light and variable airs and calms. Occasional light snow dust.


Moon 23° N.

First quarter


50a27fda7438ae05bd0003ed: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_024_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd0003ef: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_024_1.jpg)


25 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 2196 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 91 tons 1417 lbs


The pumps are kept going the same as yesterday. Caulked the forward bulkhead.

The depth of water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At step of foremast

16 ¾ inches

18 inches

18 inches

At auxiliary pump suction. Just forward of chain lockers

20 ¾ inches

18 inches

19 inches

At after bulkhead fore hold

23 ½ inches

22 inches

25 inches

At fire room bilge

16 inches

15 inches

10 inches


At 1.30 Commanding Officer read divine service in the cabin. The day opened clear and pleasant with a very fine snow dust and light N.E. airs. The weather continued clear and pleasant with light breeze from N.E. and S.E. Barometer rising until 11am falling thereafter until midnight. Falling temperature. For five hours about the middle of the day the atmosphere was remarkably clear. At 12 the sun's upper limb was visible from aloft, but much distorted by refraction.

At midnight there was a lunar halo 4° in diameter, and a dim auroral arch (the first in several days) 50° in alt in N.N.W. extending from N.N.E. to W.N.W. with pulsating horizontal streamers from E. to W.

Ship heeling 3° to starboard.


Moon 20° N.

Full moon


50a27fda7438ae05bd0003f1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_025_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd0003f3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_025_1.jpg)


26 January 1880

Lat 72.32, Long -176.81

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at about 6.50pm meridian altitude ✱ Mars N. 72° 18' 43"

Longitude by chronometer from time sight of Moon W. 176° 48' 45"


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1960 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 90 tons 1697 lbs


The auxiliary steam pump is kept going all the time, and the steam pump in the engine room about one half the time. Moved the Baxter engine and boiler to forward part of deck house and connected it with the gearing arranged to spar deck bilge pump. Tried the apparatus and found it to work well, pumping about the same amount of water as the auxiliary steam pump. The two carpenters engaged in removing ceiling in fore peak above and below bilge strake on each side, preparatory to filling up spaces between frames with plaster of Paris and ashes.

Depth of water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At step of foremast

17 inches

19 inches

14 inches

At auxiliary pump suction. Just forward of chain lockers

21 inches

18 inches

15 inches

At after bulkhead fore hold

23 inches

*07 inches

*2 inches

At fire room bilge

10 ½ inches

16 inches

18 inches


* Just before 4pm the water began to flow aft more easily, owing to the thawing or other clearing of the limbers under coal bunkers.


The day opened clear and pleasant and continued so, with light easterly breezes. Falling barometer and slightly falling temperature. At 1am a lunar halo was observed 4° in diameter at 2, this halo showed prismatic colors and had a lunar circle just outside of it. Also at 2 three broken and faint auroral arches highest in N.N.W. (altitude 30°, 40° & 50°) with ends curving to N'd. Early daylight at 6.40am. Sunrise at 11.20am. At 12 while the sun was on meridian to S., the moon was on the meridian to N.

Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms, muddy bottom. No drift indicated. We succeeded in cutting through the ice to get this sounding at some distance from the ship. 150 yards.

Land was sighted to the S.S.E. magnetic and recognized as the land heretofore seen and supposed by us to be the north side of Wrangel's Land.

Washed clothes in deck house. Ship heeling 3° to starboard.


Moon 16° 23' N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 230):

The beginning of this day finds us at our usual occupation: running pumps and trying to stop leaks. We continue to hold our own against the water, and that is about all. Of course our bulkhead across the fore peak presents no obstacle to the passage of water aft between the ceiling and planking, and the ashes and plaster of Paris have not got down to the bottom of the spaces between the frames. We therefore set to work to-day to rip out the ceiling above and below the bilge strake on each side. This was a hard operation, for the ceiling below the bilge strake is of teak, and had to be literally splintered out. The ceiling above was of lighter material and more easily removed. All day was required to do the work, and to stuff oakum down well alongside the keelson, and drive plugs wherever a jet of water showed itself. We had the satisfaction, however, of seeing some good results, for as we plugged up below the water came up and out above; and, therefore, if we can succeed in filling up the frame spaces there will be so much less room for water to flow through, and we may dam it up in the fore peak. Unfortunately all this takes time, and, while we are progressing slowly, our coal is burning rapidly at the rate of nearly a ton a day.


We moved the Baxter engine and boiler forward to-day, and connected it with the gearing made by Melville to the spar deck bilge-pump. It worked beautifully, doing as much work as the auxiliary pump.



50a27fda7438ae05bd0003f5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_026_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd0003f7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_026_1.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd0003f9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_027_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd0003fb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_027_1.jpg)


27 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1960 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 89 tons 1977 lbs


The day begins clear and pleasant, with light moonlight and starlight and a light air from E. x S. Between 1 and 2am it falls calm, and a light air from W. x N. succeeds. Thence throughout the remainder of the twenty four hours light breezes from between W. x N. and W.S.W. Barometer falling until 4pm slowly, and then as slowly rising until midnight. Irregular temperature. Weather generally overcast and cloudy after 8am.

At 2 and 3 am and at 2, 3, 5, 8, 9 and 11pm the ice was in motion near the ship to the S'd & W'd, communicating pressure to the floe by which the ship is surrounded and nipping the vessel at times severely. No change in the amount of leak is observed as a result of these nips, the strain seeming to be exerted on the quarters.

The work of stuffing oakum, plaster of Paris &c in the spaces between frames, and in spaces between frames and ceiling has been successful to the extent of materially diminishing the amount of water flowing into the ship. The limber holes having become materially thawed out, the incoming water flowed aft so freely to the Sewell pump in the engine room that at the beginning of this day the auxiliary pump forward ceased to take water and was stopped. By keeping the Sewell pump going all the time the ship was kept free to the extent of holding the water in check. Calculation of the work done by the pump gives 2250 gallons per hour, which may be taken as the amount of the leak to day as against 3663 gallons per hour on the 23rd inst.


8am

4pm

at midnight

Water in fire room bilge

18 inches

20 inches

16 inches


Work of filling up all spaces between frames &c is continued all day.

Early daylight at 6.20am. Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms, muddy bottom. Indicated drift to N.W. true.

Lunar halo 4° in diameter at 8pm, and 8° in diameter at 10pm. Very light snow at 5pm and midnight.

Ship heeling 3° to starboard.


Moon 11° 44' N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 232 ff):

The day begins clear and pleasant, with bright starlight and moonlight, and a light air from E. by S. At one a.m. it fell calm, and almost immediately after a light air came out from W. by N. No sooner had the shift occurred, although the wind was so light as not to turn the anemometer cups, than the ice began to move. I am convinced by this time that although the ice is subject to a tidal motion, it is also quite sensitive to wind. With easterly wind we and the ice drift together, as a general thing, without risk or confusion. But let a sudden shift to the westward occur and we bring up all standing, and are beaten back with a pressure that makes us in trouble again. If, therefore, there is open water in this part of the world at this season of the year, it is to the westward of us toward the New Siberian Islands. At two and three a.m., and two, three, five, eight, nine, and eleven p.m., the ice was in motion, grinding and groaning to the S.W. and close to us. The ship was nipped on these occasions, and cracked and snapped loudly, all the pressure seeming to come abaft the main-mast. At the last nipping I was down in the fore peak looking at the leak, and had no knowledge of the ice being in motion, no sound either of motion or pressure having reached me. Upon coming aft Mr. Newcomb met me with the information that the ice had squeezed us hard. The cabin door keeps a good record of the squeezing, for at times it takes two of us to open it, although a good bit of it has been planed away.

At the beginning of these twenty-four hours the limbers under the coal bunkers seemed to become entirely clear, for the water came aft as pure as sea-water, and with such freedom that the auxiliary pump speedily sucked. It was, therefore, stopped, and all the work was brought on the Sewell pump in the engine-room. To our great relief this, running at the rate of fifty strokes a minute, held the water in check, and as the ready flow of water aft kept the fore peak much drier, we are able to proceed with good effect in the plastering and ramming of oakum. Although we have had to work hard and wait patiently for results, the results have come at last and give us good heart to proceed. Melville, upon calculating the work done by this pump, showed that it was pumping out of the ship 2,250 gallons per hour, and holding the water in check. This may be taken, therefore, as the amount of the leak to-day, which, compared with the amount pumped out per hour on the 23d, 3,363 gallons, shows that we have diminished the leak over one third. We are still at work at the spaces, and cannot hope to get the work completed so as to try the Baxter combination bilge-pump before Friday or Saturday night.



50a27fda7438ae05bd0003fd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_028_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd0003ff: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_028_1.jpg)


28 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1770 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 89 tons 207 lbs


The pumping today is all done by the Sewell pump in the engine room running about 50 strokes per minute, at which rate the water is prevented from gaining on us.

The carpenters are engaged all day in filling up the spaces between frames &c and replacing ceiling over these spaces. Cut additional holes through ceiling above Berth deck to continue the filling in to and above the water line.


8am

4pm

at midnight

Water in fire room bilge

18 inches

17 ½ inches

16 inches


A slight ice movement in the S.W. near the ship at 6.15am and 6.40pm causing a moderate nip to the ship.

In cutting away the newly formed ice in the hole cut in the floe for soundings at a distance of 150 yards from the ship, measured 8 inches as the result of 24 hours freezing. The ice has formed 24 inches in thickness since January 19th over spaces of water opened during the ice movement at that date.

Sounded at noon in 29 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. A slight drift to south (true) indicated.

Early daylight at 6.40am. Sun not visible to day on account of cloudiness and haze.

Slight westerly; backing to southerly winds. Falling barometer and rising temperature.

Lunar halo 4° in diameter and showing prismatic colors visible between 2 and 6 am.


Moon 6° 30' N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 234 ff):

The success achieved by the filling in spaces holds good to-day, for all the pumping has been done by the Sewell-pump, running fifty strokes per minute, at which rate the water is prevented from gaining on us. Water in fire-room bilge, eighteen inches at eight a.m., seventeen and one half inches at four p.m., and sixteen inches at midnight. Nindemann and Sweetman worked all day from nine a.m. to eleven p.m. in filling up spaces, etc., and they are doing a marvelous amount of work. We cut holes through the ceiling to-day above the berth deck to get spaces filled in above the water line, if possible; and we are slowly but surely advancing to the time when we can try if the Baxter can keep us dry to the great saving of our coal pile.


The ice moved at 6.15 a.m., and 6.50 p.m., in the S.W. near the ship, and caused us to experience a moderate nip. Except from the snapping and cracking of our bolts and timbers, we are not disturbed. When soundings were taken to-day, new ice to the depth of eight inches had to be cut away, the result of twenty-four hours direct freezing. The floe, through which the hole was cut originally, had a thickness of twenty-four inches direct freezing since January 19th, for this was one of the water lanes opened in the smash up at that time.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000401: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_029_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000403: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_029_1.jpg)


29 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1346 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 88 tons 1101 lbs


All the work of pumping is done by the Sewell pump in the engine room which running at the rate of 40 strokes per minute holds the water in check.

Calculation of the work done by this pump at the above rate gives the extent of the leak at about 1800 gallons per hour, which compared with the calculations 27th inst shows a gain on our part of 450 gallons per hour.

The work of filling in spaces between frames &c is continued. The fire which had been maintained under the Baxter boiler in order to keep the deck house warm enough to prevent the freezing of the deck bilge pump forward, is removed to a stove for the purpose of economizing fuel.



8am

4pm

at midnight

Water in fire room bilge

16 inches

16 inches

15 inches


Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms. Muddy bottom. No indicated drift. Thickness of ice found since yesterday 10 inches. Thickness of floe at place of sounding 26 inches.

Day opens and continues clear and pleasant with moderate breezes between south and east with rising barometer and falling temperature. Diffused aurora at 5am. Early daylight at 6.30. Sun on horizon at 11. At 6pm dim auroral arch, irregular in forms from E. x S. to W. Diffused auroral light to N. At 7 three dim auroral arches, altitudes respectively 30° to S., through zenith, and 45° to N., and a low arch 3° in altitude above northern horizon.


Moon 0° 52' N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 235):

I am able to record a still further diminution of the leak. The work of filling in the spaces between frames, etc., has proceeded all day, and we now find that the Sewell pump, running forty strokes a minute, has been able to hold the water in check. The amount of water pumped out has been 1,800 gallons per hour; and comparing this with the 2,250 gallons per hour on the 27th, shows that two days' work by Nindemann and Sweetman has diminished our leak 450 gallons per hour. The work is still proceeding. In order still further to economize coal a stove was started in the deck-house to-day instead of continuing a fire in the Baxter. Heat is necessary to save the spar deck bilge-pump from freezing, but when we can save it by burning fifty pounds a day instead of one hundred pounds, we are bound to save the fifty.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000405: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_030_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000407: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_030_1.jpg)


30 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1070 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 88 tons 31 lbs


The work of pumping is continued by the Sewell pump in the engine room, while the carpenters are engaged in filling in the spaces between frames &c with plaster of Paris and ashes. As the work of filling in progresses the water rises between the frames forward of the bulkhead constructed in the fore peak eighteen inches forward of foremast, until at midnight it is dripping out under the berth deck at the shelf (or clamp). All water is allowed to run aft freely to engine room in order to facilitate the work of the carpenters.

Water in the ship to day


8am

4pm

at midnight

Fire room bilge

16 inches

20 inches

15 inches


Sewell pump running 40 strokes per minute.

Sounded at noon in 29 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. Slight drift indicated to N.W. (true). Early daylight at 6.30 am.

At 1am an auroral arch from W. to E. through zenith, with streamers from W.N.W. towards zenith; at 2am lunar halo 2° in diameter, and an auroral curtain 20° in alt to N. faint and broken. At 9am the horizon was very much raised by refraction. At 10 the sun was on the horizon rising. From 11am to 2pm the "north side of Wrangell Land" was seen much raised by refraction and inverted by mirage.

At 5pm a slight ice movement occurred 150 yards to S'd of ship, causing her to experience a moderate nip. At 5.40 a meteor in falling from S. towards S.W. showed a blue-colored light. At 7 faint auroral gleams in N. At 11 and midnight a lunar halo 6° in diameter showing prismatic colors; and at the last named hour a faint auroral arch from E. to W. 60° in altitude in N.

The day opens and continues clear and pleasant with light variable airs and calms. Fluctuating barometer and temperatures.


Moon 4° 51' S.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 235 ff):

Nindemann and Sweetman continue their slow and tedious job of stuffing plaster of Paris and ashes in the spaces between frames, etc. The water, being unable to get abaft the fillings readily, rises between the frames and the outside planking and trickles out under the berth deck at the shelf. Still we are gaining on the leak, and I hope that when we get the spaces filled up inside to a level with the water outside, and have choked up the limber holes in the cant frames (for I believe they exist), so that we have got a ready means of passage interrupted, we shall be able to keep water out of her to a reasonable extent by the use of the spar deck bilge-pump connected with the Baxter boiler.


Melville, with his never-failing readiness of resource, has commenced a piece of work by which he will run a bilge-pump belonging to the main engine by the steam-cutter's engine and boiler, so that if he can pump out the bulk of the water forward by the Baxter rig, he can take care of what comes aft with the steam-cutter's rig. We are, of course, husbanding our fuel to the utmost, and since stopping the auxiliary pump have greatly reduced our expenditure.

Upon cutting through the ice for soundings ten inches growth in one day had to be cut away. At five p.m. a slight ice movement occurred one hundred and fifty yards to southward of the ship, causing her to experience a moderate nip.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000409: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_031_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00040b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_031_1.jpg)


31 January 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1210 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 87 tons 1061 lbs


The day opens and continues clear and pleasant except a haze which hangs around the horizon. At 1am a lunar halo was observed 6° in diameter and showing prismatic colors, and an auroral arch 45° in altitude extending from N.E. to W. At 2 auroral gleams in N.W. Early daylight at 6.20am. At 11 the sun was about 3° above the horizon, much raised by refraction. At 6pm faint auroral bands shedding diffused light.

A long lead of open water south of ship.

Light breezes from W. and W.N.W. with rising barometer and slightly falling temperature. Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms. Dark green mud, a drift to N.W. (true) being indicated by lead line. The thickness of the floe through which soundings are taken remains at 26 inches, and the thickness of ice formed each 24 hours over the hole cut remains uniformly 10 inches.

The pumping is done to day by the Sewell pump in the engine room, keeping the water from gaining while the carpenters are engaged in filling in spaces between frames. The engineer's force are engaged in rigging the steam cutter's engine and boiler to a bilge pump attached to the main engine. Succeeded in getting the main delivery in the ship's side thawed out so as to discharge water through it instead of forcing it out through hose attached to fire coupling on spar deck.

Water in the ship to day


8am

4pm

at midnight

At fire room bilge

15 ½ inches

16 inches

17 inches


Provisions condemned during the month

3 lbs roast mutton – tainted

45 lbs flour – injured by salt water leak.

62 lbs oatmeal – injured by salt water leak.


Moon 10° 25' S.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 237):

We succeeded to-day in thawing the delivery-pipe in the ship's side, so as to discharge the water through it instead of pumping it through the fire connection on deck, and that saves us from a steady fear of the hose freezing up.




LOGS FOR FEBRUARY 1880


50a27fda7438ae05bd00040d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_032_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00040f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_032_1.jpg)


1 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1076 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 86 tons 2225 lbs


The Sewell pump is kept going all day, and with 40 Strokes a minute holds the water in check. The two carpenters are engaged filling up spaces between frames &c while the engineer's force is engaged in fitting connections of steam cutters engine and boiler to the bilge pump of the main engine.

Amount of water in the ship to day


8am

4pm

at midnight

Fire room bilge

16 inches

16 inches

16 inches


Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms, muddy bottom. Slight drift to N.W. true indicated by lead line. At 1pm read the articles for the government of the Navy and mustered the crew, after which Commanding Officer inspected the ship. At 1.30 divine service was performed in the cabin by the Commanding Officer.

At 11am a white arctic fox was killed alongside the ship by Alexei (native) and a polar bear which came to the ship was shot near it by Lieut. Chipp.

At 2am a lunar halo 8° in diameter was observed; at 4 a broken auroral arch in the N.W. 30° in alt, extending from N. to W. Early daylight at 6.15. Moon on horizon S. setting at 7. At noon horizon raised 2° by refraction. Thickness of ice formed over sounding hole since yesterday 10 inches. Thickness of floe surrounding it 26 inches. At 9pm a meteor was observed falling from N.E. to E. At 10 there was a movement of the ice from the S. toward the North. At the same time an auroral arch appeared in the N. x E. 20° in altitude bright in N.E. and faint arch 25° in altitude in N. From 11 and until day closes auroral patches resembling stratus clouds illuminated by moon, was observed to the N'd, with a single streak shooting up from N.E. toward zenith. At midnight the ship received several severe nips, but it was without any visible movement to the floe surrounding her or adjoining ice.

Ship heeling 3° to starboard.


Moon 15° 33' S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 237 ff):

We ended the month of January with the steam-pump going, and we commenced the new month of February in like manner. The steam-pump is kept going all day, and although it is the only one working manages to hold the water in check, going forty strokes a minute, equivalent to pumping out of the ship 2,250 gallons an hour.

At midnight, ending this day, Nindemann and Sweetman had managed to clear the limbers completely on one side of the ship chock aft to the fire-room, and in consequence the water flows aft as freely as it enters.

At ten the ice commenced to grind and move, the general direction of the movement being from S. to N. At midnight the sky became suddenly completely overcast, and while I was concluding that this sudden darkness was due to ice openings presenting warmer water to cold air, my conclusions were verified by the ship receiving some severe nips. A careful examination of the surrounding ice showed no sign of disturbance, nor was there a sound of movement anywhere. But I am satisfied that there was an ice opening somewhere near the ship.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000411: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_033_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000413: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_033_1.jpg)


2 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1150 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 86 tons 1075 lbs


The Sewell pump is kept going all day, running at the rate of 40 strokes a minute, keeping the water in check while carpenters progress with the work of filling in between frames &c. Engineer's force engaged in preparing gearing for steam cutters engine and boiler in connection with main engine bilge pump. Upon trying the steam cutters engine to day with the bilge pump, getting steam from the main boiler it was found that the engine ran too fast to make the pump do its work. Arrangements were begun to diminish by gearing the number of strokes of the pump.

Water in the ship to day


8am

4pm

at midnight

Fire room bilge

16 inches

16 inches

16 inches


The day opens very thick to the S'd with light N.N.W. winds, and continues generally overcast and hazy with variable northerly winds, falling barometer and rising temperature. At 1am auroral patches were visible in northern sky; at 3am auroral gleams in N.E. and at 5am auroral patches in N. and N.E. Early daylight at 6.30. A very light snow fell from 3pm to midnight. At 2am a large bear approached the ship, and after attempting to come on board was shot and killed by Mr. Dunbar.

Sounded at noon in 29 ½ fathoms, muddy bottom; the lead line showing a slight westerly drift. The ice formed 4 inches thick over sounding hole since yesterday, the thickness of the floe around it being 27 inches.

At 1pm the ice commenced to move subjecting the ship to considerable pressure, but not altering her heel, 3° to starboard. More or less motion and pressure until 8pm.

The usual monthly examination of the officers and men was commenced by the surgeon.


Moon 19° 54' S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 239 ff):

We find considerable breaks in the ice near the ship this morning, accounting for the sudden cloudiness and haze at midnight last night.


Melville keeps on making the combination of the steam-cutter's engine and boiler to the bilge-pump of the main engine. He tried the combination to-day, using steam from the main boiler, and found that the engine had to run so fast to develop the necessary power to work the pump without the engine catching on the centre that the pump was driven too fast to lift any water. Hence he has to make a gearing to regulate the work of the pump, and, energetic as he is, to see an improvement is to commence to make it.


At one p.m. the ice began to move, and from that time until eight p.m. we were getting nips and pressures at a few moments' interval. We are so accustomed to these alarms now that we take them quietly, thankful when they end, and knowing we are helpless pending their duration.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000415: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_034_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000417: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_034_1.jpg)


3 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1290 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 85 tons 2025 lbs


The Sewell pump is kept running all day at the rate of 40 strokes a minute, which holds the water in check while the carpenters are carrying the fillings up above the berth deck and settling well down in place the fillings already put in. The engineer's force is at work making necessary connections and forgings for using the steam cutters engine and boiler in connection with the bilge pump belonging to main engine.

Amount of water in the ship to day


8am

4pm

at midnight

Fire room bilge

16 inches

16 inches

15 inches


The day commences overcast and cloudy with light westerly airs. By 4am the sky had cleared considerably, remaining so far remainder of these 24 hours. Rising barometer and rapidly falling temperature although the prevailing wind as light from the S.W.

At 5am and 6am bright auroral arches extended from E. to W. with streamers from north horizon to zenith. Early daylight at 6.10am. At 11am a parhelic circle 22° in radius was observed about the sun.

Sounded at noon in 29 ½ fathoms, muddy bottom, and a slight easterly drift was indicated by lead line.

At 1 and 2pm the ice was in motion to the W'd. At 6 an auroral arch was visible to N'd 5° in altitude with faint streamers. At 7 this same arch had risen in alt to 10°. A meteor fell in the West at 8pm. A diffused auroral arch was in the North at 9 and 10.

The surgeon continued and completed the usual monthly examinations.


Moon 23° S.

Last quarter


50a27fda7438ae05bd000419: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_035_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00041b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_035_1.jpg)


4 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1110 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 85 tons 915 lbs


The Sewell pump in the engine room is kept running all day at the rate of 35 strokes per minute. Comparing the work performed by the pump yesterday with the work done by the pump to day it would appear that we had reduced the amount of water coming into the ship to 1968 gallons per hour. The work of filling in between frames forward of the bulkhead constructed across the fore peak is about completed, nothing remaining but to place fresh fillings in places vacated by the settling of the old ones. The carpenters are now engaged in this work and in making pulleys for the gearing of the main engine bilge pump to the steam cutters engine.

Amount of water in the ship to day


8am

4pm

at midnight

Fire room bilge

16 inches

16 inches

16 inches


The day opened calm and overcast until 11pm there was but little sky visible, a fog bank rising in E. x S. at 9am and light flurries of snow falling from 11am to 7pm. Light and variable winds prevailed. Slowly falling barometer, and slightly rising temperature.

Sounded at noon in 29 fathoms, muddy bottom. No indicated drift. Amount of ice formed over sounding hole in 24 hours = 4 inches. Thickness of ice by direct freezing since November 28th = 5 feet 4 inches.

At 2am auroral gleams were observed to N'd between N.E. and W.; at 4 am an auroral arch 20° in alt in N.W. its ends being 5° above the horizon.

Early daylight at 6.40am. At 2 and 3pm there was a sound of moving ice to N.E.; at 9 the same to S.W. and at 10 the sound in N.E. again. At 10 also then were faint auroral gleams in N., and at 11 in the west. At midnight an auroral arch 35° in altitude in the N.

Crew employed in storing provisions which had been sent up from wet hold and storeroom to the best advantage on the spar deck and in the deck house.


Moon 25° S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 240):

The Sewell pump is kept going all day as usual, but we find that by running it thirty-five strokes a minute we hold the water in check; that is, keep it at a uniform depth of sixteen inches in the fire-room. We have reduced the amount of leak 282 gallons an hour within the last few days, and 1,695 gallons an hour since the first occurrence. Were it not for the expenditure of fuel we should be doing first rate; but when we burn 1,200 pounds of coal a day, and have only eighty-five tons left to-day, it is not only a matter of simple calculation to find out how long it will last, but it seems to make our staying out another winter a matter of considerable doubt. We are driving ahead, trying to hurry up the steam-cutter arrangement, hoping, while the Baxter pumps forward, the cutter-engine will pump out aft, and let us do away with fires under the main boiler. This will reduce our coal expenditure fifty per cent. Nindemann and Sweetman have about finished the filling in business, watching their work now to ram in more ashes as fast as old fillings settle.



50a27fda7438ae05bd00041d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_036_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00041f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_036_1.jpg)


5 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1120 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 84 tons 2035 lbs


The Sewell pump is kept going all day in the engine room holding the water in check with 35 strokes per minute. Carpenters engaged in supplying fresh fillings as fast as old ones settle. Engineer's force engaged in fitting gearing for running main engine bilge pump by steam cutter's boiler and engine.

Water in the ship to day


8am

4pm

at midnight

Fire room bilge

16 inches

16 inches

16 inches


In order to account for this steady amount of water it may be explained that as the ship is heeled 3° to starboard, and the Sewell pump suction is on the port side of the Kelson, the water has to be allowed to rise to that height on the starboard side before enough will flow over the Kelson and through the thwartship limber holes to be taken up by the pump.

The day opens and continues clear and pleasant with light westerly winds backing to the S.S.W., a rising barometer and generally rising temperature. Sounded at noon in 29 fathoms, muddy bottom. No drift indicated. Ice formed over sounding hole 8 inches in preceding 24 hours.

The "north side of Wrangell Land" was sighted again, between 9am and 3pm. The following bearings were taken at noon: most eastern extremity visible S. 13° W. true; most western extremity visible S. 21° W. (true); ship heading S. 49° W. (true).

At 1am a broken auroral curtain arch 25° in alt in N. extended from N.E. to N.W; at 2 an auroral arch 30° in alt from W.N.W. to N.E. with fan-like streamers downward from western end; at 3 auroral shimmers in N.E; at 4 the same between N.W. and N.E. At 5 a faint auroral arch 35° in altitude extending from N.E. to W.N.W. Early dawn at 6. At 11 the ice was in motion to the S.S.E.

From 6pm to 9pm a very faint auroral arch 5° in alt in N. At 10 an auroral arch sprung from N.E. toward N. 15° in altitude with upward radiations; at 11 brilliant auroral arch 60° in altitude from N.E. to W.N.W. with bright streaming ends curving to N'd; and at midnight dim auroral streamers and diffused light between N.E. and W.N.W. from horizon to zenith.


Moon 25° 11' S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 242):

At eleven the ice was in motion to the S.E.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000421: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_037_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000423: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_037_1.jpg)


6 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1290 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 84 tons 745 lbs


The Sewell pump in the engine room is kept running all day at the rate of 35 strokes per minute holding the water in check.

The rig for connecting the steam cutters engine to the bilge pump of the main engines being completed, steam was led to it from the main boiler to tug it. The trial was not satisfactory. The following seemed to be the difficulty: the pump is a 6 inch force pump forcing water through a 1 ½ inch pipe which in its course to the outside of the ship is long and sinuous. The steam cutters engine is a 4 ½" x 6" engine, and rigged to work the pump by two pulleys 6 inches and 18 inches diameter respectively, the 6 inch pulley on the engine, the 18 inch pulley on the shafting which by crank motion and bolting works the pump. The speeds are as 3 to 1. After laboring 4 hours to overcome the difficulty, the discharge pipe in the ships side was found to be frozen solid. While thawing it preparatory to another effort these 24 hours close. The pump action is so labored that the steam cutters engine does not seem able to do the work.

Water in the ship to day


8am

4pm

at midnight

Fire room bilge

16 inches

16 inches

16 inches


The day opens and continues clear and pleasant with light breeze from S'd & E'd, falling barometer and rising temperature. Sounded at noon in 29 fathoms. Muddy bottom. Slight drift to N'd. 8 inches of ice formed over sounding hole since yesterday noon. Upon attempting to measure the thickness of the same floe mentioned on the 4th as 5 feet 4 inches thick, it was found that another floe had shoved under it. Early daylight at 6am. The "north side of Wrangell Land" visible from 9 to 11am on a general S. x W. (true) bearing.

At 1am faint diffused auroral light to N'd with streamers from N.E. toward zenith; at 2 auroral curtains between W.N.W. and W.S.W. 15° above horizon, which at 3 were growing fainter; at 4 and 5 an auroral arch 30° in alt to south from N.E. to S.W. and at 6 diffused auroral light.

At 6pm faint auroral arch in N. 15° in alt continuing at 7, 8 and 9. At 10 auroral arch 20° in altitude from E.N.E. to W.N.W. forked at east end. At midnight brilliant patches of aurora scattered over sky from 10° above horizon to zenith, with streamers shooting up from N.E. curving nearly to S.W. horizon.


Moon 23° 42' S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 243 ff):

The rig whereby the steam-cutter's engine it is hoped will work the bilge-pump attached to main engine being finished, trial is had of it to-day, getting steam from the main boiler. I am sorry to say the trial is unsatisfactory. The engine is not powerful enough to do the work which the pump is prepared for. A description of the apparatus may well come in here. On the shaft of the steam-cutter's engine is secured a wooden pulley six inches in diameter. Above it is secured a frame and shaft to the hanging coal bunker, and on the shaft is placed another wooden pulley eighteen inches in diameter. Around the two pulleys is an endless belt. On the end of the upper shaft is a crank, which, by a connecting rod, works a break attached to the bilge-pump. Theoretically it ought to work, but practically it does not, for this reason: The discharge pipe of the pump is long, and has many angles before it reaches the ship's side. The pump being a force-pump of six inches stroke, and the engine being four and a half by six inches, were the delivery at the pump, it would be an easy matter; but as the delivery has to be made through a sinuous pipe one and a half inches in diameter, the water chokes in the pipe in such a way as to make the little engine struggle and labor, and occasionally come to a stand. Greater steam pressure would force the water no doubt, but the little engine would not stand the racket. While Melville was trying in every way to solve the difficulty, it was discovered that the delivery in the ship's side was frozen, and while we were thawing it out the day ended. Should no better result occur, Melville will go to work to make the pump smaller by inserting two small plungers and filling it with Babbitt's metal.

Eight inches of ice formed over sounding hole since yesterday. Upon attempting to measure the present thickness of the floe, which, on the 4th, was five feet four inches thick, it was found that another floe had shoved in under it. I am inclined to think that has been the case all around us, and that perhaps our controlling the leak has been due to the underlying floes of ice uniting by freezing and lowering the water head in the vicinity of the leak. If that be the case, we shall have our hands full again at a breaking up.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000425: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_038_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000427: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_038_1.jpg)


7 February 1880

Lat 72.20, Long -177.73

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation meridian altitude of Aldebaran N. 72° 11' 45"

Longitude by chronometer from observation ✱ α Cygni W. 177° 44'


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1120 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 83 tons 1865 lbs


The Sewell pump in the engine room is kept going all day at the rate of 35 strokes a minute holding the water in check.

Having at the beginning of the day succeeded in thawing the ice out of the delivery pipe in the ships side, another trial is given to the rig whereby the main engine bilge pump is sought to be worked by the steam cutters engine. The size of the crank had been reduced meanwhile in order to lessen the stroke of the engine. It was found that the pump was too large for the engine, and the use of the steam cutters engine was therefore discontinued until an attempt could be made to boush the pump with "Babbitt metal" and invert a smaller plunger, converting a single acting piston pump of 6 inches diameter into a single acting plunger pump of 3 inches diameter.

Water in the ship to day


8am

4pm

at midnight

Fire room bilge

16 inches

16 inches

13 inches


The day opened and continued clear and pleasant with light south-easterly winds veering to north-easterly winds as day advanced. Rising barometer and falling temperature. Sounded at noon in 29 ½ fathoms. Dark green mud, with no indicated drift. Ice formed 6 inches in thickness over sounding hole since yesterday.

At 1am auroral gleams from N.E. to W.N.W., the same continuing at 2 with faint streamers from N.E. and north. At 3 auroral gleam in N.E. with single short and brilliant streamer in west. At 4am a faint auroral arch in N. 15° in altitude. Early daylight at 5.50. At 9 the sun was raised a full diameter above the horizon by refraction. Very much mirage prevailed until after noon. Very variable winds between 11am and 1pm at times shifting 16 points at once. Mirage seemed to be affected by changes of wind.

"North side of Wrangell Land" in sight on a general S. x W. (true) bearing. At 2pm the land was much raised by refraction, and an inverted image presented of it by mirage.

At 7 and 8pm faint auroral arch 15° in alt in N.; at 9 an arch 20° in alt in N.; at 10 a faint auroral arch with streamers 40° in alt in N., continuing at 11; and at midnight a very brilliant and beautiful auroral arch 40° in altitude in N. with a band 2° in width stretching across it (like a chord to an arc) at an altitude of 20°.


Moon 20° 42' S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 244):

I remarked in yesterday's journal that we discovered the pipe of the main engine bilge-pump frozen solid, and that while we were thawing it the day closed. At the same time the crank was shortened so as to diminish the stroke of the steam-cutter's engine. Everything being in readiness we gave the rig another trial, but it would not work satisfactorily. True, it did pump water, but with such jerky and labored efforts on the part of the engine that we could readily see it was being overtaxed. The pump was too large for the engine. The rig was therefore discontinued, while Melville put his people at work to boush the pump with Babbitt's metal, and insert a smaller plunger, converting a single-acting piston-pump of six inches diameter into a single-acting plunger-pump of three inches diameter. This will take a couple of days, and in the meantime steam must be kept on the main boiler. At the end of the day I am thinking of trying the Baxter pump alone.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000429: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_039_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00042b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_039_1.jpg)


8 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1365 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 83 tons 500 lbs


The Sewell pump is kept going until 3pm all the time at the rate of 35 strokes per minute; after 3pm it is run about 15 minutes each hour.

An attempt was made to day to do all the pumping by the forward spar deck bilge pump in connection with the Baxter boiler, steam being got on that boiler by 3pm. It was found that by some defect in one of the gates in the water tight bulkhead, enough water flowed aft to necessitate the running of the Sewell pump as above stated. Commenced breaking out provisions and other stores to get down to gate of water tight bulkhead. Fire was kept under the Baxter boiler to heat the deck house sufficiently to keep the pumps from freezing, between spells of working; and the pump forward and the pump aft were used as occasion required, the gates in water tight bulkhead being kept closed.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At foremast bilge (step)

1 inch

1 inch

1 inch

At after port fore hold (at gates)

7 ½ inches

4 inches

15 inches

At fire room bilge

16 inches

12 inches

15 inches


Engineer's force continued altering main engine bilge pump to a plunger pump.

Sounded at noon in 29 fathoms, muddy bottom, no indicated drift. 8 inches of ice formed over sounding hole since noon yesterday.

At 1pm Commanding Officer inspected the ship, after which divine service was read in the cabin.

At 1am auroral curtain 15° in altitude extending from N.E. to W.N.W.; at 2 a faint auroral arch 25° in altitude in N; at 4 a faint arch 80° in alt from N.E. to west; at 5 faint diffused aurora. Early daylight at 5.40. At 6 brilliant auroral arch through zenith from E. to W. At 6pm twilight arch 5°. Auroral arches in N. 20° and 30° in alt respectively, the upper one with streamers in N.W. Faint arches 20° in N. at 7, 8 and 9 with diffused light. At 10 a double arch 20° & 30° in N. extending from E.N.E. to N.W.

The day began and continued clear and pleasant with considerable haze around horizon.


Moon 16° 28' S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 246 ff):

The day began and continues clear and pleasant, but with considerable haze around the horizon. Winds beginning at N.W. back to W. Barometer begins 29.93 and rises to 30.04; the temperature begins minus 42°, and by nine a.m. reaches minus 49.5°, when mercurial thermometers decline to work longer and the mercury freezes solid; spirit thermometer No. 4,402, at that time reads minus 47° and goes down 2° more before end of day. As the spirit thermometers are not reliable it is safe to assert that it has been to-day below minus 50°.



50a27fda7438ae05bd00042d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_040_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00042f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_040_1.jpg)


9 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1206 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 82 tons 1534 lbs


The Sewell pump in the engine room is kept running about 15 minutes every hour to pump out such amounts of water as flow aft through leaky gate of water tight bulkhead forward. Fire is kept under Baxter boiler to heat deck house and as the water accumulates forward of the water tight bulkhead to pump it out by the forward spar deck bilge pump. Engineer's force continue converting 6 inch piston pump into 3 inch plunger pump and necessary work for fitting steam cutter's boiler to run the steam cutters engine in connection with said pump.

Having broken out the provisions and other stores it was found that an accumulation of dirt and rust prevented the long rod (working from spar deck to close the gate) from working properly on the screw spindle connected with the starboard gate. Having cleared it, the gate was closed as far as possible, but enough water forced its way through to necessitate the working of the Sewell pump as above stated. The port gate seemed perfectly tight. To reach the difficulty at the starboard gate it will be necessary to cut away the flooring in the small store room between fore hold and coal bunkers, which work will be immediately commenced. The gate is either sprung out of place or broken.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At forward side water tight bulkhead

14 inches

8 inches

13 inches

At fire room bilge

16 inches

15 inches

15 inches


Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms, muddy bottom. No drift indicated by lead line. At 2.45pm the north side of Wrangel Land being in sight the following bearings were taken; most eastern visible extremity S. 6° E. (true); most western visible extremity S. 32° 30' W. (true): the table top mountain usually seen bore S. 20° 50' W. There was also an appearance of land between S.W. and W. x S. (true). Ice froze over sounding hole 7 inches in preceding 24 hours.

The day commenced and continued clear and pleasant with considerable haze around horizon. Light variable airs and calms. Falling barometer and nearly uniform low temperature.

At 1am faint auroral arch from W. to N.E. 25° in altitude ends 10° above horizon; at 2 the same was very faint; at 3 faint auroral arch from N.E. to W. through zenith; at 4 & 5 auroral gleams N.E. and W. Early daylight at 5.35. At 9 the sun showed on the horizon. At 8pm faint auroral arch in N. 15° in altitude and one in S. 20° in alt with diffused light between; at 9 diffused auroral light chiefly in N.W.; at 10 the same all over sky.

Faint sound from ice in motion from N.E. to N. and at 11 and midnight faint arch 30° in altitude from N.E. to W.N.W.


Moon 11° 24' S.

New moon


50a27fda7438ae05bd000431: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_041_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000433: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_041_1.jpg)


10 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1345 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 82 tons 189 lbs


Upon getting down to the gate in the water tight bulkhead they are found quite closed, and no leak is apparent through them. There must therefore be some leak through between the frame and the outside planking which of course we cannot get at and therefore cannot remedy. By running the Sewell pump in the engine room sometimes five minutes every hour and sometimes ten minutes every hour the water is held in check in the fire room bilge. The Baxter boiler is kept with steam, running the forward spar deck bilge pump on starboard side as fast as the water accumulates forward of the water tight bulkhead. This pump is kept running almost steadily.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At step of fore mast

1 inch

1 inch

1 inch

At auxiliary pump suction (after port flour room)


13 inches

12 inches

At after part fore hold (water tight bulkhead)


18 inches

17 inches

At fire room bilge

15 inches

8 ¼ inches

7 inches


Engineer's force engaged in fitting attachments to for running bilge pump of main engine by means of steam cutters engine and boiler.

Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms. Muddy bottom. No indicated drift.

The day opened and continued clear and pleasant with light variable airs and calms. Barometer falling, temperature slightly increasing. "North side of Wrangell Land" visible on same bearings as recorded yesterday. Early daylight at 5.23am. Sun on rising was on the horizon at 9am, and his upper limb was disappearing below the horizon at 3pm.

At 1am a broken auroral arch 20° in altitude to N. extending from N.E. to W.N.W.; at 2am a brilliant irregular arch 20° in alt to N'd and extending from W. to N.E. had masses of light passing across it from W. to N.E. The eastern end of the arch terminated in a spiral; at 3 radiating gleams of aurora from N.E. and W. with patches of same in N. and at 4 then was an auroral segment in N.W.

At 8pm a meteor with a tail swept across the sky toward the N. At 9 diffused auroral light extending around the horizon 5° above it and reaching to the zenith.

Sounds of ice moving to the N.E.


Moon 5° 52' S.

New moon


50a27fda7438ae05bd000435: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_042_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000437: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_042_1.jpg)


11 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1045 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 81 tons 1384 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is kept working all day by means of the Baxter engine, the gates in the water tight bulkhead being kept closed, and the water allowed to accumulate forward of them. The bilge pump holds its own well. By actual observation one half inch of water per hour found its way aft into the engine room, and such quantity of it as was not required to feed the main boiler was pumped overboard by the Sewell pump, while the work of fitting the steam cutter's boiler and engine to the main engine bilge pump is carried nearer to completion. The working of the cutters engine and its connections with the pump was tried by using steam from the main boiler, and the result was satisfactory. The only work on the rig now on hand is fitting the steam cutter's boiler to supply the steam instead of the main boiler.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At foremast step

1 inch

1 inch

1 inch

At water tight bulkhead

11 inches

14 inches

15 inches


Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms, muddy bottom. No drift indicated. Ice formed over sounding hole 7 inches since noon yesterday. "The north side of Wrangell Land" in sight, the bearings of the extreme visible ends being S. 9° E. and S. 41° W., both true. True direction of ship head S. 45° W.

Weather clear and pleasant with light S.W. winds, falling barometer and slowly rising temperature. At 5pm the ice was in motion to S.W. x W. and at 6pm to N.W. New moon visible on southern horizon at 4pm.

At 1am an auroral gleam in N.E.; at 2 a faint arch 15° in alt extending from N.W. to N.E.; at 4 auroral streamers in N.N.E., and at 5 one in W.N.W.; at 6 a faint auroral arch 37° in alt extending from N. to W. At 9pm an auroral arch 20° N. from N.E. to N.W.; at 10 two arches, each 30° in alt, one north and the other south of zenith. At 11 three fan-like streamers diverging in W.N.W. and converging in N.E. with altitudes respectively of 45°, 60° and 75°. At midnight the auroral display was magnificent. The three fan-like streamers mentioned at 11 continued at the same altitudes (40°, 60° and 75° in N.) but at the N.E. ending the three streamers united to form a thick spiral band of light twirling around on its point. Masses of green light passed over the middle streamer (or arch), and, regularly following the spiral disappeared at the horizon. Suddenly the eastern spiral-like ending expanded into a spiral-like curtain, and all three arches rose and advanced until the central one reached the zenith. Now a pause of two minutes duration occurred, both ends becoming spiral curtains and bearing E.S.E. and W.N.W. respectively. Pulsations of green light ~ pulsations of red light through all three arches, and finally the central arch assumed the colors and regularity of a rainbow, while red and green prevailed successively in the northern and southern arches, making them wiggle like serpents. The ship and floe were lighted up as if by a full moon. At the end of the two minutes the arches swung on the zenith as on a pivot until they faced W.S.W. and then they moved downward toward that horizon in the same manner and with the same succession changes as in moving upward, until reaching 45°, 60° and 75° in altitude respectively, they died away.


Moon 0° 11' S.

New moon


50a27fda7438ae05bd000439: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_043_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00043b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_043_1.jpg)


12 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1166 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 81 tons 218 lbs


Although unable to find any leak through the water tight bulkhead, the carpenters have been employed in touching up the doubtful places in it. The Baxter boiler requiring blowing early this AM, the working of the forward spar deck bilge pump was stopped for about an hour. During this time the water rose to a height of 30 inches forward of the water tight bulkhead, and the sound of water flowing freely aft between planking and frames could be heard. As a consequence the water rose to a greater height in the fire room bilge. Upon resuming work with the Baxter rig the height of the water forward of water tight bulkhead was speedily reduced to 22 inches, when the rapid flow of water aft ceased, only the usual half inch per hour finding its way into the engine room.

The steam cutter's boiler being in readiness steam was got in it to work the steam cutters engine in connection with the converted bilge pump of the main engine. The combination worked well, pumping out the engine room dry. It was found however that the cutters boiler was too small to supply steam constantly, the steam running down too low while blowing the boiler or cleaning the fire to keep the pump going steadily. In order to get the greatest effective power of this rig before hauling the fire under the main boiler, the engineer's force commences removing the bridge wall in the furnace of cutters boiler, and making a new bridge wall, putting in a 16 inch grate bar instead of a 9 inch grate bar and thus increase the grate surface from 144 square inches to 256 square inches.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

12 inches

17 inches

12 inches

At fire room bilge

8 inches

7 inches

6 inches


Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms. Muddy bottom, a slight northerly drift indicated by the lead line. Water froze over sounding hole to a depth of 7 inches since yesterday noon. The day opened pleasant and generally clear, the usual haze being about the horizon. During the day wind prevail from S'd & W'd increasing in velocity. Rising barometer and slightly increasing temperature. A bear came near the ship at 7pm, but was frightened away by the dogs before anyone could get a shot at him.

At 1am faint arches from W. to N.E. 15° and 40° in altitude respectively; at 2 auroral gleams from W.N.W. to N.E. Early daylight at 5.15. At 9 clouds hang over and hid the "north side of Wrangell's Land" the horizon being clear to W., N. and E. only. Sun dogs at 10am & 1pm. Vapor rising from ice in S. & W. at 3, 4, and 5pm. At 6 faint auroral gleams in N.; at 7 auroral arch 20° in altitude in N.; at 9, 10 and 11 faint auroral arches in N. 20° in altitude; and at midnight an auroral curtain extending from N.E. to N.W.


Moon 5° N.

New moon


50a27fda7438ae05bd00043d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_044_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00043f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_044_1.jpg)


13 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 1160 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 80 tons 1298 lbs


Completed the work of removing the bridge wall of steam cutters furnace and placing 16 inch grate bars instead of 9 inch grate bars. Got steam on cutters boiler again and found upon lengthened trial that the alteration before mentioned made it possible to work continuously the rig to main engine bilge pump, and thus keep the bilge nearly dry. Hauled the fires under the main boiler, run all the water from it, and drained out all engine and boiler pipes to prevent their freezing, and pumped the bilge dry with steam cutter rig.

The forward spar deck bilge pump is kept running all day by the Baxter engine, holding its own well, with the water accumulating forward of water tight bulkhead. Enough water finds its way aft through some undiscovered leak between frames and planking to keep the steam cutters rig going. Crew engaged in trimming coal in after bunkers in order to make storage of some of the provisions which are now encumbering the spar deck. Carpenters continue to place filling material between frames forward of the bulkhead constructed across fore peak, as there is a slight oozing of water upward and along the berth deck keeping that place constantly damp.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

10 inches

8 inches

13 ½ inches

At fire room bilge

13 inches

10 inches

3 ½ inches


The day begins squally from S.W. x W. and continues so the wind veering and hauling between S.W. and W.S.W. Weather very unpleasant until after 4pm. Air full of drifting snow blown from the surface of the floe by the gusts. Early daylight at 5.05am. After 4pm clear weather and light steady breezes from S.W. x S.

Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms, muddy bottom; slight drift to N.E. indicated by lead line. Seven inches ice formed over sounding hole since yesterday noon.

At 1am faint auroral curtain 10° in altitude in N. At 4am faint auroral arch 25° in altitude to N. extending from N.E. to W.N.W. At 8pm meteor to S.W., and at 9 one to N. At 11 a faint auroral arch 45° in altitude in N. extending from N.E. to W.N.W.; the same at midnight but broken in form.


Moon 10° 30' N.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 251 ff):

Referring to my remarks on December 14th, in relation to Weyprecht saying, "Beginning at a certain thickness the ice is almost free from salt," it may be as well to state here the result of our examination of the ice in which we are drifting. A piece of floe ice, formed from direct freezing, and three feet nine inches thick, was selected for examination. The following are Dr. Ambler's figures for the result of his test (Parke's test). (See Appendix E.)


Number of grains of salt per gallon of seawater equal

2045

Number of grains of salt in cube out from upper five inches of our block

548.06

Number of grains of salt in cube, cut from lower five inches of our block

347.25

Number of grains of salt permissible in potable water

10


From which it will be seen that the "certain" thickness has not been attainable by us, for we cannot find a single piece of floe from which we can get potable water, and since it seems never to snow up here we have to distill every drop of water we drink. If, as Weyprecht says, the salt is all crystallized out during the winter and washed off during the summer, the upper layers of old ice remaining ought to be fresh ; but in our experience they were as salt in September last as the new floes are salt now. We may be having phenomenal ice, but I hardly think so.

Since the occurrence of the leak, and the use of the Baxter boiler to run a bilge-pump, our distilled water has been made by the main boiler. As this was shallow some salt was carried over from it to the distiller, and the resulting water showed 13.49 grains of salt per gallon. This, of course, was too much, but we have been in an emergency where purer water was not possible. Now that we have hauled the fires under the main boiler, the distilling has to be done by the steam-cutter's boiler when it is not pumping the bilge out. As this boiler is fed from the bilge, the drinking water is made from the water leaking into the ship. Until we began to drink it we were under the impression that it, the boiler feed, must be pure salt water, for so much water has flowed into the ship and been pumped out that our bilges are as clean as a whistle. But upon tasting and testing it we find it has an unpleasant taste and odor. With sea cocks frozen solid in their seats, getting a supply from the sea was no easy matter; and a thawed valve soon froze hard again with an outside temperature of minus 35° to minus 40°. However, Melville managed to get a Kingston valve open, so that we can feed our little boiler from pure salt water and not bilge water, and now I do not anticipate any difficulty. One of my ideas that fresh water, that is, fresh enough water, could always be obtained in the Arctic regions, has been thoroughly exploded.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000441: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_045_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000443: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_045_1.jpg)


14 February 1880

Lat 72.22, Long -176.35

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at 6pm meridian altitude of Mars N. 72° 13' 28"

Longitude by chronometer from at 6pm observation ✱ Pollux W. 176° 20' 45"


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 450 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 80 tons 848 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is kept running all day, and the steam cutter rig in engine room is used in connection with the main engine bilge pump about one sixth of the time, the remainder being devoted to distilling water for drinking and cooking purposes.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

12 inches

9 inches

13 inches

At fire room bilge

4 inches

5 inches

7 inches


Crew engaged in trimming coal in after bunkers in readiness to store provisions there. Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms, muddy bottom, N.E. drift indicated. Early daylight at 5.15am. Ice formed over sounding hole 7 inches in thickness since yesterday. A broken auroral arch 45° in altitude in N. at 1am extending from N.E. to W. A meteor falling in S.S.W. at 8pm.


Moon 15° N.

New moon


50a27fda7438ae05bd000445: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_046_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000447: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_046_1.jpg)


15 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 770 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 80 tons 78 lbs


The forward spar-deck bilge pump is kept running all day by the Baxter engine. The steam cutters engine in connection with the main engine bilge pump is kept running about 15 minutes every hour. Water held in check in that manner.

The pressure of water between the ceiling and planking forward of the bulkhead constructed across fore peak has been so great as to force water out on the berth deck on the port side, keeping that portion of the ship wet and uncomfortable. Carpenters at work attempting to remedy the evil by fresh fillings and by tightening the joiner work under the berths on port side.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

14 inches

9 inches

6 inches

At fire room bilge

5 inches

9 inches

0 inches


Sounded at noon in 30 ½ fathoms, muddy bottom. Strong drift indicated to S.W. (true). Ice formed 7 inches in thickness over sounding hole since yesterday.

Commanding Officer inspected the ship at 1pm, after which divine service was read in the cabin.

Strong N.N.E. wind all day with frequent heavy squalls. Barometer falling until 3pm after which it rises. Rising temperature until same time after which it falls rapidly. Occasional flurries of snow. Sky entirely obscured between 7am and 2pm. Early daylight at 6.


Moon 19° N.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 254):

The ice began to get uneasy, giving us several severe shocks before midnight.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000449: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_047_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00044b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_047_1.jpg)


16 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 530 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 79 tons 1788 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is kept running all day in connection with the Baxter engine, while the main engine bilge pump is kept running by the steam cutters engine fifteen minutes every hour, and the remainder of the time the steam cutter's boiler is used for distilling water for drinking and cooking.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

10 inches

14 inches

5 inches

At fire room bilge

6 inches

4 inches

0 inches


Crew engaged in storing provisions from deck down in after coal bunker. Sounded at noon in 31 fathoms, muddy bottom. An indicated drift to N.N.W. The ship received frequent shocks from ice pressure between midnight and 4am. Early daylight at 5am. An opening in the ice was discovered at noon about ½ mile to the N'd. Ice formed 6 inches in thickness over sounding hole since noon yesterday.

Succeeded partially in stopping the dripping and running of water on the berth deck.

At 1am lunar halo 2° in diameter, which at 2 showed prismatic colors; at 4 an auroral arch 45° in altitude extending from W. to N.E.; at 5 a broken aurora from E. to W. through zenith, with patches of light to N. and N.W. At 2 and 4pm much vapor arose from the ice all around the horizons. At 8pm faint arch 15° in altitude in N. x E. extending from N.E. to N.N.W.; at 9 a bright arch 25° in alt to N. extending from E.N.E. to W.N.W., with a curtain in N.E. and streamers through zenith. Pulsations of light from W. to E.; at 10pm double arch 30° in altitude with loop at N.E. end; also faint arch at 70° alt in N.; at 11 the before mentioned loop had become a spiral. At midnight faint broken arch 50° in alt to N.

Weather generally hazy and pleasant. northerly winds veering to E.S.E. at end of day, with rising barometer and slightly increasing temperature as the wind veers to the S'd of east.


Moon 22° N.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 254):

Between midnight and four p.m. we received several severe shocks from ice pressure. When the walking parties went out at noon they discovered, about half a mile to the northward of the ship, a long lane of water.



50a27fda7438ae05bd00044d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_048_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000451: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_049_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000453: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_049_1.jpg)


17 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 555 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 79 tons 1233 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is kept running all day in connection with the Baxter boiler and engine, and the steam cutters engine and boiler is employed in the engine room in pumping 15 minutes every hour and the balance of the time in distilling water. Fitted an attachment to the Baxter boiler to day to steam and thaw concentrated dog food.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

14 inches

9 inches

6 inches

At fire room bilge

2 ½ inches

0 inches

2 inches


Sounded at noon in 31 fathoms, muddy bottom, a drift to N.W. (true) being indicated by the lead line. Ice formed over sounding hole 7 inches since yesterday

The day opens with E.S.E. winds which freshen by noon and rapidly until 7pm, when they back and moderate, the day ending with N.E. winds of 20 miles per hour velocity. Barometer falls rapidly, 1.1 inches being the amount of fall these 24 hours. Temperature steadily increasing. Flurries of snow after noon. Between noon and 7pm very heavy squalls.

Crew engaged in completing stowage of provisions in after coal bunker.

At 1am faint broken arches 40° in altitude to N. and 40° in alt to S.E.; at 2 arch through zenith from N.N.E. to S.W.; at 3 much vapor arising from ice movement to S.W.; and at 4 the same extended from N.E. around by S. to west.


Moon 22° N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 257):

Ice formed seven inches in thickness over sounding hole since yesterday.



[Paper insert:]

50a27fda7438ae05bd00044f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_048_1.jpg)

Melville's testimony to about this date


50a27fda7438ae05bd000455: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_050_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000457: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_050_1.jpg)


18 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 550 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 79 tons 683 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is kept going all day in connection with the Baxter engine, while the steam cutter rig is employed in the engine room for pumping about 15 minutes every hour, the remainder of the time being devoted to distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

14 inches

14 inches

15 inches

At fire room bilge

5 inches

10 inches

0 inches


Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms. Muddy bottom. A rapid drift to S.S.E. (true) being indicated by the lead line. Ice formed 3 inches in thickness over sounding hole since yesterday. Early daylight at 6.30am.

Very steady and unpleasant weather. Strong winds from N.E. at beginning of the day which back to the N'd and keep on backing until as day ends they reach S.W. x W. Very hard squalls, and the air kept filled with falling and drifting snow. Barometer reaches the lowest we have thus far recorded, 28.59" at 5am after which it rises steadily. Steadily falling temperature.


Moon 25° N.

First quarter


50a27fda7438ae05bd000459: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_051_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00045b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_051_1.jpg)


19 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 695 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 78 tons 2228 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is kept working all day in connection with the Baxter engine while the steam cutter rig is employed in pumping by the main engine bilge pump about 15 minutes every hour, the remainder of the time being devoted to distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

11 inches

17 inches

18 inches

At fire room bilge

0 inches

0 inches

1 inches


Sounded at noon at 32 fathoms, muddy bottom, and a drift to S.E. (true) indicated by the lead line. Four inches thickness of ice formed over sounding hole since yesterday.

Very stormy disagreeable weather. Very squally from W.S.W. with fine driving snow. Rising barometer and falling temperature.

Early daylight at 6.15am. At 11pm auroral streamer in N.E. Lunar halo 4° in diameter. At midnight auroral streamers W.N.W.


Moon 25° N.

First quarter


50a27fda7438ae05bd00045d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_052_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00045f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_052_1.jpg)


20 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 375 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 78 tons 1853 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is kept working all day by the Baxter engine, and the steam cutter rig is used for pumping by the main engine bilge pump about 15 minutes every hour, the remainder of the time being occupied with distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

14 inches

17 inches

12 ½ inches

At fire room bilge

2 ½ inches

2 ½ inches

3 inches


Sounded at noon at 32 fathoms, muddy bottom with shells. A drift to N'd indicated by lead line. Five inches thickness of ice formed over sounding hole since yesterday. Scrubbed clothes in deck house.

Clear and pleasant weather with light S.W. and W.S.W. winds. Slowly rising barometer and uniformly low temperature. Early daylight at 5.30am.

At 1am faint aurora in bands through zenith, also north and south of zenith extending from N.E. to W.S.W.; also in N. 25° in alt from N.W. to N.E. with streamers toward zenith. At 2am undulating narrow arch through zenith, curtain from N.E. end and reaching to 45° from horizon. Faint arches in N. 25° and 15° in altitude At 3am two arches S. of zenith arch 25° and 35°, one arch in N. 30° with curtain from east end. At 4am faint auroral gleams in S., and between N. and N.E. from zenith to 20° above horizon. Lunar circle from midnight to 4am. At 5am auroral arch from E. to W. through zenith.

Vapor arising from the ice to the S.W. during the afternoon.


Moon 23° 42' N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 260 ff):

Five inches of ice formed over sounding hole since yesterday. Clear and pleasant weather, moderate west winds. Temperature slowly falls from minus 45° to minus 46°, but I am inclined to think it is colder than is recorded. Our mercurial thermometers record below minus 40° (the freezing point of mercury being minus 39°). But how far such records are reliable is a matter for scientific consideration. One of our mercurial thermometers records minus 50°, and our spirit thermometers are generally from 3° to 4° higher (warmer). Beyond minus 39° by mercurial thermometers I consider our most careful records as unreliable.


Although we have a clear day and a clear horizon, no land is to be seen. We must therefore have drifted away from our N. side of Wrangel Land. With the high winds prevailing of late we have had no chance of getting observations, and with the cold weather we are having, one is sure of frozen fingers. In the absence of a place to erect our observatory, all our astronomical observations have to be made with sextant and artificial horizon. Care has to be taken to get the sight quickly before the mercury, freezes, and as the fingers are like sticks, they do not work tangent screws readily. While working at these the horizon and index glasses frost up, and then there is nothing to do but come in and thaw out. Under ordinary circumstances our transit theodolite might be used. But apart from the difficulty of working leveling screws in this temperature, the theodolite would have to be brought in-board to be read, and the transportation would perhaps alter the reading. We get along fairly well, however, all things considered, Chipp filling Danenhower's place in taking sights.

Vapor arising from the ice to the S.W. during the afternoon, indicating water hole.



50a27fda7438ae05bd000461: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_053_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000463: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_053_1.jpg)


21 February 1880

Lat 72.02, Long -175.84

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation Moon on meridian at 9pm N. 72° 01' 23"

Longitude by chronometer from observation Moon at 6pm W. 175° 50' 15"


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 730 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 78 tons 1123 lbs


The work of pumping by steam proceeds as usual. Careful calculation of the work performed by both pumps gives 1647 gallons of water per hour as the amount pumped out of the ship. Of this, 179 gallons leaks through abaft the water tight bulkhead and finding its way aft to the engine room is pumped out by the steam cutter rig; – the balance is pumped out by the forward spar deck bilge pump running in connection with the Baxter engine and boiler.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

12 inches

12 inches

13 inches

At fire room bilge

3 inches

2 inches

2 inches


Sounded at noon in 33 fathoms. Mud and stones. Slight drift to N.E. indicated by the lead line. Early daylight at 5.

Clear and pleasant weather. The usual amount of haze around the horizon, varying position at times. Steady barometer and uniformly low temperature. Steady and moderate breeze from W.S.W.

At 1am auroral arches to N. 40° and 60° in altitude extending from N.E. to W.N.W.; at 2 faint auroral arch to N. 30° in altitude brightest at N.E. end; at 3 faint gleams of arch in N.W. disappearing in N. at an altitude of 30°. Vapor rising from the ice to the S'd and W'd – between noon and 6pm. At 10pm auroral arch 30° in altitude to N. extending from N.E. to W.S.W; at 11 a long flat arch 5° in alt to northward; at midnight lunar halo 3° in diameter.

Ice formed 4 inches thickness over sounding hole since noon yesterday.


Moon 21° N.

First quarter


50a27fda7438ae05bd000465: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_054_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd000467: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_054_1.jpg)


22 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 515 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 78 tons 608 lbs


Forward spar deck bilge pump is kept running about half the time at the rate of 40 strokes a minute, and the main engine bilge pump is run by the steam cutters engine about 15 minutes every hour. Steam cutter's boiler used the remainder of the time in distilling water.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

15 inches

16 inches

18 inches

At fire room bilge

0 inches

0 inches

2 inches


Sounded at noon in 33 fathoms. Mud and pebbles. No drift indicated by the lead line. Generally clear and pleasant weather. Slightly fluctuating barometer, and slowly rising temperature. Ice formed six inches in thickness over sounding hole since noon yesterday. Early daylight at 5am.

At 11 Commanding Officer inspected the ship. At 1pm divine service was read in the cabin.

At 1am faint auroral arch 30° in alt to N. Lunar circle. At 2 a faint auroral arch 20° in altitude to N'd. At 9pm faint auroral arch 30° in alt to N'd extending from N.E. to W.N.W. At midnight a lunar circle. Auroral streamers from W. toward zenith.


Moon 17° 47' N.

First quarter


50a27fda7438ae05bd000469: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_055_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00046b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_055_1.jpg)


23 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 450 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 78 tons 158 lbs


Forward spar deck bilge pump is kept running about one half the time at the rate of 40 strokes per minute; and the main engine bilge pump is kept going by the steam cutters engine and boiler about 15 minutes every hour, the remainder of the time being used in distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

13 inches

11 inches

12 inches

At fire room bilge

3 inches

5 inches

1 inches


Dressed ship at sunrise with national ensign at mastheads and flag staff and Union Jack forward in honor of the anniversary of the birthday of Washington.

Sounded at noon in 33 fathoms, mud and gravel. No drift indicated by lead lines. Ice formed 5 inches in thickness over sounding hole since yesterday. Early daylight at 4.40am. Open water one half mile from ship to the S'd.

At 1am lunar circle. Faint auroral streamer in N.E. Vapor rising from the ice to the S.W. and S.E. at 4pm and 5pm. At 10pm faint auroral arch in N.; at midnight low flat arch 5° in altitude extending from N.E. to N.W.

A bear came near the ship at midnight but was frightened away by the dogs before he could be shot at.


Moon 13° 24' N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 264):

Ice five inches thick formed over sounding hole since yesterday.



50a27fda7438ae05bd00046d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_056_0.jpg)

50a27fda7438ae05bd00046f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_056_1.jpg)


24 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 605 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 77 tons 1793 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is kept running by the Baxter boiler at the rate of 40 strokes per minute, about one half the time; and the main engine bilge pump is run by the steam cutters engine and boiler about 15 minutes every hour, the remaining time being used in distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

13 inches

11 inches

12 inches

At fire room bilge

3 inches

5 inches

1 inches


Sounded at noon in 33 fathoms. Muddy bottom. No indicated drift. 5 inches of ice formed over sounding hole since noon yesterday. Early daylight at 4.45. Shock from ice at 3.50am. Sound of ice movement at same time.

At 4pm sighted Herald Island bearing S. (true).

Bright pleasant weather. Westerly breezes until noon after which light variable airs, and calms. Rising barometer and uniformly low temperature.

At 1am brilliant aurora, in the form of a broken arch to N'd 30° in altitude with a movement from E. to W. Prismatic colors exhibited with rapid darting streamers. It finally moved N. to 5° in alt and broke up into faint detached streaks.


Moon 8° 18' N.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 264 ff):

A slight shock from the ice at 3.50 a.m. and a sound of ice in motion was heard at the same time.

At ten this morning there was a great going on with the ice. The usual grinding and screaming broke out suddenly all around us, but at some little distance, say a quarter of a mile. No ice could be seen moving, but that there was motion somewhere was evident from the vapor that rose from openings in the floes. A very curious phenomenon in connection with this was that puffs of vapor would shoot up like smoke from an explosion, too distant to be heard, and follow along in a line of possible fracture. As soon as the puff had disappeared a regular haze would rise as if from open water. The commotion went on until eleven a.m., when it ceased as suddenly as it began. We did not experience any shock or jar, and as our period of suspense and standing by was a short one, we were not inclined to regard the movement as any "great shakes."

When the ice excitement subsided this morning I went out to look for results, and I found that, although generally the floes had come together again, leaving only cracks to show where they had broken, there were a few openings six inches wide over which the ice had formed in an hour one half inch in thickness.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd000471: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_057_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd000473: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_057_1.jpg)


25 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 455 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 77 tons 1338 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is run as usual by the Baxter engine until 9am when it is disconnected and the engine dismounted in order to scale the boiler. This boiler being designed for fresh water or water nearly fresh, its water spaces and feed pipes are small and easily choked by salt. Having been in steady use for over a month scaling was absolutely necessary. While this work is going on the forward spar deck bilge pump is worked by hand, requiring the steady pumping of one man. Water which leaks into engine room is pumped out as usual by the steam cutters engine running the main engine bilge pump.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

10 inches

4 inches

7 inches

At fire room bilge

1 inch

1 inch

3 inches


Sounded at noon in 32 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom, a drift to W.N.W. (true) being indicated by lead line. Ice formed 5 inches in thickness over sounding hole since noon yesterday. Early daylight at 4.45am.

At 10am there was a considerable ice movement continuing until noon. The movement could be heard in all directions, the noise of grinding and crunching being quite loud, but nothing could be seen in motion, and the ship received no jars or shocks in consequence of the movement. Puffs of vapor rose in spots all around our horizon indicating ice openings. The lane of open water noted on the 23'd inst. was found to have closed by the floes coming together, and all openings which were indicated by vapor puffs today were also closed again.

At 1am lunar circle, and irregular auroral curtain extending from N.E. to W.N.W. from 20° to 30° in altitude to N'd with bright streamers at ends. At midnight lunar halo 2° in diameter with prismatic colors.

Bright pleasant weather with calms and light variable airs. Rising barometer and uniformly low temperature.


Moon 2° 42' N.

Full moon


50a27fdb7438ae05bd000475: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_058_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd000477: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_058_1.jpg)


26 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 600 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 77 tons 738 lbs


Worked the forward spar deck bilge pump by hand until 10pm at which time the Baxter boiler, being scaled and cleaned, was again used. The steam cutter's boiler and engine were employed in connection with the main engine bilge pump about 15 minutes every hour, the remainder of the time being devoted to distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

8 inches

8 inches

9 inches

At fire room bilge

1 ½ inches

4 inches

1 ½ inches


Sounded at noon in 33 fathoms. Muddy bottom. A slight westerly drift being indicated by the lead line.

Ice formed 4 inches in thickness over sounding hole since yesterday. Early daylight at 4.40am. Sunset at 4.25pm.

Light winds between W.N.W. and S.S.W. with slowly rising succeeding slowly falling barometer and uniformly low temperature. Bright and pleasant weather.

At 1am faint aurora 10° in altitude in N.W. changing to curtain form 20° in altitude; at 2 faint semi-arch from N.E. to N. 25° in altitude; at 3 faint gleams near horizon in W.N.W. Sounds from ice in motion in N.E. between 1 and 3. At midnight broken arch 30° in altitude in N. extending from N.E. to W.N.W.


Moon 3° S.

Full moon


50a27fdb7438ae05bd000479: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_059_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd00047b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_059_1.jpg)


27 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the northward of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 230 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 77 tons 508 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is kept running by the Baxter engine about one half the time at the rate of 40 strokes per minute; and the main engine bilge pump is worked by the steam cutters engine and boiler about 15 minutes every hour, the remainder of the time being occupied in distilling

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

8 inches

13 inches

9 inches

At fire room bilge

0 inches

1 inch

1 inch


Sounded at noon in 33 fathoms. Mud and pebbles. A slight drift to north (true) being indicated by the lead line. Ice formed 4 ½ inches in thickness over sounding hole since yesterday. Early daylight at 4.30.

Clear and pleasant weather, with light variable airs. Rising barometer at noon, followed by falling barometer to midnight. Rising temperature followed by falling temperature.

At 1am very faint curtain double arch commencing in N.N.W. and fading in north at altitudes of 15° and 20°.; at 2 faint arch 45° in altitude from W.N.W. to N.E. At 10pm faint arch 20° in alt from N.E. to W.N.W.; at 11 low flat arch N.E. to N.W. 10° in altitude.


Moon 8° 51' S.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 270):

As our days lengthen the auroral displays become less frequent and less brilliant. It is impossible to assign any particular cause for their appearance, or discover any particular effect following them. They have been brilliant in intensely cold weather, and also in mild weather, and again they have been faint under similar temperature; they have existed in all winds and in calms, at full and change of the moon, when the ice has been breaking up and when it has been motionless; in fine, under all sorts and conditions of circumstances. The only prerequisite is a dry atmosphere. It has been said that these auroras are not seen over the ice. All that I can say about that is, that frequently we could see nothing but ice during displays, although there may have been water somewhere.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd00047d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_060_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd00047f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_060_1.jpg)


28 February 1880

Lat 72.21, Long -175.80

Beset in the pack to the northward of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 12' 19"

Latitude by observation at 7pm meridian alt ✱ α Orionis N. 72° 12' 25"

Longitude by chronometer from observation at 8.30pm ✱ Arcturus W. 175° 47' 51"


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 650 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 76 tons 2098 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is kept running by the Baxter engine, working about one half the time, and the main engine bilge pump is worked about 15 minutes every hour by the steam cutters engine. The balance of the time is devoted to distilling

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

15 inches

14 inches

9 inches

At fire room bilge

2 inches

2 ½ inches

3 inches


Sounded at noon in 33 fathoms. Grey sand and mud. A drift to N.W. being indicated by the lead line.

Ice 4 inches in thickness formed over sounding hole since noon yesterday. Early daylight at 4am.

Clear and pleasant weather with light variable airs, rising barometer and falling temperature.

At 1am faint auroral arch from W. x N. toward north, 25° in altitude. Also auroral gleam near northern horizon; at 3 very faint gleams in N.N.W.


Moon 14° S.

Full moon


50a27fdb7438ae05bd000481: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_061_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd000483: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_061_1.jpg)


29 February 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the northward of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 685 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 76 tons 1413 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is kept working about one half the time by the Baxter engine, and the main engine bilge pump about one quarter of the time by the steam cutters engine. Distilling water by the steam cutter's boiler when not in use for pumping.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

22 inches

15 inches

20 inches

At fire room bilge

0 inches

2 ½ inches

3 ½ inches


Sounded at noon in 32 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom – indicated drift N.N.W. Ice formed 4 ½ inches in thickness over sounding hole since yesterday noon. Early daylight at 3.55am. Clear and pleasant weather with light variable winds chiefly from the N'd. Falling followed by rising barometer. Very low temperature.

At 11am Commanding Officer inspected the ship. At 1pm divine service was read in the cabin.

At 1am faint auroral arch extending from W. to N.E. having an altitude of 75° in N.; and having under it at that point a curtain 45° in altitude. A brilliant flash was observed in the west, due perhaps to a meteor although none was seen; at 2am auroral curtain arches with altitudes of 75° and 40° respectively, brightest in west. These curtains gradually changed form to become radiations from a point in the zenith with general pulsations from W. to E. At 3am auroral arch through zenith from W. to N.E. gradually dissipating into streamers, and reforming in faint arches through zenith and to the S'd at altitude of 60°.; at 4am irregular rings of curtain aurora surrounding a center near zenith, to which all lines of light in curtains converged. A curiously shaped form occupied the central area. The display broke up in a few moments and was succeeded by bowed lines of auroral light. At 8pm brilliant auroral arch in N.N.E. 10° in alt; at 9pm auroral arch 15° in altitude to N'd extending from N.E. to W.N.W., with diffused light extending 15° south of zenith, at 10pm auroral curtain at same altitude and bearing, brightest in west. Curled form in N.N.E. From 11 to midnight diffused auroral light between N.E. and W.N.W.


Provisions condemned during month.

4 lbs assorted pickles – injured by salt water

12 lbs roast beef – bad.

36 gallons vinegar – in boring hole in back and to permit flow of water, the barrel was pierced and salt water entered.

40 lbs beef soup – bad

2 lbs string beans – bad

3 lbs roast mutton – bad

10 lbs canned apples – bad


Moon 18° 50' S.

Full moon



LOGS FOR MARCH 1880


50a27fdb7438ae05bd000485: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_062_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd000487: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_062_1.jpg)


1 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the northward of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 500 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 76 tons 913 lbs


The steam cutters engine keeps the main engine bilge pump running as required, 15 minutes every hour, the remaining 45 minutes being occupied in distilling. The forward spar deck bilge pump is run as usual by the Baxter engine and boiler until 10.30pm when the crown sheet of the boiler was found to be coming down from heat and pressure. The fire was hauled and the steam used to blow out the boiler. Upon examination it was found that scale had formed in a high spongy mass on the crown sheet differing from the ordinary deposit of scale. As the boiler had been scaled and cleaned four days ago, the occurrence above noted can hardly be accounted for, as ~: Commenced working the forward spar deck bilge pump by hand.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

18 inches

15 inches

6 inches

At fire room bilge

0 inches

1 inch

0 inches


Sounded at noon in 33 fathoms. Mud and fine grey sand. No indicated drift. Ice 5 inches in thickness formed over sounding hole since yesterday. Early daylight at 3.50am.

Bright, clear and pleasant weather, light westerly and north-westerly winds and rapidly rising barometer. Temperature steadily decreasing. A spirit thermometer (uncolored spirit) with purple bulb was exposed to the air, and read and recorded at intervals.

The usual monthly physical examination of officers and men was commenced by the surgeon.

At 1am triple auroral arch in the North at altitudes of 15°, 25° and 45° and extending from N.E. to W.N.W., also a very narrow arch through zenith. The same continued at 2am but at alt of 80° S. 70° and 60° N. extending from W. to N.E., but suddenly changed and brightened in the West to a double curtain form which undulated rapidly each side of the zenith, and finally settled in arches, in altitude 60° to N'd and 70° to S'd. At 3 diffused auroral light in faint arches south of zenith and above horizon extending from W. to N.N.W. Much vapor arose from the ice at the same time. At 4 faint auroral light in west and south of zenith. Vapor continuing to rise from the ice.

At 9pm brilliant curtain aurora from E. to W. through zenith. At 10 auroral arches with altitudes varying from 10° to 50° in N. with faint bands through zenith and diffused light to S'd. At 11 3 brilliant curtain arches in N. 45°, 60° and 75° altitudes respectively extending from N.E. to W.N.W. Streamers darted upwards from the ends toward the zenith. A faint arch also from N.E. to S. at an altitude of 45° in E.S.E., and faint arches south of zenith at altitude of 50° and 80°. Generally diffused auroral light over whole sky. The same display at midnight but growing faint.


Moon 22° 22' S.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 273 ff):

Our mercurial thermometer is graduated to minus 49°; but as mercury freezes, or is said to freeze, at minus 39°, it is questionable whether its readings below minus 39° are reliable. At all events, as its reading, hour for hour, is lower than a spirit thermometer placed alongside it, its reading is logged as a nearer approach to be correct temperature so long as it is at or above minus 49°. Below this point it suddenly contracts and falls into the bulb, and there I presume freezes solid. After that moment the spirit thermometers are perforce read and logged. To-day, at the beginning, when the mercury read minus 49°, the spirit thermometer read minus 47°. At one a.m. the spirit thermometer read minus 48.5°, and soon after falling to minus 50° it finally reached minus 53.5°. Before leaving New York, at Collins' request, I directed Green to make thermometers with bulbs of the prismatic colors, but, unfortunately, in transportation to San Francisco, four of the seven were broken, leaving us only red, violet, and black. The object of these thermometers (filled with uncolored spirit) was to determine the effect of the sun's rays acting through prismatic colored bulbs, and so obtain a scale of absorption. One of these (the violet) was exposed to the air to-day, and when our ordinary spirit thermometer read at midnight minus 53°, this violet bulb read minus 47.5°. As this one has agreed very well with our standard mercurial at readings above minus 49°, it is possible that its present reading is nearer the correct temperature than that of the ordinary spirit.


During the last few days I observed that on the port quarter the snow had melted on the side, and that at noon the frost in the seams was oozing out and trickling down. In order to determine how much of this was due to radiating heat from the ship (the cabin stove being abreast of the quarter), and how much to the action of the sun's rays on the black side, I caused Mr. Collins to blacken the bulb of a spirit thermometer, and this evening it was attached to the ship's side. By experiments made at noon and midnight, I may be able to determine how much heat there is received from the sun's rays.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd000489: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_063_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd00048b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_063_1.jpg)


2 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the northward of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 620 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 76 tons 293 lbs


3pm: B.B. in vacuo = -16.5°


The main engine bilge pump is worked as necessary by the steam cutters engine, and distilling is continued at other times. Engaged in cleaning and repairing Baxter boiler. Heated and jacked the crown sheet back to its place, and to prevent the accumulation of sediment over the center of the same, rigged a surface blow cock and pipe to carry the sediment from this particular part of the boiler. To overcome defects arising from leaky piston, cut two annular grooves around solid piston and prepared to fill the same with Babbitt metal, casting the same with the piston in place.

The forward spar deck bilge pump is worked by hand throughout the day.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

6 inches

8 inches

6 inches

At fire room bilge

2 inches

0 inches

3 inches


Sounded at noon in 33 fathoms. Muddy bottom. Slight N.W. drift indicated by lead line. 5 inches of ice formed over sounding hole since yesterday. Early daylight at 3.45am.

The usual monthly physical examination of officers and men was continued and completed by the surgeon.

At 1am flat auroral arch dropping at W. end at an altitude of 25° to N'd, a flat auroral arch at an altitude of 30° S., and diffused auroral light between the two. Both arches extended from N.E. to W.N.W.; at 2 curtained arch 10° in alt to N'd in broken lines with bright streamers from center, and a long broad band reaching from N.E. to zenith; also pale arch to S. 25° in altitude with diffused light from west central part. At 3 detached curved light patches of curtain in N. also long curved form from N.E. toward zenith which moved to zenith and fell to S.E. x S. developing strong lines of light; also faint arches 30° in altitude in S. curving from E. toward W. with diffused light at E. end. At 4 auroral arches 30° and 40° in alt to S. from E. to W., and faint auroral gleams in N.W. At 10pm auroral arch 30° in altitude to N. extending from N.E. to W.N.W., and curved back at westerly end. At 11 auroral curtain 45° in alt extending from W.N.W. to N.E., with a long pendant mass in center, the whole flashing and dulling alternately every few seconds. At midnight auroral arch 20° in alt to N'd extending from N.E. to W.N.W.


Moon 24° 31' S.

Last quarter


50a27fdb7438ae05bd00048d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_064_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd00048f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_064_1.jpg)


3 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the northward of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 320 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 75 tons 2213 lbs


The steam cutters engine and boiler are employed in running the main engine bilge pump about 15 minutes every hour, the remaining 45 minutes being devoted to distilling. The forward spar deck bilge pump is worked by hand until 10pm when, the Baxter boiler and engine being fully repaired and in working order, it is worked by steam.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

7 inches

6 inches

6 inches

At fire room bilge

1 ½ inches

2 inches

1 inch


Sounded at noon in 33 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. No indicated drift. Ice 5 inches in thickness formed over sounding hole since noon yesterday. Early daylight at 3.45am. A piece of drift wood, resembling birch, was found on the ice some distance from the ship and brought on board. Upon inquiry it was learned that the finder had seen this same piece of wood several months ago, and at that time there were the prints of two moccasins on the same piece of ice with it.

Clear and pleasant weather with moderate northerly and easterly winds, slowly falling followed by slowly rising barometer, with increasing temperature to noon and falling temperature to midnight.

At 1am faint auroral gleams in W.N.W. developing into an arch 40° in altitude to N. and extending from W. to N.E. At 2am faint arch 60° in alt to N. Extending from W. to N.E. x E. with subsidiary (?) arch 75° in altitude very bright but short chiefly from zenith to W. Streamers in N.W. At 3am auroral arch from W.N.W. to N.E. Semi-elliptical, 35° in altitude to N'd with bright undulations passing slowly along it from W. to E. Broken curtain arch 35° in altitude to S. At 4 faint diffused light in E.S.E. with streamers.

At 7pm faint arch 10° in altitude to N. At 9 auroral arch to N'd 25° in altitude Semi-elliptical. At 10 bright curtain with double arch form, 10° and 15° in altitude to north. At 11 broken curtain 10° in altitude from N.W. to N.N.E. brightest at west end. At midnight irregular arch 20° in altitude from N.W. to N.N.E.


Moon 25° S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 275 ff):

At the suggestion of Mr. Newcomb I gave an order the other day, that whenever the men went away from the ship on their walks they should keep a lookout for shells or other things on the ice, and bring such articles to the ship. To-day one of the men brought in some shells, and a piece of drift-wood resembling birch, which he had found. It seems he saw this piece of drift-wood in December, but attaching no importance to it, did not remove it. At that time he says he saw the print of two moccasins (and only one print) on the snow covering the floe. As it is not possible that these prints were made by any of the ship's company, it would seem probable that this piece of ice came from near some inhabited land; and as the drift-wood is no doubt from Siberia, it may be that this piece of ice came from some Siberian river. As in the month of December we were drifting around in the neighborhood of 72° 30', that floe, with its wood and foot-prints, must have come a long distance.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd000491: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_065_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd000493: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_065_1.jpg)


4 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 505 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 75 tons 1708 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is run as usual about half the time by the Baxter engine. Stopped using the steam cutter's boiler engine to run the main engine bilge pump, in order to scale and clean the boiler and secure it more firmly to the fire room flooring. In order to prevent freezing the pump is worked occasionally by hand.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

11 inches

10 inches

14 inches

At fire room bilge

0 inches

7 inches

10 inches


Sounded at noon in 32 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom, a drift to S.E. being indicated by the lead line. The usual sounding hole having become closed from below by the passing under of a floe piece. A hole was cut through the floe nearer the ship where the ice was in thickness four feet being the result of direct freezing in thirty days.

Clear and pleasant weather, with light northerly and easterly winds and very nearly steady barometer and temperature. Early daylight at 3.

At 1am faint broken arch 35° in altitude to N., brightest in west, and extending from W.N.W. to N.E. At 2 faint arch 40° in altitude to N. with bright streamers at W. end; at 3 faint arch 40° in altitude to N.

At 4, 5 and 6pm vapor arose from the ice to S.W. and W. distant from 2 to 3 miles. Jets of vapor would rise like small explosions, or escape of steam, seeming to indicate an opening in the ice field, and to mark the progress of the line of division.

At 10pm faint auroral gleams in N.E.; at 11 faint arch 45° in altitude extending from N.E. to W.N.W., with a luminous mass at N.E. end from which the arch originally sprung. At midnight the northern sky was covered with tiers of auroral curtains from 10° above the horizon to the zenith, and extending from N.E. to S.W. The light from these curtains illuminated the whole ice field for a mile in radius from the ship, and made each spar and rope as distinguishable as by full moonlight.

The coal being sufficiently consumed out of the port coal bunker to permit an examination of the inside of the ship at that place, it was discovered to-day that in one of the severe nips which we have sustained, the six inch Oregon pine ceiling has been crushed in to the depth of half an inch when the transverse strengthening beam came against it, and that in several places the inboard ends of the metal fastenings were forced 3/8" inch from the ceiling.


Moon 24° S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 276):

Being able to begin to see the condition of things in the coal bunkers, Melville made an unpleasant discovery to-day which he reported to me. I immediately repaired to the port coal bunker, and there, to my unpleasant surprise, saw that the heavy six inch Oregon pine strengthening planks were crushed in the wake of the heavy thwart-ship thrust beam to the depth of half an inch, while the metal bolts forward and abaft of this beam were here and there three eighths of an inch from the planks. In some one of our heavy nips this heavy transverse beam has been literally driven into the side. As in this part of the ship there were new frames and new planking, as well as the extra interior strengthening and the outside doubling, she was as strong as wood and metal could make her. Had I any doubt of it before I should be convinced of it now, that nothing of wood and metal could be constructed to withstand the tremendous pressure caused by moving ice-floes. What the condition of our starboard side may be I do not know, for it cannot be seen by reason of intervening coal. It would be idle to hazard a guess as to what this will cause when the ship is again water borne, so we can only wait and see.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd000495: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_066_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd000497: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_066_1.jpg)


5 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the northward of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 455 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 75 tons 1253 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is worked about one half the time by the Baxter engine. The scaling and cleaning of the steam cutter's boiler being completed, steam was got in it at noon and the work of running the main engine bilge pump resumed. Distilling when not pumping the after bilge.

Water in the ship to day



at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

9 inches

14 inches

16 inches

At fire room bilge

14 inches

14 ½ inches

2 inches


Sounded at noon in 32 fathoms. Muddy bottom. No drift indicated by the lead line. Ice 5 inches in thickness formed over sounding hole since yesterday. Early daylight at 3.03am.

Land showed above the horizon to the S'd at 5pm. Much vapor rose from the ice during the afternoon. Clear and pleasant weather with very light northerly and easterly breezes with slowly falling barometer and increasing temperature.

At 1am flat arch in N. from W. to N.E. 10° in altitude formed of sections of disconnected curtain with much folding down to horizon in W. and N.E. At 2 diffused light in bands and patches over sky to a faint arch 15° in altitude to S. which marked its limit. Striped aurora through zenith. At 3 faint arch from E. to W. 45° S. bands through zenith and detached patches in N.W. At 4 faint arch from N.E. x E. to W. x S. and from 30° S. to zenith in width. Bright streamers detached in west. At midnight faint arch 75° in altitude to N. extending from N.E. to W.N.W.


Moon 21° 33' S.

Last quarter


50a27fdb7438ae05bd000499: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_067_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd00049b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_067_1.jpg)


6 March 1880

Lat 72.24, Long -176.51

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 14' 39"

Latitude by mean of observations ✱ Castor, ✱ Procyon and ✱ Pollux N. 72° 12' 03"

Longitude by chronometer from mean of observations ✱ Arcturus and ✱ Ursa Majoris W. 176° 30' 24"


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 675 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 75 tons 578 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is worked by the Baxter engine as usual and the main engine bilge pump is driven by the steam cutters engine. Distilling water.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

11 inches

14 inches

8 inches

At fire room bilge

1 ½ inches

3 inches

2 inches


Sounded at noon in 30 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. Slight drift to S.E. indicated by the lead line. Ice formed 5 inches in thickness since yesterday noon over the sounding hole. Early daylight at 3am. In the afternoon there was much vapor rising from the ice to the E., S.E. and S. of ship.

Weather clear and pleasant with light north-easterly veering to increasing but moderate E.S.E. winds with falling barometer and increasing temperature.

At 1am system of auroral curtains from 15° in alt in N. to zenith, and extending from W. to N.E. the western ends being very bright and the eastern ends faint. Faint semi-arch in S.E. General drift of aurora to S'd. Brightness extending in pulsations from W. to E. At 2am curtain arch from W. to N.E. 25° in altitude to north. Bright at west end and pulsating toward east. At 3 faint diffused light as far as 60° S., and faint auroral arch 60° in S. Bright detached curtains in west. At 4 faint auroral arch 60° in altitude to S'd with streamers in west. At 9pm auroral arch and streamers to N. 20° in altitude. At 11 broken curtain 15° in altitude to N'd and a faint arch 35° in altitude N.E., the same continuing at midnight.


Moon 17° 48' S.

Last quarter


50a27fdb7438ae05bd00049d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_068_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd00049f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_068_1.jpg)


7 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 695 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 74 tons 2123 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is run by the Baxter engine, and the main engine bilge pump by the steam cutters engine. Distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

15 inches

8 inches

15 inches

At fire room bilge

3 ½ inches

1 inch

1 inch


Sounded at noon in 31 fathoms. Muddy bottom. Drift to E'd indicated by lead line. Ice 5 inches in thickness formed over sounding hole since noon yesterday. Early daylight at 3.10am.

At 11am read the act for the better government of the Navy and mustered the crew, after which Commanding Officer inspected the ship. Divine service was performed in the cabin at 11.30am.

Cloudy and dull weather. Stiff breezes freshening to moderate gale from the eastward. Falling barometer, and rising temperature until noon, after which temperature falls until midnight. Much vapor rising from the ice.

At 1am auroral curtains all around the horizon and with streamers converging toward zenith. Faint arch to S'd 25° in altitude, and one to N'd 5° in altitude brightest curtain in west. At 2am aurora distributed over sky from an altitude of 10° in alt N. to 15° in altitude S. Bright curtains in N.E. and N.N.W. At 3 faint arch at altitude 15° to S'd with diffused light to near the zenith. Streamers in N.N.E. and W. about 10° above horizon shooting toward zenith. At 4 low faint arch 10° in altitude to S'd from E. to W. Streamers all around northern sky from 10° to 15° high. At 9pm faint aurora in N. At midnight faint arch 75° in altitude to N'd reaching from N.E. to W.N.W.


Moon 13° S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 277):

Cloudy and dull weather. We have had such a continuance of bright, clear, and almost cloudless weather that we resent a change. We are also having a moderate gale, another novelty, and are so spoiled in consequence as to be somewhat disgusted. The temperature, however, increases from minus 33° to minus 22° by noon, and falls only to minus 28° at midnight. S.E. winds have always raised our temperature. The ice has opened in consequence, for much vapor was observed to arise from it to-day.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004a1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_069_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004a3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_069_1.jpg)


8 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 490 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 74 tons 1633 lbs

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = -10.5°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = -18.5°


The forward spar deck bilge pump is run by the Baxter engine and the main engine bilge pump by the steam cutters engine. Distilling water.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

12 inches

14 inches

15 inches

At fire room bilge

3 inches

2 inches

2 inches


Sounded at noon in 31 fathoms. Muddy bottom. Westerly drift indicated by lead line. Ice 5 inches in thickness formed over sounding hole since yesterday noon. Early daylight at 2.55am.

Moderate gale from E.N.E. moderating towards evening. Falling barometer until noon when it commences to rise. Temperature slightly decreasing.

At 1am faint arch 60° in altitude to N'd extending from N.E. to W.N.W. At 2 faint streaks of aurora in N. 10° in altitude and very faint arch through zenith from E. to W. At 9pm faint aurora chiefly in N.E. Semi-arch 20° in altitude to N. Gleam of sunlight in west. At 11pm bright aurora 25° in altitude to N. extending from N.E. to N.W. eastern end bending back to N. This continued at midnight but the eastern end formed a loop.


Moon 7° 51' S.

Last quarter


50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004a5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_070_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004a7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_070_1.jpg)


9 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 440 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 74 tons 1193 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is run by the Baxter engine and the after bilge is pumped by the main engine bilge pump driven by the steam cutters engine. Distilling water.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

8 inches

7 inches

7 inches

At fire room bilge

0 inches

2 inches

2 ½ inches


Sounded at noon in 31 fathoms. Muddy bottom. Ice formed 4 ½ inches in thickness over sounding hole since yesterday. Early dawn at 3am.

Generally clear and pleasant weather with light northerly and easterly winds and falling to a calm at 9am. In the afternoon gradually freshening breezes from E.S.E. Rising barometer and increasing temperature. Very light snow between 4 and 7am.

Crew engaged during forenoon and afternoon in digging a trench alongside the ship on the port side, in order to remove all ice to below the top of the doubling of the hull.

Openings in the ice occurred during the afternoon about a mile to the E. and S.E. of the ship, and at midnight a slight shock was sustained as if from ice movement.

At 1am faint arch in N. 25° in altitude extending from N.E. to W. x N. Faint gleam of sunlight in N. x W. (true). At 2 faint arch, which at 1.50 had been bright in N. at an altitude of 25°. Faint gleam of dawn in N. true. At 4 faint arch through zenith moving south. At 11pm faint arch at an altitude of 25° to N'd extending from N.E. to N.W., east end bending back to N. At midnight curtain arch 25° in altitude to N. extending from N.E. to W.N.W.


Moon 2° 18' S.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 278):

Openings occurred in the ice during the afternoon about a mile to the E. and S.E. of the ship, from which large clouds of vapor arose. The time of new moon being at hand, I stood by for a possible emergency, but beyond a slight shock at midnight nothing occurred.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004a9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_071_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004ab: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_071_1.jpg)


10 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 345 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 74 tons 848 lbs


1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 45°


The forward spar deck bilge pump is worked by the Baxter engine, and the main engine bilge pump by the steam cutter's boiler. Distilling water.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

10 inches

10 inches

15 inches

At fire room bilge

3 inches

½ inch

3 inches


Sounded at noon in 30 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. No drift indicated by the lead line. Ice formed 4 inches in thickness over sounding hole since yesterday. Early daylight at 3am.

Weather cloudy at times, at other times bright and pleasant. Light variable winds with slowly rising barometer. Rising temperature from midnight to noon, and falling temperature from noon to midnight. A long lead of open water about 1 ½ miles to S'd of ship from which much vapor arose during the afternoon. Direction of the opening, from E. to S.W. A faint gleam of sunlight was visible in northern horizon at 1 and 2am, and at 4 a ruddy tint was to be seen on horizon to N.N.E.

Crew engaged during the day in digging a trench along the starboard side of the ship. A seal was shot and brought on board.

At 1am faint arch extending from W.N.W. to N.E. 20° in altitude to N.; at 2 faint arch 30° in altitude to N. brightest in west, the same continuing at 3. At 4 faint auroral gleam in west. At 9pm low flat arch 5° in altitude to N., at 11 irregular curtain arch 15° in altitude to N. extending from N.E. to W.N.W. with streamers toward zenith from eastern end.


Moon 3° 14' N.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 279):

A long lead of open water is seen about one and a half miles to southward, running in a curve from E. to S.W. Vapor rises from this opening during the afternoon until five o'clock, when ice having formed over it, the escape of the heat from the water is prevented and the vapor ceases. As long as daylight lasted the place of the opening lay like a black band stretched out on the white surface of the ice-field. By to-morrow, no doubt, the salt will have become squeezed to the surface, covering it entirely, and making its appearance more like that of the surrounding floe.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004ad: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_072_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004af: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_072_1.jpg)


11 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 675 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 74 tons 173 lbs


2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 36.3°; B.B. in Air = -21°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 25°; B.B. in Air = -20.5°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = -13°; B.B. in Air = -22°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = -15°; B.B. in Air = -22°


The forward spar deck bilge pump is worked by Baxter engine, and the main engine bilge pump by the steam cutters engine. Distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

12 inches

9 inches

8 inches

At fire room bilge

2 inches

3 ½ inches

1 ½ inches


Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms. Muddy bottom. No indicated drift. Ice 3 inches thickness formed over sounding hole since noon yesterday. Early dawn at 2.30am.

Weather clear and pleasant in the forenoon, cloudy and at times overcast during the afternoon, clearing again at midnight. Light variable winds, suddenly hauling from N.W. to E. x N. at noon and then veering to E.S.E. at 6pm with a sudden and considerable increase of temperature. Steadily rising barometer. Ice openings from S.S.E. to S.W. about 2 miles from the ship with much vapor rising there from. Crew engaged in digging trench alongside the ship on the starboard side.

At 1am broken auroral arch 25° in altitude to N. and extending from N.E. to W.N.W.; at 2 faint broken arch 10° in altitude to N.; at 3 faint arch 15° in altitude to N., west end curving north and pale light extending from arch to zenith; at 4 faint semi-arch 15° in altitude to the west of north. At 9pm curtain aurora to N. 10° in altitude with very faint fan-like streamers from W. end. The same continued at 10pm. At 11 curtain arches from 40° N. to zenith, extending from N.E. to W.N.W. and bright at N.E. end. At midnight auroral arches and diffused light north and south of zenith to 40° above horizon. All arches beginning in N.E. and re-uniting in W.S.W.


Moon 8° 31' N.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 280):

The open water reported yesterday remained closed over until this afternoon, when it reopened.

Ice openings from S.S.E. and S.W. two miles distant from the ship, and much vapor rising therefrom.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004b1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_073_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004b3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_073_1.jpg)


12 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the northward & westward of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 520 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 73 tons 1893 lbs


2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 11°; B.B. in Air = -3°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 6°; B.B. in Air = -3°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = -3°; B.B. in Air = -4°


The forward spar deck bilge pump is worked by Baxter engine, and the main engine bilge pump by the steam cutters engine. Distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

8 inches

18 inches

8 inches

At fire room bilge

2 inches

3 inches

1 ½ inches


Sounded at noon in 33 fathoms. Muddy bottom, a rapid drift to N'd being indicated by the lead line. Early day at 2.30am. Ice 4 inches in thickness formed over sounding hole since noon yesterday.

Weather generally overcast and cloudy. Fresh E.S.E. winds until noon, after which the wind backed gradually to the northward without change of force. Steadily falling barometer. Steadily increasing temperature until noon, and from noon to midnight a slight fall. Weather remarkably mild and agreeable.

Crew engaged in digging away the ice under the stem. Openings in the ice occurred to the S'd of the ship, and from 3 to 7pm there were streaks of water sky from S.E. to N.E.

At 1am faint arch to S'd 15° in altitude extending from E. to S.W. Irregular auroral curtain in N.W. and N.E. curving rapidly and with very bright flashings. The western curves drifted to the S.W. while from the N.E. ones faint bands extended across the sky toward the zenith. At 2am scattered curtains. Faint arches to S'd 15° in altitude and to N'd 20° in altitude with diffused light. At 3 faint arch to S. 10° in altitude and scattered patches of aurora like luminous clouds chiefly around zenith and in the west. At 4 faint streaks of aurora through zenith. Cloud lines converging in N.E. Three sun dogs at 7am. Two sun dogs at 8am.


Moon 13° 21' N.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 281):

The travelers coming back to-day report having seen a track resembling a wolf's, and they bring in a piece of snow-covered ice, bearing the impression. It is pronounced by our experts a track of a veritable wolf. About three miles to the southward Alexey says he came across a bit of open water so wide that he could not see to the other side of it.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004b5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_074_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004b7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_074_1.jpg)


13 March 1880

Lat 72.52, Long -177.98

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 31' 13"

Longitude by chronometer from evening observations Moon W. 177° 58' 39"


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 455 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 73 tons 1438 lbs


1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 18.2°; B.B in air = 0°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 24°; B.B. in air = 0°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 29.5°; B.B in air = -0.5°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 8.5°; B.B in air = -2.5°


The forward spar deck bilge pump is worked by Baxter engine, and the main engine bilge pump by the steam cutters engine. Distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

13 inches

8 inches

14 inches

At fire room bilge

1 ½ inches

2 ½ inches

2 inches


Sounded at noon in 31 ½ fathoms, muddy bottom. A drift to the S.W. being indicated by the lead line.

Ice formed 2 inches in thickness over sounding hole since noon yesterday.

Weather generally gloomy and unpleasant. Very light snow falling at times until 6pm. Winds from N'd and E'd during the forenoon, and from the N'd & W'd during the afternoon. Steadily falling barometer, followed after noon by steadily rising barometer and falling temperature.

Crew engaged in digging away ice around stern post.

At 9pm faint aurora to N'd. At 11pm faint auroral patches to N. and N.E. and at midnight to S. and S.W.


Moon 17° 32' N.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 279 ff):

Ice formed over sounding hole only two inches since yesterday. This is the best evidence we have had of the effect of the present mild temperature.

The high temperature, minus 1° until noon, and even as high as 0.3° at two p.m., and the falling snow, make the floe ice quite soft and soggy, and leave us with damp feet after our hour's walking. This softness is only superficial, however, for our men digging away under the stern find the ice of the hardness of flint. I never dreamed that ice could freeze so hard. But it is proof enough to see pick-axes wielded by strong men breaking off small pieces the size of one's hand, instead of good sized lumps. The mass of ice seems absolutely without pores (though, of course, since the atoms of salt caught up in it cannot be destroyed or eliminated, they must be held in minute cells), and clings to the ship's shape as if it formed a part of her. Except by the pick-axe chipping off and gouging and scoring the wood, the ice cannot be removed next to the ship's skin.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004b9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_075_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004bb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_075_1.jpg)


14 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 605 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 73 tons 833 lbs


1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 5°; B.B in air = -12°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 5.5°; B.B. in air -14°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 7°; B.B in air = -15.5°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = -2°; B.B in air = -11.5°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = -9°; B.B in air = -12°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = -12°; B.B in air = -13.5°


The forward spar deck bilge pump is worked by Baxter engine, and the main engine bilge pump by the steam cutters engine. Distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

11 inches

12 inches

7 inches

At fire room bilge

3 inches

3 inches

5 inches


Sounded at noon in 32 fathoms. Muddy bottom. A drift to the S. x W. being indicated by the lead line.

Ice 2 ½ inches in thickness formed over sounding hole since noon yesterday. Strong light of dawn at 3am.

At 11am Commanding Officer inspected the ship. At 1pm divine service was performed in the cabin.

Weather generally overcast and cloudy. Northerly and westerly winds with rising barometer and nearly uniform temperature.

At 1am faint auroral patches like clouds from 60° to 15° above horizon to S'd. At 2, streak of bright aurora through zenith from W. to E.S.E. fading in clouds. Faint gleam of dawn in N'd & E'd.


Moon 20° 54' N.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 285):

There were brought in to-day from the ice at some distance three species bivalves, one univalve, two pieces drift-wood, some stones, and some sponges. The shells can be accounted for, perhaps, by the habit of walruses in digging them up with their tusks and bringing them to the surface.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004bd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_076_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004bf: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_076_1.jpg)


15 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 385 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 73 tons 448 lbs


1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 43.5°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 36.5°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = -3°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = -12°


The forward spar deck bilge pump is worked by Baxter engine and the main engine bilge pump by the steam cutters engine. Distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

8 inches

9 inches

9 inches

At fire room bilge

2 inches

3 inches

2 inches


Sounded at noon in 31 fathoms. Muddy bottom. Strong drift indicated to N.W. Ice formed 3 ½ inches in thickness over sounding hole since noon yesterday. Full dawn at 3am.

Crew engaged in digging away the ice under stern. Having reached a depth of 4 feet water commenced to flow up and freeze on the surface. As much of the stern post as can be seen is in good condition, and no injury can be discovered around the stern and quarters.

Sounds of ice in motion to S.E. and east at 4am. Bright clear and pleasant weather with light northerly and easterly winds, rapidly rising barometer and falling temperature.

At 10pm faint aurora 25° in altitude to the N'd extending from N.E. to W.N.W. but brightest in N.E. At 11 auroral arch 35° in altitude from E.N.E. to N.N.W. brightest at east end where it was in a luminous mass. At midnight faint auroral patches in E.N.E.


Moon 23° 19' N.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 285):

Sounds of ice in motion to S.E. and E. at four a.m.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004c1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_077_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004c3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_077_1.jpg)


16 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 495 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 72 tons 2193 lbs


2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 44°; B.B. in air = -25°

3pm. B.B. in vacuo = 16°; B.B. in air = -26°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = -14°; B.B. in air = -27°


The forward spar deck bilge pump is worked by Baxter engine and the main engine bilge pump by the steam cutters engine. Distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

11 inches

8 inches

7 inches

At fire room bilge

3 inches

3 inches

3 inches


Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms. Muddy bottom. A drift to the west being indicated by the lead line.

Ice formed 5 inches in thickness over sounding hole since noon yesterday. Ruddy dawn light at 3am.

Clear, bright and pleasant weather. Light northerly and easterly winds in the forenoon, and northerly and westerly winds in the afternoon, with steadily rising barometer and slowly falling temperature. Crew engaged in digging away the ice under the bows. Land was sighted bearing south (magnetic) in two high mountains with a saddle between them. A bear was shot by Alexey about 7 miles to the westward of the ship, and buried in the snow after skinning, it being too late to get the body to the ship before night.

At 4am sound from ice in motion to N.E. and E. following occasional slight jars to ship at 3am.

At 1am faint aurora chiefly in N.E. and W.N.W. Lunar circle. At 2am very faint auroral patches. At 3 faint auroral glimmer in W.N.W. The sun was raised by refraction above the horizon before 6am. At 11pm broken curtain arches 10° and 20° in altitude to N.E. extending from E. to N.

An exceptionally beautiful auroral display commenced shortly before midnight. From W. x S. to N.E. and chiefly south of zenith, from 10° to 15° in altitude an auroral band extended in a series of flat semi-elliptical curves opening to the N'd. On the inner or north edge of the band it was brilliantly white, while the light faded down toward the southern horizon to a pale cloud-like intensity, in which faint lines would occasionally show. To the north of zenith very meagre bands of long streamers hung across the sky. A peculiarity of the display was the regularity with which the curves, which were moving slowly along the band from W. to E. broke into rapid and distorting undulations when they aimed at a point lying within the space apparently occupied by the constellation Ursa Major. There the E. end of the curve would suddenly deepen and double back sharply, while the aurora would be violently agitated and would show the prismatic colors with extraordinary vividness. Occasionally the organization of the original curve would be maintained notwithstanding the extraordinary rapidity of the movements around its margin, but usually the curve was broken or seemed to collapse, to be succeeded by forms, in the zenith of indescribable outline because of the rapidity of changes. At times it seemed as if there were two distinct strata of aurora, the lower one being most agitated, so that the prismatic colors in modified tints crossed and recrossed each other while the whole looked like a magnificent pyrotechnic display on which various colored and intense lights were thrown. In the west the band showed occasionally that at a great distance in that direction a similar movement was in progress, while to the E'd such a movement was plainly discernible the rapid changes of the foldings in the band taking the forms of spiral curtains. The whole display after lasting a half hour moved to N. of zenith fading as it went.


Moon 24° 41' N.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 285):

Ice formed five inches in thickness over sounding hole since yesterday.

Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 286):

The ice is getting uneasy again, for at four a.m. sounds of movement came from the S.E. and E., following some short, slight shocks the ship had experienced at three.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004c5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_078_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004c7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_078_1.jpg)


17 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 550 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 72 tons 1643 lbs


2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 45°; B.B in air = -25°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 15°; B.B. in air -23.5°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = -10.5°; B.B in air = -26.5°


The forward spar deck bilge pump is worked by Baxter engine, and the main engine bilge pump by the steam cutters engine. Distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

9 inches

10 inches

5 inches

At fire room bilge

2 inches

2 inches

1 ½ inches


Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms, muddy bottom, drift to the westward being indicated by the lead line. Dawn light showing faint ruddy tint at 2am. Bright dawn at 3.

Ice 4 ½ inches in thickness formed over sounding hole since noon yesterday.

Weather clear, light and pleasant with very light northerly and westerly winds and very slowly falling barometer and increasing temperature. Crew engaged in digging away the ice under the bows. The bear which was shot yesterday was brought in to the ship.

At 1am faint arch 10° in altitude To S'd. Broken curtain lines from 10° above northern horizon to zenith, faint and disconnected. Much diffused auroral light in S.E. At 2 faint arch 10° in altitude to S'd with scattered and faint streamers to N'd. At 3 burr around the moon 4° in diameter. Low flat arch 10° in S., one faint arch 80° in alt to S'd with a point to which streamers from first arch converge. At 4 low flat arch 10° in altitude to S'd, with numerous detached curtains scattered from that altitude to the zenith, and same also in the east and west.

At 9pm successive arches from zenith to 10° above northern horizon moving toward the south and followed by newly formed ones in the N'd. At 10pm the arches in advancing seem to fade at the southern horizon. At 11 successions of arches reaching from N.W. and S.E. moving from 20° above northern horizon toward and across the zenith to 20° above southern horizon, and disappearing at that altitude. Six arches in transit at one time. At midnight two faint arches to the northward at altitude of 20° and 40° respectively, with diffused light to zenith.


Moon 24° 56' N.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 291 ff):

The crew were engaged again to-day in digging away the ice under the bows. We have now got down to the eight foot mark, and have such a thin layer of ice between the hole and the water that digging has to cease. If we let the water through it will flow up and freeze, and we shall have a mess again up to the original level; but if we let the freezing go on downward for some time we may be able to dig deeper. In connection with this freezing downward, it is a subject of inquiry as to what depth this freezing can take place. We have not seen any single floe of greater thickness than seven feet, ten inches, and I suppose that eight feet may be assumed as the maximum thickness of floe ice by direct freezing, as stated by Dr. Kane. Dr. Walker says that the floe ice in which the Fox drifted had only five feet of thickness. The floe which we saw and measured as having seven feet ten inches thickness was a portion of floe hove up in the great pressures in November; but whether it was direct freezing, or a series of two or more floes overlying each other, I cannot say. When we floated out to open water on November 28th, I commenced the regular measurement of the ice as it froze by measuring in the fire-hole. The last measurement made was on the 17th January, when the direct freezing was forty-six inches since November 28th. This was a piece of ice formed around us, and which had been up-ended in pressure. Measurements in the fire-hole had become unsatisfactory, because of the tendency of the ice to assume the sides of an inverted funnel, and lead to grave doubts as to the position of our measuring-rod. On the 4th March a crack in the floe enabled us to get a thickness of four feet, direct freezing of thirty days, the freezing having commenced when we had a temperature of minus 36.5°, and continued while the highest temperature recorded was minus 22°, and the lowest minus 53°. So much of the floe in which the ship is held is underrun by other floes, that finding a clear place to bore for a single thickness is like looking for a needle in a hay-stack. I have concluded to wait until a fresh break will enable us to get a correct vertical measurement of the thickness of ice frozen since November 28th. As ice is a non-conductor of heat, it follows that there must be some thickness at which the ice prevents the heat escaping from the water under it, and places a limit to the depth of freezing. At the time the ice was four feet thick the surface floated only four inches above the level of the water.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004c9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_079_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004cb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_079_1.jpg)


18 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 330 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 72 tons 1313 lbs


1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 55°; BB in air = -14°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 47°; B.B. in air = -13.5°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 26.5°; B.B in air = -12.5°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 11.5°; B.B in air = -17°


The forward spar deck bilge-pump is worked by Baxter engine and the main engine bilge pump by the steam cutters engine. Distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

9 inches

12 inches

7 inches

At fire room bilge

2 inches

4 inches

3 inches


Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms. Muddy bottom. A drift to the west being indicated by the lead line.

Ice formed 4 inches in thickness over sounding hole since noon yesterday. Dawn light on horizon at 2am. At 6pm sun's semi-diameter was above the horizon.

Land was sighted in the afternoon bearing south true, the direction of the north side of Wrangel Land.

Weather clear, bright and pleasant. Light variable winds until 10pm when the wind settled in S.W. and commenced to freshen considerably, veering to the W.S.W. at 11 and there continuing at midnight with increasing velocity. Steadily falling barometer and rising temperature.

At 1am auroral arches to S'd at altitude varying from 20° to 45°. Bright detached patches of curtains in N.E. and N.W. At 2 arches from S'd returning to N'd with fainter light except the one coming from 45° altitude S. Faint arch 10° in altitude to N'd. At 3 faint arches 10° and 15° in altitude to S'd. Lunar halo 4° in diameter. At 4 faint gleams of aurora in west. At 9pm faint arches to N'd 20° and 30° in altitude continuing at 10. At midnight lunar halo 4° in diameter showing prismatic colors. Strong light reflected from the floe lying under the moon.


Moon 24° N.

First quarter


50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004cd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_080_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004cf: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_080_1.jpg)


19 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 440 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 72 tons 873 lbs


The forward spar deck bilge pump is worked by Baxter engine, and the main engine bilge pump by the steam cutters engine. Distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

9 inches

8 inches

8 inches

At fire room bilge

4 inches

2 inches

3 inches


Sounded at noon in 29 ½ fathoms. Mud and grey sand. Drift indicated to S.E. x E. Ice formed 4 ½ inches in thickness over sounding hole since noon yesterday.

Fresh west wind all day, moderating in velocity toward midnight. Slightly varying barometer and temperature. Light driving snow until 3am, and thereafter occasional flying dusts of snow from the surface of the floe.

At 7am 5 sun dogs in the sky continuing until after 8am. At midnight lunar halo 2° in diameter showing faint prismatic colors.


Moon 22° N.

First quarter


50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004d1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_081_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004d3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_081_1.jpg)


20 March 1880

Lat 72.38, Long -177.45

Beset in the pack to the northward & westward of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 22' 30"

Longitude by chronometer from 2.15pm observations Sun W. 177° 27' 03"


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 550 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 72 tons 323 lbs


2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 51°; B.B. in air = -12.5°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 39.5°; B.B. in air = -14°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 23°; B.B. in air = -14°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = -2.5°; B.B. in air = -17.5°


The forward spar deck bilge pump is worked by Baxter engine, and the main engine bilge pump by the steam cutters engine. Distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

15 inches

13 inches

11 inches

At fire room bilge

3 inches

3 inches

2 ½ inches


Sounded at noon in 29 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. No drift indicated by lead line. Ice formed 3 ½ inches in thickness over sounding hole since yesterday noon.

Weather generally clear and pleasant. Light westerly winds with slowly falling, followed by slowly rising barometer, and decreasing temperature.

A large walrus was shot by Alexey. So large that but half of him could be dragged to the ship by the dogs at one time.

Water clouds to S.E., S.W. and west.

At 1am curtain aurora flashing and fading at an altitude of 25° to the N'd. A broken arch through zenith, and a faint arch at an altitude of 25° to the S'd. At 3 lunar halo 4° in diameter showing faint prismatic colors. At 9pm auroral arches at altitudes of 40° and 30° to N'd, with curtain arches from N.E. x E. to W.N.W. which had become faint at 10pm. At 11 auroral patches to N.W. and at midnight auroral patches from N.W. to N.E.


Moon 22° N.

First quarter


50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004d5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_082_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004d7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_082_1.jpg)


21 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 440 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 71 tons 2123 lbs


1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 28.5°; B.B. in air = -15°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 30°; B.B. in air = -15°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = -0.3°; B.B. in air = -16°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = -4.5°; B.B. in air = -15°


The forward spar deck bilge pump is worked by Baxter engine, and the main engine bilge pump by the steam cutters engine.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

7 inches

12 inches

10 inches

At fire room bilge

3 inches

1 inch

2 inches


Sounded at noon in 30 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. No drift indicated by the lead line. Ice formed 4 inches in thickness over sounding hole since noon yesterday. Ruddy dawn to N'd at 2am.

At 11am ship inspected by Commanding Officer. At 1pm divine service was performed in the cabin.

Light southerly and westerly winds during forenoon. During the afternoon the wind backed and freshened to a moderate gale from east with a rapidly falling barometer. Temperature rising. From 8.30 to midnight soft snow. Ice in motion to N.E. at 4am.


Moon 15° N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 295):

The ice was in motion again to the N.E. at four a.m.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004d9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_083_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004db: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_083_1.jpg)


22 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 330 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 71 tons 1793 lbs


2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 56.5°; B.B. in air = -5°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 36°; B.B. in air = -6.5°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 9.5°; B.B. in air = -7.5°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = -0.7°; B.B. in air = -9°


The forward spar deck bilge pump is worked by Baxter engine, and the main engine bilge pump by the steam cutters engine. Distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

8 inches

9 inches

9 inches

At fire room bilge

3 inches

1 inch

3 inches


Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms. Mud and grey sand. A slight drift to the E'd being indicated by the lead line. Ice 2 inches in thickness formed over sounding hole since noon yesterday.

Day begins overcast and squally, with moderating gale from E. At 8 wind backs to N.E. x N. and becomes light at noon. Light westerly winds in the afternoon, setting at W.S.W. and freshening as day ends. Falling barometer to noon, followed by rising barometer to midnight. Increasing temperature until 6am when zero is reached, and decreasing temperature thence to the close of these twenty four hours. Very light soft snow nearly all day.

A walrus shot yesterday was brought in to the ship, and another one was killed but was lost by sinking.

Crew engaged in digging ice away from under the bows.

Lunar halo from 8 to 10pm. Auroral patches extending from E. to W. at an altitude generally of 45° above the northern horizon.


Moon 10° 16' N.

First quarter


50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004dd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_084_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004df: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_084_1.jpg)


23 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 510 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 71 tons 1283 lbs


1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 33°; B.B in air = -11.5°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 13.5°; B.B. in air = -12°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 12.5°; B.B. in air = -13°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 2°; B.B in air = -14°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = -0.7°; B.B in air = -15°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = -13°; B.B in air = -16.5°


The forward spar deck bilge pump is worked by Baxter engine, and the main engine bilge pump by the steam cutters engine. Distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

9 inches

13 inches

13 inches

At fire room bilge

4 inches

1 inch

3 inches


Sounded at noon in 29 fathoms, muddy bottom, a drift to S.E. being indicated by the lead line. Ice formed 3 inches in thickness over sounding hole since noon yesterday. Dawn light showing to N'd at 1am.

Crew engaged in digging away ice under bows. Having reached down to about 6 ½ feet of the vessel's draft, digging was discontinued for the present. No sign of the injury causing the leak could be found down as far as the depth indicated. At midnight, however, the pressure of the water beneath broke through the thin layer of ice remaining, and commenced to flood the excavated space, beginning to freeze immediately on the surface.

Sky alternately clearing and clouding over all day. Winds varying from S.W. to W. by N. with moderate velocity. Rising barometer and falling temperature.

At 5pm an opening occurred in the ice to the S.W. of the ship, and much vapor arose therefrom.


Moon 4° 53' N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 296):

The crew were engaged in digging away the ice under the bows. We got down to a point on the stem where the draught would be six and one half feet, and not caring to dig any deeper, lest we should break through the remaining ice and admit the water, the digging was discontinued. At that depth no injury could be detected, although diligent search was made. The whole bow was dug out to that depth, as far aft as the line of the bulkhead which we built across the fore peak, and not a sign of an injury could be found. I am more than ever of the opinion that our forefoot is the seat of the damage. At midnight, however, all our labor was in one sense lost, for the pressure of the water underneath was too much for the thin layer of remaining ice, and holes were broken through sufficient to flood the large pit under the bow.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004e1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_085_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004e3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_085_1.jpg)


24 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 510 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 71 tons 773 lbs


1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 52°; B.B. in air = -15°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 50°; B.B. in air = -15°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 28°; B.B. in air = -14°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = -3°; B.B. in air = -14.5°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 25°; B.B. in air = -14.5°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = -2.5°; B.B. in air = -16°


The pumping is done by the Baxter engine, and the steam cutters engine as usual. Steam cutter's boiler also used in distilling water.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

9 inches

11 inches

8 inches

At fire room bilge

3 inches

2 ½ inches

2 inches


Sounded at noon in 30 ½ fathoms. No drift indicated by lead line. Lead came up clean. Ice formed 3 ½ inches in thickness over sounding hole since noon yesterday.

Weather generally clear, bright and pleasant. Light westerly winds at the beginning of the day backing to S.W. at 7pm and there continuing to midnight. Steady barometer during the forenoon and slowly rising barometer in the afternoon. Rising followed by falling temperature.

The water rose in the hole dug under the bows as high as the 11 feet mark. Resumed work of digging away the ice under the stern to free as much as possible of the propeller frame and blade.

Land was seen in the afternoon bearing nearly south (true). The shape was that of two peaks with a saddle between them; – the same as seen heretofore and supposed to be the north side of Wrangell's Land.


Moon 0° 52' S.

First quarter


50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004e5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_086_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004e7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_086_1.jpg)


25 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 510 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 71 tons 263 lbs


1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 22.5°; B.B. in air = -3.5°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 16°; B.B. in air = -6.5°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 10.5°; B.B. in air = -6.5°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 2°; B.B. in air = -10°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = -3.5°; B.B. in air = -11°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = -9.5°; B.B. in air = -12°


The pumping is done as usual by the Baxter engine and the steam cutters engine. The steam cutter's boiler is also used for distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

9 inches

7 inches

9 inches

At fire room bilge

3 inches

2 inches

3 inches


Sounded at noon in 29 fathoms. Muddy bottom. Slight S.E. drift being indicated by the lead line. Ice formed 3 ½ inches in thickness over sounding hole since noon yesterday.

Weather clear and pleasant until 10am. From that time to 10pm the sky was overcast, and from noon to 6pm a thick fog prevailed. Many openings occurred in the ice between S.E. and S.W. indicated by large quantities of escaping vapor. Moisture deposited on all metal surfaces in a thick rime. Light westerly and south-westerly winds in forenoon, and light southerly and easterly winds in the afternoon. Rising barometer to noon, unsteadiness to midnight. Rapid rise in temperature in forenoon.

Crew engaged in digging away the ice under the stern and counters. Upper part of propeller frame uncovered, and no sign of damage.

At 1am ruddy dawn light to N'd. At 1.30 auroral curtain arch to the N'd 60° in altitude with pulsations moving from W. to E. At midnight a single brilliant auroral streamer extended from E. to W. through zenith, while faint arches 15°, 30° and 45° in altitude to the S'd starting from a point in the east, reunited at a point in the west.


Moon 6° 44' S.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 297 ff):

Weather clear and pleasant until ten a.m., the wind prevailing from W.S.W. From ten a.m. to ten p.m. the sky was overcast, and from noon till six p.m. a thick fog surrounded us. Many openings occurred in the ice between S.E. and S.W. indicated by large quantities of escaping vapor, succeeded by a water-sky. I am inclined to think that much if not all of the water-skies we read about during winter, spring, and fall, instead of indicating water spaces at that moment indicate where open water has been. For, when openings occur at a time at which the temperature of the air is below that of the uncovered water, such masses of vapor are given off that the air is filled with them in their immediate locality. When the young ice forms on the surface, the escape of vapor ceases. The color of the new ice is dark green or dark blue until the efflorescence occurs, and it is this dark space reflected in the sky as in a mirror (in broad contrast to the dead whiteness of the reflected ice-field) that gives rise to the reports of extraordinary continuance of open water.

Although the commotions in the ice at a distance have not affected our floe, it has undergone change from another cause. At different times this winter when we have had trouble close aboard, the pressures and upheavals have made our floe humpy and ridgy, in some places confused piles of ice standing five and six feet, and sometimes twenty feet in height.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004e9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_087_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004eb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_087_1.jpg)


26 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 510 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 70 tons 1993 lbs


1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 23.5°; B.B. in air = 3.5°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 20°; B.B. in air = 0.4°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 20°; B.B. in air = 5°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 17°; B.B. in air = 4.5°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 15.5°; B.B. in air = 4°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = 6.5°; B.B. in air = 3°


The pumping is done as usual by the Baxter engine and the steam cutters engine. The steam cutter's boiler is used also for distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

6 inches

12 inches

12 inches

At fire room bilge

2 inches

2 inches

3 inches


Sounded at noon in 30 fathoms. Muddy bottom. Strong drift to west indicated by the lead line. Ice 3 inches in thickness formed over sounding hole since noon yesterday.

Stiff breezes from east and E.N.E. all day. Falling barometer to noon, followed by steady or slowly rising barometer to midnight. Rising temperature. Weather clear and pleasant until sunrise, and thereafter overcast and gloomy with much fog and fine driving snow. Indications of many ice-openings are around us. Much vapor rising therefrom. Dawn light to N'd at 1am.

At 1am lunar circle with faint mock moons to right and left. Faint broken wave lines of aurora 20° in altitude to the N'd. Much deposit of frost on exposed surfaces. At 2, lunar circle with vertical beams from moon, and faint mock moons. At 5pm parhelion of 22° 30' radius. At 10pm a meteor fell in S.W. x W.


Moon 12° 20' S.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 300):

Ice three inches in thickness formed over sounding hole since noon yesterday.

We also had a thick fog for five or six hours in the middle of the day. Previous thereto the ice opened and clouds of vapor escaped, and then the opening must have been so extensive as to cause the fog.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004ed: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_088_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004ef: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_088_1.jpg)


27 March 1880

Lat 72.48, Long -178.12

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 29' 01"

Longitude by chronometer from forenoon observations Sun W. 178° 07' 12"


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 545 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 70 tons 1448 lbs


1pm: B.B. in vacuo= 61°; B.B in air = 12°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 47°; B.B. in air = 12°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 30°; B.B. in air = 12.5°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 22°; B.B. in air = 12.5°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 12°; B.B. in air = 12.5°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = 14°; B.B. in air = 12°


The pumping is done as usual by the Baxter engine and the steam cutters engine. Distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

6 inches

11 inches

8 inches

At fire room bilge

2 inches

2 inches

4 inches


Sounded at noon in 30 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. A drift to the west being indicated by the lead line. Ice formed 2 inches in thickness over sounding hole since noon yesterday.

Stiff breezes from east and E.S.E. all day, with steady barometer, rising toward midnight; and increasing temperature. Weather generally overcast and gloomy with same driving snow. Much fog between 6 and 10pm proceeding from extensive openings in the ice to the S'd and E'd of the ship.


Moon 17° 20' S.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 300):

Much fog between six and ten p.m., proceeding from evidently extensive openings in the ice to the southward and eastward of the ship.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004f1: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_089_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004f3: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_089_1.jpg)


28 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 510 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 70 tons 938 lbs


2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 35°; B.B. in air = 20°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 30°; B.B. in air = 19°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 28.5°; B.B. in air = 18.5°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 26°; B.B. in air = 17.5°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = 21.5°; B.B. in air = 19°


The pumping is done as usual by the Baxter engine and the steam cutters engine. Distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

13 inches

15 inches

9 inches

At fire room bilge

4 inches

6 inches

3 inches


Sounded at noon in 33 fathoms. Muddy bottom. No drift indicated by lead line. Merely a thin sheet of ice formed over sounding hole since noon yesterday.

Weather overcast, gloomy and foggy. Fresh southerly and easterly winds with slowly falling barometer. Driving snow for the first three hours.

At 11am Commanding Officer inspected the ship, and at 1pm divine service was performed in the cabin.

Dawn light on northern horizon at midnight.


Moon 21° 17' S.

Full moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 302):

Alexey and Aniguin were out to-day in quest of game, and going about two miles to the S.E. of the ship came to open water, in which they shot a seal.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004f5: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_090_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004f7: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_090_1.jpg)


29 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 510 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 70 tons 428 lbs


4am: B.B. in vacuo = 20.5°; B.B in air = 20°


The pumping is done as usual by the Baxter engine and the steam cutters engine. The steam cutter's boiler is also used for distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

9 inches

13 inches

8 inches

At fire room bilge

2 inches

1 inch

3 inches


Sounded at noon in 33 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. Drift to E.N.E. indicated by the lead line.

Weather generally clear and pleasant with fresh south-easterly veering to fresh south-westerly winds, moderating toward midnight at which time the wind had veered to west. Rapidly rising barometer and falling temperature.

At midnight dawn light from N.W. to north.

Crew engaged in breaking out forward store-room and scraping off the accumulations of ice and frost.


Moon 23° 53' S.

Full moon


50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004f9: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_091_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004fb: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_091_1.jpg)


30 March 1880

Lat 72.60, Long -178.12

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 36'

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations Sun W. 178° 07'


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 510 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 69 tons 2158 lbs


2am: B.B. in vacuo = 2°; B.B. in air = 1.5°

3am: B.B. in vacuo = 1.3°; B.B. in air = 1°

4am: B.B. in vacuo = 0.5°; B.B. in air = 0.5°

1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 57.3°; B.B. in air = -1°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 26.5°; B.B. in air = -1°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 18°; B.B. in air = -0.5°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 12°; B.B. in air = -0.5°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 7°; B.B. in air = -1°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = 2°; B.B. in air = -1°


The pumping is done by the Baxter engine and the steam cutters engine. The steam cutter's boiler is also used in distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

8 inches

9 inches

8 inches

At fire room bilge

3 inches

2 inches

4 inches


Sounded at noon in 33 ½ fathoms. No bottom. Specimen brought up by lead. Drift to S'd indicated by the lead line.

Weather generally clear and pleasant except in early morning and after 6pm when it was cloudy and hazy. Light northerly and westerly winds veering to northward at noon; and moderate northerly and easterly winds thence to midnight. Rising barometer and varying temperature.

Ice opening, leaving a long narrow lane of water extending from S.W. to east and about 3 miles distant from the ship.

Crew engaged in clearing out forward store room.


Moon 24° 51' S.

Full moon


50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004fd: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_092_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd0004ff: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_092_1.jpg)


31 March 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 510 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 69 tons 1648 lbs


1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 24.5°; B.B. in air = 6°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 26°; B.B. in air = 7°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 20°; B.B. in air = 9°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 21°; B.B. in air = 10°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 18°; B.B. in air = 11°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = 15.5°; B.B. in air = 11°


The pumping is done as usual by the Baxter engine and the steam cutters engine. The steam cutter's boiler is also used for distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

9 inches

7 inches

8 inches

At fire room bilge

0 inches

4 inches

3 inches


Sounded at noon in 32 fathoms. Muddy bottom. Drift to N.W. indicated by the lead line.

Overcast and gloomy weather with fresh gale from N'd & E'd with heavy squalls and light snow. Moderating after meridian, the wind veering to the S'd. Barometer falling steadily, and temperature rising.

Crew engaged in restowing forward store room.

The following articles of provisions were condemned as unfit for use during the past month, viz:

32 lbs flour – damaged by salt water

30 lbs Rio coffee – damaged by salt water

12 lbs chocolate – damaged by salt water

4 ½ lbs roast mutton – found bad on opening cans

60 lbs beef soup – found bad on opening cans

52 lbs roast beef – found bad on opening cans


Moon 24° 11' S.

Full moon



LOGS FOR APRIL 1880


50a27fdb7438ae05bd000501: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_093_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd000503: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_093_1.jpg)


1 April 1880

Lat 72.68, Long -178.43

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 41'

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations Sun W. 178° 25' 30"

Variation of the compass by azimuth at 3pm E. 24° 00' 40"


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 510 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 69 tons 1138 lbs


1am: B.B. in vacuo = 12°; B.B. in air = 12°

6am: B.B. in vacuo = 30°; B.B. in air = 7°

7am: B.B. in vacuo = 41.5°; B.B. in air = 4.5°

9am: B.B. in vacuo = 54°; B.B. in air = 9°

10am: B.B. in vacuo = 53°; B.B. in air = 6.5°

11am: B.B. in vacuo = 56.5°; B.B. in air = 7°

12am: B.B. in vacuo = 60°; B.B. in air = 8°

1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 64°; B.B. in air = 7.5°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 48°; B.B. in air = 7.5°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 28°; B.B. in air = 6°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 19°; B.B. in air = 6°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 12.5°; B.B. in air = 4°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = 8.5°; B.B. in air = 3.5°


The pumping is done by the Baxter engine and the steam cutters engine. The steam cutter's boiler is also employed in distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

7 inches

12 inches

8 inches

At fire room bilge

1 ½ inches

2 inches

1 ½ inches


Sounded at noon in 32 fathoms, muddy bottom, very slight drift to N.N.W. being indicated by the lead line.

Weather generally clear and pleasant. During the first two hours and the last two hours of the day the sky was overcast and a light snow fell. Much haze and vapor rising from ice openings during the afternoon.

At 8.15am a bear coming near the ship was pursued and killed. He was 8 feet in length 3 feet 5 inches in height and weighed 675 lbs.

Took up the port forward spar deck bilge pump, and placed it in the fire room hatch with its end in the starboard bilge of the fire room, preparatory to moving the Baxter engine and boiler below and making connections therewith.

Crew engaged in breaking out after store room, and removing the accumulation of frost and ice therefrom.

The usual monthly examination of the physical condition of the officers and men was commenced to day by the surgeon.

The internal routine for spring was put in operation in place of the routine established on November 1st.


Moon 21° 59' S.

Last quarter


50a27fdb7438ae05bd000505: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_094_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd000507: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_094_1.jpg)


2 April 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 510 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 69 tons 628 lbs


9am: B.B. in vacuo = 26°; B.B. in air = 10°

10am: B.B. in vacuo = 26°; B.B. in air = 10°

11am: B.B. in vacuo = 29°; B.B. in air = 12°

12am: B.B. in vacuo = 31°; B.B. in air = 13°

1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 33°; B.B. in air = 14°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 35.5°; B.B. in air = 16°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 38°; B.B. in air = 17°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 29.5°; B.B. in air = 18°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 25°; B.B. in air = 17.5°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = 22.5°; B.B. in air = 18.3°

7pm: B.B. in vacuo = 16.5°; B.B. in air = 15°


The pumping is done by the Baxter engine and the steam cutters engine. The steam cutter's boiler is also used for distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

8 inches

15 inches

8 inches

At fire room bilge

2 ½ inches

3 ½ inches

0 inches


Sounded at noon in 31 ½ fathoms, muddy bottom. A drift to the N.W. being indicated by the lead line. Ice 2 inches in thickness formed over sounding hole since noon yesterday.

Fresh north-easterly winds until noon, which moderated until 4pm and then became light and variable. Sky overcast, and snow fell steadily until 6pm when it ceased and the sky cleared somewhat. Falling barometer until wind became unsteady and then slowly rising barometer. Rising temperature with steady winds, and rapid fall followed by fluctuations with changing winds. Very light snow at midnight.

Crew engaged in removing accumulations of frost from after store rooms, and in commencing to re-stow provisions. Engineer's force and carpenters securing bilge pump in fire room hatch.

The usual monthly physical examination of the crew was continued and completed by the surgeon.


Moon 18° 32' S.

Last quarter


50a27fdb7438ae05bd000509: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_095_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd00050b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_095_1.jpg)


3 April 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 510 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 69 tons 118 lbs


4am: B.B. in vacuo = 3.5°; B.B. in air = 3°

5am: B.B. in vacuo = 3.5°; B.B. in air = 2°

6am: B.B. in vacuo = 5°; B.B. in air = 1°

7am: B.B. in vacuo = 8.5°; B.B. in air = 2°

8am: B.B. in vacuo = 10°; B.B. in air = 1.7°

9am: B.B. in vacuo =16°; B.B. in air = 5°

10am: B.B. in vacuo = 21°; B.B. in air = 5°

11am: B.B. in vacuo = 20°; B.B. in air = 5°

12am: B.B. in vacuo = 24°; B.B. in air = 4°

1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 37°; B.B. in air = 2°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 25.5°; B.B. in air = 1°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 24.5°; B.B. in air = 1°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 15°; B.B. in air = -2°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 7°; B.B. in air = -3°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = 1.5°; B.B. in air = -5°

7pm: B.B. in vacuo = -4°; B.B. in air = -6°


The pumping is done by the Baxter engine and the steam cutters engine. The steam cutter's boiler is also used for distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

12 inches

7 inches

7 inches

At fire room bilge

3 inches

2 inches

0 inches


Sounded at noon in 33 fathoms. Muddy bottom. No drift being indicated by the lead line.

Sky generally overcast and weather gloomy. Light snow falling about half the day. Fog prevailing until noon. Light southerly and westerly winds with slowly rising barometer and falling temperature.

Sounds of ice in motion to S.E. of the ship at 1am.

Crew engaged in restowing after store room. Engineer's force engaged in preparing new fittings for altered pump rig; and carpenters engaged in clearing shifted bilge pump in the corner of the fire room hatch.


Moon 14° 8' S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 308 ff):

Mr. Dunbar, who seems to be regaining his old strength and endurance (although his gait is more like that of an old man than one of his years), took a long tramp with Alexey and Aniguin about seven miles S.E. from the ship. At that point he came to some very heavy ice, seemingly aground, as it had no motion, although with water around it. The extent of water may have been two hundred feet in length and fifty feet in width, narrowing to cracks at either end. For several days he and I had observed from aloft a long ridge of ice to the southward, and had made conjectures as to its being stranded on a reef or shoal; and since he has gone out there and thinks it looks much like it, he will on Monday make one more trip to sound. He says that while he stood on the floe edge looking at this ridge, everything being still, there commenced a trembling of the ice on which he stood, and a commotion in the water in front of him, when suddenly a large mass of ice as big as the after part of this ship cut off at the poop came up with a bound, and settled to its line of flotation. Being in some unaccountable manner liberated from the power that held it under the floe, it made its way naturally to the surface.

The familiar grinding and groaning of ice in motion was heard at one a.m. Somehow or other, I cannot help anticipating a considerable disturbance at our next new moon on the 9th inst. Our sudden drift and recent high temperature indicate a loosening of the ice somewhere, and if we go toward the place we may become mixed with it.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd00050d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_096_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd00050f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_096_1.jpg)


4 April 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 560 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 68 tons 1798 lbs


4am: B.B. in vacuo = -16.5°; B.B. in air = -17.5°

5am: B.B. in vacuo = -13°; B.B. in air = -18°

6am: B.B. in vacuo = -11°; B.B. in air = -19°

7am: B.B. in vacuo = 15.5°; B.B. in air = -16°

8am: B.B. in vacuo = 2°; B.B. in air = -15°

9am: B.B. in vacuo = 12°; B.B. in air = -11°

10am: B.B. in vacuo = 15°; B.B. in air = -10°

11am: B.B. in vacuo = 19°; B.B. in air = -9.5°

12am: B.B. in vacuo = 20.5°; B.B. in air = -8.5°

1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 20.3°; B.B. in air = -8°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 18.5°; B.B. in air = -6.5°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 15°; B.B. in air = -6°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 7.7°; B.B. in air = -7°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 2°; B.B. in air = -8°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = -4.5°; B.B. in air = -10.3°

7pm: B.B. in vacuo = -6°; B.B. in air = -11°


The pumping is done by the Baxter engine and the steam cutters engine. The steam cutter's boiler is also used in distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

7 inches

13 inches

7 inches

At fire room bilge

2 inches

3 inches

1 ½ inches


Sounded at noon in 32 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. No drift being indicated by the lead line. Ice 3 ½ inches in thickness formed over sounding hole since noon yesterday.

Sunrise at 4.45am. Sunset at 7.39pm.

Weather clear and pleasant at the beginning and ending of the day, but cloudy and overcast from 9am to 4pm. Light breezes from W.S.W. and S.W. with rising barometer and low temperature.

At 10am read the act for the government of the Navy and mustered the crew; after which the Commanding Officer inspected the ship and divine service was performed in the cabin.

An opening in the ice 7 miles S.E. of the ship. At this place a large mass of ice seems to be grounded, and the edge of the field in which the ship is beset is moving against it and having its broken fragments piled up to a height of 50 or 60 feet. Soundings at this place give a depth of 24 ½ fathoms, muddy bottom.


Moon 9° 7' S.

Last quarter


50a27fdb7438ae05bd000511: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_097_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd000513: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_097_1.jpg)


5 April 1880

Lat 72.51, Long -178.55

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 30' 19"

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations Sun W. 178° 33' 15"


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 510 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 68 tons 1288 lbs


5am: B.B. in vacuo = -7°; B.B. in air = -23°

6am: B.B. in vacuo = 7°; B.B. in air = -23°

7am: B.B. in vacuo = 32.5°; B.B. in air = -22°

8am: B.B. in vacuo = 42.5°; B.B. in air = -21°

9am: B.B. in vacuo = 43°; B.B. in air = -16°

10am: B.B. in vacuo = 35°; B.B. in air = -16°

11am: B.B. in vacuo = 45°; B.B. in air = -16°

12am: B.B. in vacuo = 50°; B.B. in air = -15°

1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 52.5°; B.B. in air = -16°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 51°; B.B. in air = -15°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 38°; B.B. in air = -15°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 35°; B.B. in air = -14°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 36.5°; B.B. in air = -14°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = 18°; B.B. in air = -14.7°


Water in the ship to day.


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

8 inches

12 inches

8 inches

At fire room bilge

2 inches

0 inches

1 inch


Until 9am the pumping is done by the Baxter engine and steam cutters engine, while the steam cutter's boiler is used as customary for distilling. At the hour named blew the water out of the Baxter boiler, and took the apparatus apart for a thorough scaling and cleaning, upon completion of which the engine and boiler were transferred to the fire room and got ready for use in that place. Dismantled the gearing for working the forward spar deck bilge pump by steam and adjusted all available parts thereof to work the shifted bilge pump in the fire room hatch. The pumping forward is done by hand when necessary.

Sounded at noon in 33 fathoms, muddy bottom, a slight easterly drift being indicated by the lead line. A seal having used the sounding hole as an air hole, no ice has formed in the center; but a gradual formation to 6 inches in thickness has taken place toward the circumference. Sunrise at 4.24am. Sunset at 7.40pm. Ruddy sun glow in north at midnight.

Bright and pleasant weather with moderate west and W.N.W. breezes and rising barometer. Lowest temperature at 5am; highest temperature at 5pm.

At 1am broken curtain aurora through zenith moving with rapid undulations from west to east, and spreading into two bands toward north and south.

A narrow lane of open water describing a semi-circumference about the ship from S.W. around by west to N.E. and distant about 7 miles.


Moon 3° 46' S.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 311 ff):

And now one would imagine that we had arrived at the end of our resources for saving coal without resorting to hand power. But it is not so. Some days ago, in thinking matters over, I recollected having seen pumps run by windmills, and upon consulting Melville as to the practicability of making the necessary machinery on board ship I was gratified, but (knowing his genius and unfailing readiness to adapt the means to the end) not surprised, to have him say, "Can do it." He thought out all the details, and has immediately commenced working drawings for the construction of the windmill bilge-pump. He calculates that with a wind of velocity equal to five miles an hour, we can have a mill that will do the work now done by the altered main engine bilge-pump run by the steam-cutter's engine. Of course when we have no wind we must pump by hand if we wish to save coal, but the number of hours of calm in a month has been so small that I think we can safely take the chances for the future.


Sounded at noon in thirty-three fathoms, muddy bottom, a slight easterly drift being indicated by the lead line. A seal has found our sounding place a convenient breathing hole, and comes there so regularly that no ice has been able to form over the centre of it since noon yesterday, but from the centre outward there is ice six inches in thickness in some places.

Mr. Dunbar in his wanderings to-day visited the apparently grounded ice again, and saw quite a lane of open water, but nothing to shoot at. From our topsail yard a narrow ribbon of water can be seen running from S.W. around by W. to N.E., and averaging seven miles in distance from us.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd000515: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_098_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd000517: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_098_1.jpg)


6 April 1880

Lat 72.48, Long -178.45

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 28' 43"

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations Sun W. 178° 27'


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 450 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 68 tons 838 lbs


1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 45°; B.B. in air = -14°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 53°; B.B. in air = -13°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 40.5°; B.B. in air = -13.5°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 19°; B.B. in air = -13°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 31°; B.B. in air = -14.5°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = 8.5°; B.B. in air = -17°


The pumping is done by the steam cutters engine aft, and by hand at the forward spar deck bilge pump as occasion requires. The steam cutter's boiler is also used for distilling. Completing the rig for connecting Baxter engine to shifted bilge pump in fire room.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

7 inches

6 inches

6 inches

At fire room bilge

2 inches

1 inch

1 inch


Sounded at noon in 33 fathoms. Muddy bottom. No drift being indicated by lead line. Same conditions of ice formation as noted in yesterday's log. Sunrise at 4h 10m. Sunset 7h 52m.

Clear, bright and pleasant weather with light southerly and westerly winds and very nearly steady barometer. Lowest temperature at 4am, highest at 2pm.

Crew engaged in stowing away below the gear which accumulated on the spar deck at and subsequent to the 19th January.


Moon 1° 39' S.

Last quarter


50a27fdb7438ae05bd000519: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_099_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd00051b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_099_1.jpg)


7 April 1880

Lat 72.55, Long -178.25

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 33'

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations Sun W. 178° 15'


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 290 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 68 tons 548 lbs


1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 56°; B.B. in air = -9°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 54.5°; B.B. in air = -8.5°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 42.5°; B.B. in air = -8°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 7°; B.B. in air = -9°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 42°; B.B. in air = -8.5°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = 29.5°; B.B. in air = -8.5°


Water in the ship to day.


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

7 inches

½ inch

7 inches

At fire room bilge

0 inches

9 inches

1 inch


Having finished all connections of the Baxter boiler and engine to the bilge pump shifted from forward to the corner of the fire room hatch, it was set in operation. It was found that the combination was capable of pumping out all the water that comes into the ship at present, the flood gates in the water tight bulkhead being opened to permit the water to come aft freely. But owing to the severity of the temperature, (the discharging being done through a canvas have led across the spar deck from the fire room hatch to a scupper) ice would form during the intervals when the pump was at rest, and stop proceedings. The flood gates were again closed, the use of the new pump rig postponed to more reasonable temperature, and the work of pumping resumed by the steam cutters engine aft, and by hand at the starboard bilge pump forward as required. The steam cutter's boiler is also used for distilling.

Sounded at noon in 34 fathoms, soft mud bottom. No drift indicated by the lead line. Sunrise at 4. Sunset at 7.55. Ice in motion to N. and N.W. at 4.10am. Brilliant parhelion 22° in radius. Sounds of ice in motion to the N.W. during the afternoon. Two brilliant sun dogs at 5 and 6am.

Weather clear, bright and pleasant with light S.W. breezes, and steady, followed toward midnight, by rising barometer. Slightly increasing temperature.

Crew engaged in stowing gear &c below and cleaning up the spar deck.


Moon 6° 55' N.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 313 ff):

Having finished all our connections with the new pump rig, and all being in readiness, the combination was tried this afternoon. It worked to a charm. The flood-gates were opened, and all the water was allowed to come aft as freely as it pleased. The Baxter then took hold and pumped it out. While waiting for more to come aft, a source of difficulty was discovered which forces us to suspend the rig until milder weather. The discharge is necessarily through a canvas hose leading from the fire-room hatch across the spar deck to a convenient scupper, and so to a hole which was dug in the ditch on the starboard side through to the surface of the water. This hole, of course, had to be covered immediately with a wooden box and a snow-house to protect the water from exposure to the open air and its temperature of minus 20° at times. But we could not keep the canvas hose and the top of the pump from exposure to the air, and consequently, while the pump was necessarily "spelled" to wait for water, ice formed in the canvas hose and choked it up. The flood-gates were again closed, and the water accumulated in the fire-room from time to time was pumped out as before by the steam cutter's engine, while the remaining bilge-pump forward was worked by hand as required. This we found to be from five to ten minutes every half hour. The fires under the Baxter were allowed to die out.


Our friend the seal comes still often enough to breathe to keep a hole open in the centre of our sounding hole, and so the ice is prevented from forming with any degree of regularity.

The ice was in motion immediately after sunrise, and all along in the afternoon until six o'clock. The movement seemed to be confined between N.W. and N.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd00051d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_100_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd00051f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_100_1.jpg)


8 April 1880

Lat 72.52, Long -178.17

Beset in the pack to the N.W. of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 31'

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations Sun W. 178° 10'

Variation of the compass by azimuth at 3.30pm E. 24° 30'


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 400 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 68 tons 148 lbs


4am: B.B. in vacuo = -15.5°; B.B. in air = -17.5°

5am: B.B. in vacuo = -7°; B.B. in air = -17°

6am: B.B. in vacuo = 8°; B.B. in air = -14°

7am: B.B. in vacuo = 22°; B.B. in air = -14°

8am: B.B. in vacuo = 42°; B.B. in air = -11.5°

9am: B.B. in vacuo = 52°; B.B. in air = -7°

10am: B.B. in vacuo = 57°; B.B. in air = -5°

11am: B.B. in vacuo = 62°; B.B. in air = -2°

12am: B.B. in vacuo = 67°; B.B. in air = -2.5°

1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 64.5°; B.B. in air = -1.5°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 60°; B.B. in air = -1.4°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 42°; B.B. in air = -2°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 15.5°; B.B. in air = -3.5°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 39°; B.B. in air = -4.5°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = 28.5°; B.B. in air = -7°


The water that gets aft into the fire room through the "water tight" bulkhead is pumped out by the main engine bilge pump worked by the steam cutters engine; and the water accumulating forward of that bulkhead is pumped out by the hand pump on the spar deck. The steam cutter boiler is also used for distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

6 inches

7 inches

7 inches

At fire room bilge

3 inches

2 inches

1 inch


Sounded at noon in 34 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. A drift to the north being indicated by the lead line. Sunrise at 3.58. Sunset at 8.08.

Bright, pleasant and almost cloudless weather. Light southerly and westerly winds and rising barometer.


Moon 11° 50' N.

Last quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 314):

Our pumping goes on now in this manner: When enough water gets aft into the fire-room to be worth the steam, the little cutter's engine pumps it out. At other times the steam cutter's boiler distills water. Every time the bell strikes, the man on watch works the forward spar deck bilge-pump until it draws air, which it generally does in from five to ten minutes. Our windmill pump rig gets on apace, Melville being engaged in making necessary forgings, and the carpenters working at such wood-work as is required.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd000521: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_101_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd000523: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_101_1.jpg)


9 April 1880

Lat 72.56, Long -178.14

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island

Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 33' 38"

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations Sun W. 178° 8' 30"

Variation of the compass by amplitude observed at sunset E. 22° 11'


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 400 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 67 tons 1988 lbs


4am: B.B. in vacuo = -13°; B.B. in air = -14°

5am: B.B. in vacuo = -7.5°; B.B. in air = -16°

6am: B.B. in vacuo = 6.5°; B.B. in air = -15.5°

7am: B.B. in vacuo = 26.5°; B.B. in air = -15°

8am: B.B. in vacuo = 42.7°; B.B. in air = -10.8°

9am: B.B. in vacuo = 54.5°; B.B. in air = -4°

10am: B.B. in vacuo = 58°; B.B. in air = -3°

11am: B.B. in vacuo = 65.5°; B.B. in air = 0°

12am: B.B. in vacuo = 68.5°; B.B. in air = 0°

1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 67.8°; B.B. in air = 1°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 62.6°; B.B. in air = 1.7°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 44°; B.B. in air = 0.7°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 14.6°; B.B. in air = -1°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 40.7°; B.B. in air = -2°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = 31.5°; B.B. in air = -4.5°


The pumping forward is done by hand at the spar deck bilge pump, and aft by the steam cutters engine driving the main engine bilge pump. The steam cutter's boiler is also used for distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

7 inches

7 inches

6 inches

At fire room bilge

3 inches

6 inches

3 inches


Sounded at noon in 35 fathoms, mud and fine gray sand. A drift to the north was indicated by the lead line. Sunrise at 3h 55m. Sunset at 8h 21m.

A raven was seen on the ice near the ship, being the first bird seen this year.

Generally clear, bright and pleasant weather, clouding up considerably at and after sunset. Light southerly and easterly winds with steady barometer. Temperature increasing considerably until 3pm and then it fell slowly.


Moon 11° 50' N.

New moon


50a27fdb7438ae05bd000525: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_102_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd000527: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_102_1.jpg)


10 April 1880

Lat 72.59, Long -178.13

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 35' 21"

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations Sun W. 178° 7' 30"

Variation of the compass by azimuth at 4pm E. 24°


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 400 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 67 tons 1588 lbs


1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 72.5°; B.B. in air = 12°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 51.5°; B.B. in air = 11.5°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 56.5°; B.B. in air = 11°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 29°; B.B. in air = 10°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 23.5°; B.B. in air = 13°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = 20°; B.B. in air = 12°


The pumping forward is done by hand at the spar deck bilge pump, and aft by the steam cutters engine driving the main engine bilge pump. The steam cutter's boiler is also used for distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

8 inches

7 inches

6 inches

At fire room bilge

1 inch

1 inch

0 inches


Sounded at noon in 35 fathoms, muddy bottom, drift to N.N.W. being indicated by the lead line. Ice kept from forming over sounding hole by a seal using it as a breathing hole. Sunrise at 3h 36m. Sunset at 8.17.

Light southerly and easterly winds with falling succeeded by rising barometer, and rapidly increasing followed by fluctuating temperature.

Engineer's force engaged in making forgings for a wind mill bilge pump, and carpenters employed in getting out the wooden appliances for the same.


Moon 19° 46' N.

New moon


50a27fdb7438ae05bd000529: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_103_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd00052b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_103_1.jpg)


11 April 1880

Lat 72.61

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 36' 41"


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 510 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 67 tons 1078 lbs


1pm: B.B. in vacuo = 69.3°; B.B. in air = 9.5°

2pm: B.B. in vacuo = 57°; B.B. in air = 8°

3pm: B.B. in vacuo = 41°; B.B. in air = 8°

4pm: B.B. in vacuo = 27°; B.B. in air = 9°

5pm: B.B. in vacuo = 24°; B.B. in air = 12°

6pm: B.B. in vacuo = 19°; B.B. in air = 11.5°


The pumping forward is done by hand at the spar deck bilge pump, and aft by the steam cutters engine driving the main engine bilge pump. The steam cutter's boiler is also used for distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

7 inches

6 inches

7 inches

At fire room bilge

1 inch

4 ½ inches

0 inches


Sounded at noon in 35 fathoms. Muddy bottom. No drift being indicated by the lead line.

At 10am Commanding Officer inspected the ship, after which divine service was performed in the cabin.

Weather generally cloudy and gloomy. Light southerly and easterly, followed by freshening northerly and easterly winds, falling barometer and varying temperature.


Moon 22° 28' N.

New moon


50a27fdb7438ae05bd00052d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_104_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd00052f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_104_1.jpg)


12 April 1880

Lat 72.67

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island

Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 40' 21"


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 215 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 67 tons 863 lbs


Maximum temperature shown by B.B. in vacuo = 75° at 11am.


The pumping forward is done by hand at the spar deck bilge pump, and aft by the steam cutters engine driving the main engine bilge pump. The steam cutter's boiler is also used for distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

8 inches

7 inches

7 inches

At fire room bilge

1 inch

0 inches

1 inch


Sounded at noon in 32 ½ fathoms. Muddy bottom. A drift to the N.N.W. being indicated by the lead line. No ice formed over the sounding hole, in consequence of the frequent visits of a seal. Sunrise at 3h 39m.

Weather cloudy and pleasant until noon with fresh easterly and south-easterly winds; from noon to midnight overcast, with light snowfall after 2 o'clock with moderating breezes growing very light and backing toward the close of these 24 hours.

Crew engaged in breaking out, cleaning and restowing store rooms and lockers under ward room and after store room. Carpenters and engineer's force engaged on wind mill pump.

Water sky from S.E. to S.W. at 7 and 8pm, and before that from N.E. around by south to S.W.


Moon 24° 9' N.

New moon


50a27fdb7438ae05bd000531: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_105_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd000533: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_105_1.jpg)


13 April 1880

Lat 72.68

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 40' 40"


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 230 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 67 tons 633 lbs


Maximum temperature shown by B.B. in vacuo = 76.7° at 1pm.


The pumping forward is done by the spar deck bilge pump, and aft by the steam cutters engine driving the main engine bilge pump. The steam cutter's boiler is also used for distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

6 inches

7 inches

7 inches

At fire room bilge

1 ½ inches

2 inches

1 inch


Sounded at noon in 32 fathoms. Muddy bottom. No drift being indicated by the lead line.

Weather overcast generally throughout the day with light snow fall. Light northerly and westerly winds until noon. Succeeded by light southerly and westerly winds to midnight.

Crew engaged in cleaning and restowing store rooms and lockers under ward room and after store room. Carpenters and engineer's force engaged in construction of wind mill pump.


Moon 24° 44' N.

New moon


50a27fdb7438ae05bd000535: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_106_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd000537: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_106_1.jpg)


14 April 1880

Lat 72.68

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 40' 40"


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 340 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 67 tons 293 lbs


Maximum temperature shown by B.B. in vacuo = 45.5° at 9am.


The pumping forward is done by hand at the spar deck bilge pump, and aft by the steam cutters engine driving the main engine bilge pump. Steam cutter's boiler is also used in distilling water.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

7 inches

7 inches

7 inches

At fire room bilge

2 inches

1 inch

2 inches


Sounded at noon in 32 fathoms, muddy bottom. No drift being indicated by the lead line. Sunrise at 3h 33m. Sunset at 8h 32m.

Sounds from ice in motion astern of the ship at 2 and 3am and in N.E., east and S.E. at 4am with vapor rising from the ice openings in those directions. At 5 and 6pm water sky to S.E. and south.

Weather clear and pleasant at beginning of day, clouding up toward noon and remaining overcast thence to midnight. Very light southerly winds during forenoon, succeeded by gentle E.S.E. breezes until midnight.

Crew engaged in restoring small lockers and store rooms under ward room.


Moon 24° 12' N.

New moon


50a27fdb7438ae05bd000539: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_107_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd00053b: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_107_1.jpg)


15 April 1880

Lat 72.70, Long -178.34

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 42' 11"

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations Sun W. 178° 20' 30"

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun observed at 4pm E. 23°


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 400 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 66 tons 2133 lbs


Highest temperature shown by B.B. in vacuo = 80° between noon & 1pm.


The pumping forward is done by hand at the spar deck bilge pump, and aft by the steam cutters engine driving the main engine bilge pump. The steam cutter's boiler is also used for distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

7 inches

8 inches

7 inches

At fire room bilge

2 inches

2 inches

0 inches


Sounded at noon in 33 fathoms. Muddy bottom. A drift to the N.W. being indicated by the lead line. 3 ½ inches of ice formed on the sides of the sounding hole since yesterday.

Weather generally clear and pleasant with a fall of light snow in the afternoon. Light southerly and easterly breezes during forenoon, and very light breezes from N.E.'ward during afternoon.

During the forenoon there was an appearance of "clouds hanging over land" in the N.W. magnetic, and two snow buntings flying from the S'd after alighting on the ice near the ship proceeded in that direction.

At 8pm parhelic segments were observed 22° in radius.

Crew engaged in removing snow and ice from poop, and in digging away and removing to a distance, the accumulations of refuse matter from alongside of the ship.


Moon 22° 34' N.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 318):

Sounded at noon in thirty-three fathoms, a drift to the N.W. being indicated by the lead line. The seal kept a breathing hole open, but three and a half inches of ice formed outside of it.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd00053d: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_108_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd00053f: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_108_1.jpg)


16 April 1880

No position

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 290 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 66 tons 1843 lbs


Maximum temperature indicated by B.B. in vacuo = 103°.


The pumping forward is done by hand at the spar deck bilge pump, and aft by the steam cutters engine driving the main engine bilge pump. The steam cutter's boiler is also used for distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

8 inches

4 inches

0 inches

At fire room bilge

2 inches

2 inches

1 inch


Sounded at noon in 33 fathoms. Muddy bottom. No drift being indicated by the lead line. 1 inch of ice formed over sounding hole since noon yesterday. Sunrise obscured. Sunset at 8.40.

Very fine sun bow at 4, 5 and 6am. At 7pm an opening occurred in the ice about 3 miles from the ship extending from S.W. to N.W., causing much vapor to form, overcasting the sky entirely and resulting in a light snow fall at 8. Between 10 and midnight a very sudden fall of temperature.

Removed box containing thermometers from the mizzen rigging to the floe and secured it to two stanchions embedded in the ice.

Weather generally pleasant, with haze and light fine snow falls. Light airs and calms. Slowly falling followed by slowly rising barometer and varying temperature.

Crew engaged in clearing up generally around the ship. Carpenters engaged in putting together the parts of the wind mill pump.


Moon 19° 55' N.

New moon



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 318):

We find that removing the snow from the poop, thus uncovering the yellow-painted canvas, presents a surface which attracts and absorbs the heat of the sun's rays, and by radiation upward affects the readings of our thermometers. Accordingly (though the uncertainty of the ice makes their situation risky) the box containing them is removed to the floe, and secured against two upright stakes driven in the ice. The black bulb in vacuo is also removed, and the anemometer will follow. I shall hope now that no sudden smash-up of the ice will involve a loss.



50a27fdb7438ae05bd000541: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_109_0.jpg)

50a27fdb7438ae05bd000543: (http://oldweather.s3.amazonaws.com/ow3/final/USS Jeannette/vol002of004/vol002_109_1.jpg)


17 April 1880

Lat 72.73, Long -178.22

Beset in the pack to the N'd & W'd of Herald Island


Latitude by observation at noon Sun N. 72° 43' 31"

Longitude by chronometer from afternoon observations Sun W. 178° 13' 15"

Variation of the compass by azimuth Sun observed at 4.15pm E. 22° 51'


Water expended during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Water distilled during the preceding 24 hours: 35 gallons

Coal consumed during the preceding 24 hours: 435 lbs

Coal remaining on hand at noon: 66 tons 1408 lbs


Maximum temperature indicated by B.B. in vacuo = 88.5°


The pumping forward is done by hand at the spar deck bilge pump, and aft by the steam cutters engine driving the main engine bilge pump. The steam cutter's boiler is also used for distilling.

Water in the ship to day


at 8am

at 4pm

at midnight

At water tight bulkhead

7 inches

7 inches

7 inches

At fire room bilge

2 inches

3 inches

1 inch


Sounded at noon in 33 ½ fathoms, muddy bottom. No drift being indicated by the lead line. Ice 2 ½ inches in thickness formed over sounding hole since noon yesterday. Sunrise at 3.13. Sunset obscured. Ice moving at 2am in S.E. and E.

By order of the Commanding Officer the daily ration of 1 oz. of lime juice was discontinued, and the issuing of a like amount on Tuesday, Thursday and Saturday of each week was ordered instead thereof.

Removed the tent awning from over the forward part of the spar deck. Removed to the floe the large skin boat (Baidera).

The machinists' and carpenters work on the wind mill for pumping was completed, and it was set in operation on the floe to smooth down all bearing parts. Crew engaged in generally clearing up, and in making sails for wind mill.

Weather clear, bright and pleasant. Freshening southerly breeze and falling barometer.


Moon 16° 20' N.

First quarter



Captain’s Journal (vol. 1 p. 320 ff):

We commenced the day by removing three thermometers from the box on the floe, and substituting three others; in case of any accident I do not want to lose those which we have read and recorded all winter. Our standard, 4.313, is left in the box for continuous record. During the day the anemometer was also removed to the ice, so that we have only the barometers left on board.


The windmill being completed was mounted to-day on the ice, without sails, and rattled away in fine style. We shall leave it running over Sunday to let all bearing parts wear smooth, and Monday place it in position on board ship. It will be tried first with the shifted bilge-pump in the corner of the fire-room